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Solar powered LED street light with automated power supply system

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Final Electrical engineering project report of Solar powered LED street light with automated power supply system. It is better for self project and an utiity project.

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Solar powered LED street light with automated power supply system

  1. 1. SOLAR POWERED LED STREET LIGHT WITH AUTOMATED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by SANGEETH SOMAN SINU R RAJAN R MURUGAN S In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING MARTHANDAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY KUTTAKUZHI ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600-025 APRIL 2015
  2. 2. ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600-025 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report “SOLAR POWERED LED STREET LIGHT WITH AUTOMATED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “SANGEETH SOMAN, SINU.R, RAJAN.R, MURUGAN.S” who carried out the project work under my supervision. SIGNATURE SIGNATURE Mr. G. W. Martin Mr.R.K.Negesh HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Electrical and Electronics Electrical and Electronics Engineering Engineering Marthandam College of Marthandam College Of Engineering and Technology Engineering and Technology Tamil Nadu-629177. Tamil Nadu-629177.
  3. 3. CERTIFICATE OF EVALUATION COLLEGE NAME : MARTHANDAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY BRANCH&SEMESTER : ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, 8TH SEMESTER SI.No Name of the student Title of the project Name of the supervisor with designation 1 SANGEETH SOMAN (961611105309) SOLAR POWERED LED STREET LIGHT WITH AUTOMATED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM Mr.R.K.Negesh Assistant Professor EEE Department 2 SINU R (961611105311) 3 RAJAN R (961611105308) 4 MURUGAN S (961611105305) The report of the project work submitted by the above students in partial fulfilment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering of Anna University, Chennai were evaluated and confirmed to be report of the work done by the above students and then evaluated. Viva-voce Examination held on ............................... INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost we thank the GOD ALMIGHTY for his concealed hand yet substantial supervision all through the construction of my project. We wish to convey our immense gratitude and thanks to our respected Chairman Prof. Dr. T.JAMES WILSON, B.E, M.I. Mar.Tech., MISTE, and to our Vice chairman Er. F. PRINCE VINO, B.E, for providing all facilities to do our project inside the college campus. We are grateful to Dr. C.SUDHAHAR, M.E, Ph.D., principal of our college for his encouragement and motivation in successfully completing this project. We express our deep gratitude to our Head of the department Mr. G.W. MARTIN, M.E, for his inspiration, encouragement, suggestion and extension for all facilities of the department for carrying out our project. It is a pleasure to express our sincere gratitude to our supervisor, Mr.R.K.NEGESH, M.E, Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, for his encouragement and support through the project. He has always provided us with the wise advice, useful discussions and comments. We also extend our warm regards to the teaching and non-teaching staffs of our department for their lavish appreciation of the work. We also thank our family and friends who provided constant motivation and various suggestions throughout the project.
  5. 5. ABSTRACT This is a method of lighting LED street lamp of 40W by generating electricity from solar power. Solar panels are provided to generate electricity from the sun light. A DC-DC boost converter helps to the convert generated variable DC in to fixed DC. The generated solar power is used to charge the 24V battery and it is then discharged through the load. An AC supply is also provided to charge the battery when solar power is not available. Since the load works on the AC supply, a single phase inverter is used to convert DC power to AC power. That power is then stepped up using a step up transformer and then it is given to load. Since the renewable energy resource is used for generating the primary voltage source, more amount of energy can be saved from burning of normal street lamps. The AC supply is also used so that the street lamp can glow at the climatic conditions when the renewable energy is not available. Even AC supply is used, very less amount of energy only be consumed whereas we are using it to charge a battery alone.
  6. 6. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT v LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES xi LIST OF ABBREVIATION xii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 THE SYSTEM DESIGN 3 1.2 PV MODULE 3 1.3 CHARGE CONTROLLER 4 1.4 INVERTER 5 1.5 BATTERY 5 1.6 AC SUPPLY 5 1.7 SWITCHING CIRCUIT AND SENSOR 6 1.8 LED LAMP 6 2 BASICS OF THE PROJECT 7 2.1 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM 7 2.1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 8
  7. 7. 3 INVERTER 11 3.1 INVERTER BLOCK DIAGRAM 12 3.1.1 EXPLANATION 13 3.2 INVERTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 14 3.2.1 EXPLANATION 15 3.3 DRIVER CIRCUIT 16 3.3.1 DRIVER CIRCUIT (PART 1) 16 3.3.1.1 EXPLANATION 17 3.3.2 DRIVER CIRCUIT (PART 2A) 18 3.3.3 DRIVER CIRCUIT (PART 2B) 19 3.3.3.1 EXPLANATION 20 4 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 21 4.1 IC4081 21 4.1.1 PIN DIAGRAM 21 4.1.2 DESCRIPTION 22 4.1.3 TRUTH TABLE 22 4.1.4 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS 22 4.2 4506/6N137 23 4.2.1 PIN DIAGRAM 23 4.2.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 23
  8. 8. 4.2.3 DESCRIPTION 24 4.2.4 FEATURES 24 4.3 IC4584 25 4.3.1 PIN DIAGRAM 25 4.3.2 DESCRIPTION 26 4.3.3 MAXIMUM RATINGS 26 4.3.4 TRUTH TABLE 26 4.4 IR2110 27 4.4.1 PIN DIAGRAM 27 4.4.2 LEAD DEFINITIONS 27 4.4.3 DESCRIPTION 28 4.4.4 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATING 28 5 MICROCONTROLLER DSPIC30F4011 29 5.1 PIN DIAGRAM OF DSPIC30F4011 MICROCONTROLLER29 5.2 PIN DESCRIPTION 30 5.3 DSP ENGINE FEATURES 32 5.4 PERIPHERAL FEATURES 32 5.5 MOTOR CONTROL PWM MODULE FEATURES 33
  9. 9. 5.6 QUADRATURE ENCODER INTERFACE MODULE FEATURES 33 5.7 ANALOG FEATURES 34 5.8 SPECIAL DIGITAL SIGNAL CONTROLLER FEATURES 34 5.9 PROGRAM 35 6 LED LIGHT 39 6.1 DESCRIPTION 40 6.2 SPECIFICATION 41 7 CONCLUSION 42 8 REFERENCES 43
  10. 10. LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. TABLES PAGE NO. 4.1 IC4081 TRUTH TABLE 22 4.2 IC4584 TRUTH TABLE 26 4.3 IR2110 LEAD DEFINITION 27 4.4 IR2110 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATING 28 5.1 DSPIC30F4011 MICROCONTROLLER PIN DESCRIPTION 31
  11. 11. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. FIGURES PAGE NO. 2.1 Basic block diagram 7 3.1 Inverter block diagram 12 3.2 Inverter circuit diagram 14 3.3 Driver circuit (Part 1) for the inverter 16 3.4 Driver circuit (Part 2A) for the inverter 18 3.5 Driver circuit (Part 2B) for the inverter 19 4.1 PIN diagram of IC4081 21 4.2 PIN diagram of 4506/6N137 23 4.3 Circuit diagram of 4506/6N137 23 4.4 PIN diagram of IC4584 25 4.5 PIN diagram of IR2110 27 5.1 PIN diagram of DSPIC30F4011 Microcontroller 29
  12. 12. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LDR : LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR LED : LIGHT EMITTING DIODE MOSFET : METAL OXIDE SEMI CONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR
  13. 13. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Light is crucial in everyday activity for the continuity of normal life. From plants to animals, from human beings to domestic insects, from technology to science, nothing seems to maximize its existence without the availability of light. Even the human eye requires some amount of light to function well. Light from the sun is natural and it is called sunlight. This sunlight can serve as a source of solar power which is converted to electric power for both household and industrial utilization. Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. This can be direct as with photovoltaic (PV) or indirect as with concentrating solar power (CSP) where the sun’s energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide energy. Solar power is a predictably intermittent energy source, meaning that while solar power is not available at all times, we can predict with a very good degree of accuracy when it will not be available. One area of application of solar energy is found in the construction of solar- powered street lights. This is the equipment that is paramount to meeting the security needs of every community in the 21st century. Nowadays the need of electricity is increasing day by bay. Since the sufficient amount of energy cannot be generated from the renewable energy resource, we go for the non-renewable energy resource to generate the needed
  14. 14. 2 power. The non-renewable energy resources use the fuels which make harmful to the human and also other living beings. So, the use of renewable energy must be increased. As a part of that here we are using solar power as a primary source. The project is designed for LED based street lights with auto intensity control using solar power from photovoltaic cells. As awareness for solar energy is increasing, more and more individuals and institutions are opting for solar energy. Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting the sunlight into electricity. A charge controller circuit is used to control the charging. Solar street lights are beneficial in that the day to day running and maintenance costs are reduced, save energy, environment friendly and convenient to install. It is powered by mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline solar panels which convert the solar energy into electricity saved in the storage batteries. It can be controlled by a control system to prevent storage batteries from over-charging and over-discharging. Automatic streetlight needs no manual operation of switching ON and OFF. The system itself detects whether there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain level then automatically streetlight is switched ON and when there is other source of light, the streetlight switches OFF. This is done by a sensor called light dependent resistor (LDR) which senses the light
  15. 15. 3 actually like our eyes. This vital use of light gives rise to the idea of using solar energy to power street lights as an alternative to electricity. 1.1 THE SYSTEM DESIGN The design is such that the solar panel will be installed on the galvanized pole considering some specifications like angle of tilt and direction of sunlight. The 24V dc battery that will power the LED bulbs will be connected to the solar panel via the charge controller for charging purpose. The pole will be constructed such that it will be able to hold the LED bulb or lamp. 1.2 PV MODULE Photovoltaic (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Photovoltaic module or solar module is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply
  16. 16. 4 electricity. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, most installations contain multiple panels. a photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a solar tracker and interconnection wiring. Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the panels may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals. The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. 1.3 CHARGE CONTROLLER The charge controller serves as an interface between the current generated by the module and the battery charging during the day. The battery is prevented from over-current or over- charging by the charge controller. The charge controller is an electronic circuit comprising an operational amplifier (connected in comparator mode), an electronic switch (transistor) and an electromechanical switch (relay). The circuit is switched ON or OFF by the transistor in saturation region or cut off region respectively, which is controlled by the signal from LDR. The collector current from the transistor toggles between ON or OFF modes.
  17. 17. 5 1.4 INVERTER The inverter is an apparatus which converts direct current into alternating current. The inverter does not produce any power. The power is provided by the DC source. A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process. 1.5 BATTERY A Battery is an electric cell or a device that converts chemical energy into electricity. It consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel, but the term is also used for single cells. All cells consist of a liquid, paste, or solid electrolyte and a positive electrode, and a negative electrode. The electrolyte is an ionic conductor; one of the electrodes will react, producing electrons, while the other will accept electrons. When the electrodes are connected to a device to be powered, called a load, an electrical current flows. 1.6 AC SUPPLY An additional AC supply is provided to the battery when the solar power generation fails to produce sufficient amount of energy for the charging of battery. It is connected to the battery though a step down transformer, AC-DC
  18. 18. 6 converter and switching circuit. When the solar power is not enough to charge the battery, it will be switched to the AC supply automatically. 1.7 SWITCHING CIRCUIT AND SENSOR A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is provided to sense the atmospheric light and it will give a corresponding signal to the switching circuit. Already a switching level limit will be determined in the switching circuit. When the level of light reaches the limit, the switching circuit will start to conduct and the battery will be charged. 1.8 LED LAMP These are lamps made from semiconductor materials in the similitude of light emitting diodes such that several light emitting diodes are combined to yield an LED lamp. Since the output of an individual unit in terms of power is small compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps, the most recent of these lamps possess internal circuits that make them operate from standard AC voltage. However, for the sake of this project, DC lamps are to be used. LED lamps offer long life and high efficiency, but with initial high costs compared to fluorescent tubes or lamps. LED units naturally emit light in a very small band of wavelengths, thereby producing strongly coloured lights. The colour is a characteristic of the energy band gap of the semiconductor material used in manufacturing it.
  19. 19. 7 CHAPTER 2 BASICS OF THE PROJECT 2.1 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 2.1 Basic block diagram
  20. 20. 8 2.1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION The figure 2.1 shows the block diagram of solar powered led street light with automated power supply system. In this system, it consists of a photovoltaic panel, DC-DC converter, battery, inverter, step up transformer and load. Also it consists of LDR, switching circuit, AC-DC converter, step down transformer which are connected to the AC supply. The sun light will directly flow at the photovoltaic panel. The photovoltaic panel (solar panel) absorbs solar energy from the sun light. The solar panel consists of number of solar cell. It converts the solar energy in to electric energy. The generated electric energy is 12V DC supply. The generated energy will be a variable DC energy. It needs a fixed DC supply to charge the battery. The generated variable DC is converted into fixed DC by the use of a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter will convert variable DC voltage in to fixed DC voltage and gives it to the battery. This is given to the battery through a battery charge controller. The purpose of the charge controller is to disconnect the supply to the battery, whenever the battery is fully charged. The battery used in the system is 24V. The continuous charging of battery after it is fully charged will reduce the battery backup and damage it. When the battery is fully charged,
  21. 21. 9 the charge controller will disconnect the supply and protect the battery. And when the battery level comes down it will close the circuit. An additional AC supply is provided to the battery when the solar power generation fails to produce sufficient amount of energy for the charging of battery. It is connected to the battery though a step down transformer, AC-DC converter, switching circuit and charge controller. The circuit consist of an LDR connected to the switching circuit. LDR stands for Light Dependent Resistor. The LDR will sense the light and depending on the light it will give signal to the switching circuit. When the signal senses below the point which already set in the switching circuit, it will close the circuit and gives AC supply to the battery. When the signal senses above the point, it opens the circuit and disconnect the AC supply from the battery. Now at the discharging section of the battery, a single phase inverter and a step down transformer is connected. Whenever the load is needed, the battery will discharge. The output of the battery is 24V DC. This DC supply is given to the single phase inverter. The single phase inverter will convert the DC-AC supply. The output of the inverter is 24V AC. This 24V AC supply is given to the step-up transformer. In the primary of the step-up transformer, the thickness of the winding will be high but the number of turns will be less. In the secondary of the step-up transformer the thickness of the winding will be low
  22. 22. 10 and the number of turns in the secondary winding will be high. The step-up transformer will step up the voltage to 220V and give it to the load. Here we are using a 20W LED light as load. The DC supply from the battery inverted into AC, since the LED lamp we are using here glow only in the AC supply. Thus during the day time, the solar panel will generate DC power from the sun light and it will be stored in the battery. Then during the night time, the battery will be discharged to the LED light.
  23. 23. 11 CHAPTER 3 INVERTER The inverter is an apparatus which converts direct current into alternating current. The power of a battery is converted in to ‘main voltages’ or AC power. This power can be used for electronic appliances like television, mobile phones, computer etc. The main function of the inverter is to convert DC to AC and step-up transformer is used to create main voltages from resulting AC. The inverter does not produce any power. The power is provided by the DC source. A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process. The inverter should be chosen so that its input voltage matches that of the storage battery. Here the inverter is made for the 24V DC to 24V AC conversion.
  24. 24. 12 3.1 INVERTER BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 3.1 Inverter block diagram
  25. 25. 13 3.1.1 EXPLANATION The fig3.1 shows the basic block diagram of inverter. The DC output from the battery is given to the output of the inverter is to convert the DC voltage to AC voltage. This operation is controlled by a driver circuit and a control circuit (micro controller). The driver circuit is used to drive the inverter circuit. The gate signal will be driven by the driver circuit. The output is based on the gate signal given by the switch which will generate the output AC signal. The microcontroller is used to give the PWM signal to the driver circuit. The PWM signal is given to the ICs of the driver circuit. So that the ICs control the switching operation. Thus the obtained AC output is given to the step-up transformer.
  26. 26. 14 3.2 INVERTER CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig 3.2 Inverter circuit diagram
  27. 27. 15 3.2.1 EXPLANATION Fig3.2 is the circuit diagram for the inverter. It consists of four MOSFET switches. The combination of the resister and capacitor which are connected in series are called as bypass circuit this bypass circuit is connected in by parallel with each MOSFET switches. The inverter circuit use four MOSFET they are S1, S2, S3, S4 the MOSFET switch consist on three terminals. They are gate drain and source. The out from the battery is given as the input to the inverter circuit. Inverter is a device which is used to convert DC to AC supply. Inverter operator in two conditions at first the switch S1 and S2 are conducting and at same time the switches S3, S4 are non-conducting so the switches S1, S2 with be in closed condition and the switch S3, S4 will be in open condition. So the positive will be flow from S1 to A’ terminal. The negative voltage will flow from S2 to b-element .So that a half cycle of a voltage is created. The switches S3, S4 are active on the switches S1,S2 are in deactivated state so the switch S3,S4 are in open conductor at that time the positive voltage with flow from S3 to B’ terminal and negative voltage will flow from S4 to n-element so that another half cycle of Ac voltage is produce. This operation repeated and a complete Ac voltage is obtained.
  28. 28. 16 3.3 DRIVER CIRCUIT 3.3.1 DRIVER CIRCUIT (PART 1) Fig 3.3 Driver circuit (Part 1) for the inverter
  29. 29. 17 3.3.1.1 EXPLANATION Fig 3.3 shows the driver circuit 1 for the inverter. This part of the driver circuit consist of IC4081, 4506/6N137, IC4584. A microcontroller DSPIC30F4011 is used to provide pulse width modulation signal to circuit. The PWM out from the microcontroller is given to the input pins of the IC4081. IC4081 is an AND gate. +5V supply is supply is provided for this IC. The output from this IC is given to the input pin of the 4506. The 4506/6N137 is an opto-coupler IC. This IC works depends upon the signal in the anode terminal and the enable signal. An LED is connected placed inside in between the anode and cathode terminals. The photo transistor inside it The output of this IC is given to the IC4584. It is a NOT gate. The output of this IC is given as the input to the IR2110 which is in the second part of the inverter circuit.
  30. 30. 18 3.3.2 DRIVER CIRCUIT (PART 2A) Fig 3.4 Driver circuit (Part 2A) for the inverter
  31. 31. 19 3.3.3 DRIVER CIRCUIT (PART 2B) Fig 3.5 Driver circuit (Part 2B) for the inverter
  32. 32. 20 3.3.3.1 EXPLANATION The output from 1st part of the driver circuit is given to the input pin of the IR2110. This IR2110 is designed by using four MOSFET. They are high voltage, high speed power, MOSFET and IGBT drivers with independent high and low side reference output channel. The logic input are compatible with standard CMOS output, down to 3.3V logic propagation delay are matched to simplify using high frequency application. The floating channel can be used to drive an N-channel power MOSFET. In the high side configuration which operates 500-600V. The main purpose of IR2110 is to protect the micro processor from high voltage. Proper protection circuits are given to the output side of the IR2110 and the output voltage is given to the gate and source of the inverter circuit.
  33. 33. 21 CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 4.1 IC4081 4.1.1 PIN DIAGRAM Fig 4.1 PIN diagram of IC4081
  34. 34. 22 4.1.2 DESCRIPTION: IC4081 is a positive logic AND gates with two inputs respectively. Since all the outputs o these gates are equipped with the buffer circuits of inverters, the input/output propagation characteristics has been improved and variation of propagation time caused by increase of load capacity is kept minimum. 4.1.3 TRUTH TABLE A B OUTPUT 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 Table No. 4.1 IC4081 truth table 4.1.4 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS: (Voltages referenced to VSS, Note 1) DC Supply Voltage, VDD ................................................. −0.5 to +18.0V Input Voltage (DC or Transient), Vin ...............................−0.5 to VDD to +0.5V Output Voltage (DC or Transient), Vout .......................... −0.5 to VDD to +0.5V Input Current (DC or Transient, Per Pin), Iin ...................±10Ma Output Current (DC or Transient, Per Pin), Iout .............. ±10mA Power Dissipation (Per Package), PD ................................500mW Temperature Derating (from +65° to +125°C) ...................−7.0mW/°C Storage Temperature, Testing ............................................. −65° to +150°C Lead Temperature (During Soldering, 8sec max), TL .........+260°C
  35. 35. 23 4.2 4506/6N137 4.2.1 PIN DIAGRAM Fig 4.2 PIN diagram of 4506/6N137 4.2.2 C IRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig 4.3 Circuit diagram of 4506/6N137
  36. 36. 24 4.2.3 DESCRIPTION The 6N137, VO2601, and VO2611 are single channel 10 MBd optocouplers utilizing a high efficient input LED coupled with an integrated optical photodiode IC detector. The detector has an open drain NMOS-transistor output, providing less leakage compared to an open collector Schottky clamped transistor output. The VO2630, VO2631 and VO4661 are dual channel 10 MBd optocouplers. For the single channel type, an enable function on pin 7 allows the detector to be strobed. The internal shield provides a guaranteed common mode transient immunity of 5 kV/μs for the VO2601 and VO2631 and 15 kV/μs for the VO2611 and VO4661. The use of a 0.1 μF bypass capacitor connected between pin 5 and 8 is recommended. 4.2.4 FEATURES • Choice of CMR performance of 15 kV/μs, 5 kV/μs, and 1000 V/μs • High speed: 10 MBd typical • +5 V CMOS compatibility • Pure tin leads • Guaranteed AC and DC performance over temperature: -40 °C to +100 °C temperature range • Meets IEC 60068-2-42 (SO2) and IEC 60068-2-43 (H2S) requirements • Low input current capability of 5 mA
  37. 37. 25 4.3 IC4584 4.3.1 PIN DIAGRAM Fig 4.4 PIN diagram of IC 4584
  38. 38. 26 4.3.2 DESCRIPTION The IC4584 is the 6-circuit inverter having the Schmitt trigger function at the input terminal.That is, since the circuit threshold level voltages at the leading and trailing edges of input waveform are different (Vp,Vn), the IC4584 can be used in the broad range application including line receiver, waveform shaping circuit, astable multivibrator, monostable multivibrator, etc.Since the pins are compatible with the IC4069, the substitution is also possible. 4.3.3 MAXIMUM RATINGS DC Supply Voltage, VDD ............................................ VSS-0.5~ VSS +20V Input Voltage, VIN ....................................................... VSS-0.5~VDD+0.5V Output Voltage , VOUT ................................................ VSS-0.5~ VDD +0.5V DC Input Current , IIN ................................................. ±10mA Power Dissipation, PD .................................................300(DIP)/180(SOIC)mW Operating Temperature,Topr ......................................-40~85°C Storage Temperature range, Tstg ............................... -65~150°C 4.3.4 TRUTH TABLE INPUT OUTPUT A Y 0 1 1 0 Table No. 4.2 IC4584 Truth table
  39. 39. 27 4.4 IR2110 4.4.1 PIN DIAGRAM Fig 4.5 PIN diagram of IR2110 4.4.2 LEAD DEFINITIONS Table No. 4.3 IR2110 Lead definition
  40. 40. 28 4.4.3 DESCRIPTION The IR2110/IR2113 are high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and IGBT drivers with independent high and low side referenced output channels. Proprietary HVIC and latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized monolithic construction. Logic inputs are compatible with standard CMOS or LSTTL output, down to 3.3V logic. The output drivers feature a high pulse current buffer stage designed for minimum driver cross-conduction. Propagation delays are matched to simplify use in high frequency applications. The floating channel can be used to drive an N-channel power MOSFET or IGBT in the high side configuration which operates up to 500 or 600 volts. 4.4.4 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATING Table No. 4.4 IR2110 Absolute maximum rating
  41. 41. 29 CHAPTER 5 MICROCONTROLLER DSPIC30F4011 5.1 PIN DIAGRAM OF DSPIC30F4011 MICROCONTROLLER Fig 5.1 Pin diagram of DSPIC30F4011 Microcontroller
  42. 42. 30 5.2 PIN DESCRIPTION
  43. 43. 31 PIN DESCRIPTION (Contd..) Table No. 5.1 DSPIC30F4011 Microcontroller Pin description
  44. 44. 32 5.3 DSP ENGINE FEATURES: • Dual data fetch • Accumulator write-back for DSP operations • Modulo and Bit-Reversed Addressing modes • Two, 40-bit wide accumulators with optional saturation logic • 17-bit x 17-bit single-cycle hardware fractional/integer multiplier • All DSP instructions are single cycle • ±16-bit, single-cycle shift 5.4 PERIPHERAL FEATURES: • High-current sink/source I/O pins: 25 mA/25 mA • Timer module with programmable prescaler: - Five 16-bit timers/counters; optionally pair 16-bit timers into 32-bit timer modules • 16-bit Capture input functions • 16-bit Compare/PWM output functions • 3-wire SPI modules (supports 4 Frame modes) • I2C™ module supports Multi-Master/Slave mode and 7-bit/10-bit addressing • Two UART modules with FIFO Buffers • CAN module, 2.0B compliant
  45. 45. 33 5.5 MOTOR CONTROL PWM MODULE FEATURES: • Six PWM output channels: - Complementary or Independent Output modes - Edge and Center-Aligned modes • Three duty cycle generators • Dedicated time base • Programmable output polarity • Dead-time control for Complementary mode • Manual output control • Trigger for A/D conversions 5.6 QUADRATURE ENCODER INTERFACE MODULE FEATURES: • Phase A, Phase B and Index Pulse input • 16-bit up/down position counter • Count direction status • Position Measurement (x2 and x4) mode • Programmable digital noise filters on inputs • Alternate 16-bit Timer/Counter mode • Interrupt on position counter rollover/underflow
  46. 46. 34 5.7 ANALOG FEATURES: • 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) with four Sample and Holde (S&H) inputs: - 1 Msps conversion rate - Nine input channels - Conversion available during Sleep and Idle • Programmable Brown-out Reset 5.8 SPECIAL DIGITAL SIGNAL CONTROLLER FEATURES: • Enhanced Flash program memory: - 10,000 erase/write cycle (min.) for industrial temperature range, 100K (typical) • Data EEPROM memory: - 100,000 erase/write cycle (min.) for industrial temperature range, 1M (typical) • Self-reprogrammable under software control • Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • Flexible Watchdog Timer (WDT) with on-chip, low-power RC oscillator for reliable operation • Fail-Safe Clock Monitor operation detects clock failure and switches to on chip, low-power RC oscillator • Programmable code protection
  47. 47. 35 5.9 PROGRAM #include "p30F4011.h" #include "stdio.h" // Configuration settings _FOSC(CSW_FSCM_OFF & FRC_PLL4); // Fosc=4x7.5MHz=30MHz, Fcy=7.5MHz _FWDT(WDT_OFF); // Watchdog timer off void InitADC10(void); void InitMCPWM(void); DTCON2=0x0000; // Dead time provided by unit A /*************************************************************** ****** The ADC interrupt loads the PDCx registers with the demand pot value. This is only done when the motor is running. **************************************************************** *****/ void _ISR _ADCInterrupt(void) { IFS0bits.ADIF = 0; if (1) {
  48. 48. 36 PDC1 = ADCBUF0; // get value ... PDC2 = PDC1; // and load all three PWMs ... } } int main(void) { LATE = 0x0000; TRISE = 0xFFC0; // PWMs are outputs InitMCPWM(); InitADC10(); while(1) { OVDCON = 0x0600 ; PWMCON1 = 0x0312; // enable PWM outputs __delay32(75000); // 10 ms delay OVDCON = 0x0900 ; PWMCON1 = 0x0321; // enable PWM outputs __delay32(75000); //10 ms delay } } void InitADC10(void) {
  49. 49. 37 ADPCFG = 0xFFFB; // all PORTB = Digital;RB0= analog ADCON1 = 0x0064; // simultaneouus samples and MCPWM starts conv ADCON2 = 0x0000; // simulataneous sample 4 channels ADCHS = 0x0002; // Connect RB2/AN2 as CH0 = pot .. // ch1 = Vbus, Ch2 = Motor, Ch3 = pot ADCON3 = 0x0000; // Tad = internal RC (4uS) IFS0bits.ADIF = 0;// interrupt flag status register IEC0bits.ADIE = 1;// interrupt enable control register ADCON1bits.ADON = 1; // turn ADC ON } /*************************************************************** ***** InitMCPWM, intializes the PWM as follows: 1. FPWM = 5k Hz, FCY=30MHZ/4 = 7.5MHZ 2. Independant PWMs 3. Control outputs using OVDCON 4. Set Duty Cycle with the ADC value read from pot 5. Set ADC to be triggered by PWM special trigger **************************************************************** *****/ void InitMCPWM(void) {
  50. 50. 38 //PTPER = FCY/FPWM - 1; PTPER = 374; PWMCON1 = 0x0300; // independent outputp mode & disable PWMs //PWMCON1 = 0x0000; //complementary outputp mode & disable PWMs PTCONbits.PTCKPS = 1; // prescale=1:64 (0=1:1, 1=1:4, 2=1:16, 3=1:64) OVDCON = 0x0000; // allow control using OVD PDC1 = 0;// Initialize duty cycle PDC2 = 0; SEVTCMP = PTPER;// special event trigger, cmp value bits PWMCON2 = 0x0F00; //16 postscale val',spl event trigger ps val's DTCON1=0x00FF; // dead time control , 8TCY and integer 3 PTCON = 0x8000; // time base cntl , pwm trigger is ON }
  51. 51. 39 CHAPTER 6 LED LIGHT An LED lamp is a light-emitting diode (LED) product that is assembled into a lamp (or light bulb) for use in lighting fixtures. LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency that is several times better than incandescent lamps, and significantly better than most fluorescent lamps, with some chips able to emit more than 100 lumens per watt. Like incandescent lamps and unlike most fluorescent lamps (e.g. tubes and compact fluorescent lamps or CFLs), LEDs come to full brightness without need for a warm-up time; the life of fluorescent lighting is also reduced by frequent switching on and off. Initial cost of LED is usually higher. Degradation of LED dye and packaging materials reduces light output to some extent over time. Some LED lamps are made to be a directly compatible drop-in replacement for incandescent or fluorescent lamps. An LED lamp packaging may show the lumen output, power consumption in watts, color temperature in kelvins or description (e.g. "warm white"), operating temperature range, and sometimes the equivalent wattage of an incandescent lamp of similar luminous output.
  52. 52. 40 6.1 DESCRIPTION These high quality ultra thin IP65 waterproof LED based flood lights are perfect for great for outdoor lighting such as landscape, inside and outside door, construction building, advertisement billboard, play yard, garden, swimming pool. They are suitable for all weather types and can be used to light small and large areas. This unique design uses high powered 20watt LED, configured for the greatest light output in the smallest space. Housed in a specially designed reflector, to produce the maximum light spread. With a 50,000 hour life span and low power consumption these flood lights will help cut your electric bill dramatically. Using so little energy and still getting a high powered light you will also be doing a little bit more to help us save the environment. This light is built to the highest standards-top quality. It is not a light weight filmsy construction. It is very solidly built and satisfaction is guaranteed. Designed as a replacement of traditional high output flood light. It is water proof for outdoor and indoor.
  53. 53. 41 6.2 SPECIFICATION Light type : LED Light colour : Cool white Colour temperature : 6000-6500K Luminous intensity : 1800 Lumens LED total power : 20W Housing : High strength aluminium Alloy : 5mm high strength glass (cover) Life span : >50,000 hours Beaming angle : 120° (Degrees) Light decay : Less than 5% in 10,000 hours testing Product weight : 500g Power : 90-240V Terminal size : 7x5.5 Inch Unit protection rating : IP65 Unit body : Die-cast Aluminium housing
  54. 54. 42 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION The solar energy is one of the important and major renewable sources of energy and has also proven it useful in functioning of applications like street lights. The charge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. In cities, currently thousands of street lights are operated and the yearly electricity maintenance cost is very high. The initial cost and maintenance can be the draw backs of this project. With the advances in technology and good resource planning the cost of the project can be cut down and also with the use of good equipment the maintenance can also be reduced in terms of periodic checks. For these reasons our project presents far more advantages.
  55. 55. 43 CHAPTER 8 REFERENCES https://www.onsemi.com/pub/Collateral/TND346-D.PDF http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED_lamp http://www.shopclues.com/solar-powered-led-street-light-with-auto-intensity- control-diy-kit.html

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