Blues

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Blues

  1. 1. Blues <ul><li>A Romanticized Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Began to be Recognized End of 19thC. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from Work Songs and (some say) Spirituals </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with Ragtime circa 1895 to Create Jazz </li></ul>
  2. 2. Blues Archeology <ul><li>Blues Spread once it met the Music Business </li></ul><ul><li>1. 1902 Ma Rainey “Mother of the Blues” added Blues to her Minstrel Act </li></ul>
  3. 3. Blues Archeology <ul><li>2. 1903 W. C. Handy “Father of the Blues” </li></ul><ul><li>First heard the blues (p. 18) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Blues Archeology <ul><li>3. 1909 W. C. Handy writes“Memphis Blues” </li></ul><ul><li>(for mayoral race) </li></ul><ul><li>4. 1912 “Memphis Blues” is Published, others also publish Blues </li></ul><ul><li>5. 1916 First Recorded Blues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Blues Archeology <ul><li>6. 1917 First Instrumental Blues Recorded, Original Dixieland Jass Band “Livery Stable Blues” </li></ul><ul><li>7. 1920 First African-American Recording of the Blues. Mamie Smith “Crazy Blues” </li></ul><ul><li>8. 1923(24) First Country Blues Recorded </li></ul>
  6. 6. Blues Styles in the 1920s <ul><li>“ Classic” City Blues and Country Blues </li></ul><ul><li>City Blues Recorded First </li></ul><ul><li>Country Blues developed First </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ Classic” City Blues Form <ul><li>12 Bars of Music </li></ul><ul><li>3 Basic Chords </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition of the First Vocal Line </li></ul>“ St. Louis Blues” Bessie Smith
  8. 8. The “Classic” Blues Form <ul><li>vocal line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..] instrumental answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .] </li></ul><ul><li>(chord 1) </li></ul><ul><li>|| — — — — || — — — — || — — — — || — — — — || </li></ul><ul><li>repeat vocal line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] instrumental answer . . . . . .. . . … . . .. … ] </li></ul><ul><li>(chord 2) (chord 1) </li></ul><ul><li>|| — — — — || — — — — || — — — — || — — — — || </li></ul><ul><li>vocal line #2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . ] instrumental answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ] </li></ul><ul><li>(chord 3) (chord 1) </li></ul><ul><li>|| — — — — || — — — — || — — — — || — — — — || </li></ul>“ Back Water Blues” “ Black Snake Moan”
  9. 9. City Blues <ul><li>Is a Female Dominated Style </li></ul><ul><li>It was Professional Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Mamie Smith was a Theater Performer before she recorded “Crazy Blues” in 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Accompaniment by Piano and/or Jazz Band </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mamie Smith & Her Jazz Hounds
  11. 11. City Blues Singers <ul><li>Ma Rainey “Mother of the Blues” </li></ul><ul><li>Bessie Smith “Empress of the Blues” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Country Blues <ul><li>A Male Dominated Style </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Accompanied on Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Used “Approximately” 12 Bars of Music </li></ul><ul><li>Performed at Smaller Gatherings, often by Itinerant Street Performers </li></ul>“ Match Box Blues” Blind Lemmon Jefferson “ Revenue Man Blues” Charlie Patton
  13. 13. Country Blues Singers <ul><li>Blind Lemon Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>1st country blues whose records sold well </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Johnson, Satanic Myth </li></ul><ul><li>1930s, the end of the country blues trend. Major influence on British rockers </li></ul><ul><li>Leadbelly </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered by Lomax, influenced the Greenwich Village Folk scene </li></ul>
  14. 14. Country Blues Styles <ul><li>Mississippi Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Piedmont </li></ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul>
  15. 15. Mississippi Delta Blues <ul><li>Thought to be the oldest form </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle Neck Guitar Style </li></ul><ul><li>Charlie Patton, Robert Johnson (but) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Texas Blues <ul><li>Use of single line melodies </li></ul><ul><li>Blind Lemon Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Leadbelly </li></ul>
  17. 17. Piedmont Blues <ul><li>Atlanta & Southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Closer to Ragtime Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Barbecue Bob (1927-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Blind Boy Fuller (1930s) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Early 1930s <ul><li>Country and City Blues Begin to Combine </li></ul><ul><li>LeRoy Carr & Scrapper Blackwell </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>Piano Blues & Single Line Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Polished </li></ul><ul><li>“ Midnight Hour Blues” </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1930s Blues <ul><li>Kansas City Blues Shouter, jazz based </li></ul><ul><li>Joe Turner, Kansas City late 1930s. 1950s was considered a Rhythm & Blues singer </li></ul><ul><li>Blues Shouter style was adopted by rock singers </li></ul>
  20. 20. Blues 1940s Jump Bands <ul><li>Jump Bands were scaled down swing bands </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive riffs </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Jordan, major hits in the 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>9 of the top 15 were Jordan’s (1946) </li></ul><ul><li>Became model for Bill Haley (used the same record producer) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Choo Choo Ch-Boogie </li></ul>
  21. 21. Blues Late 1940s <ul><li>Chicago Blues </li></ul><ul><li>Electrified Mississippi Delta Blues </li></ul><ul><li>Used Bottle Neck Style Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Chess Records (Chess Brothers) </li></ul><ul><li>Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Blues: Muddy Waters <ul><li>Born on Plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded Country Blues 1941 for LOC </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Chicago 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hard Day Blues” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Other Chicago (Detroit) Blues <ul><li>Howlin’ Wolf </li></ul><ul><li>From the Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Memphis Radio Show </li></ul><ul><li>John Lee Hooker, Detroit </li></ul><ul><li>From the Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Step Father played w/Charlie Patton </li></ul><ul><li>“ Boogie Chillun” </li></ul>
  24. 24. 1940s Smooth Urban Blues <ul><li>Jazzy & Relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Usually Piano Based </li></ul><ul><li>Nat King Cole, piano/singer </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Charles began in this style </li></ul>
  25. 25. Electric Guitar Urban Blues <ul><li>1940-1950 </li></ul><ul><li>T-Bone Walker (Texas) </li></ul><ul><li>1st recorded electric guitar blues </li></ul><ul><li>B. B. King (Memphis) </li></ul><ul><li>Copied T-Bone’s style </li></ul><ul><li>“ B. B. Boogie” </li></ul>

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