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Roles of Dams & Hydro as
Renewable Energy in China
ZHOU JIANPING
HYDROCHINA CORPORATION
Wednesday, August 14
Outline
I. Basic conditions and development
situation of waterpower resources in China
II. The role of reservoirs & dams in economic
and social development in China
III. Future prospects and challenges of
hydropower development in China
I. Basic conditions and development
situation of waterpower resources in China
 Abundant Waterpower Resources in China
我国水力 源 量居世界首位资 总
。
Annual waterpower output of
technically exploitable reserves
Annual waterpower output of
theoretical reserves
40.6%
Annual waterpower output of
economically exploitable reserves
Annual waterpower output of
theoretical reserves
28.8%
The technically exploitable
hydropower resources in China
accounts for 17% of the world’s.
The sum of technically exploitable
hydropower resources in top ten
countries is approximately 900
million kWh, accounting for 62% of
the whole in the world.
Comparison with other countries
 1: China’s hydropower
resources are mainly
distributed in western region.
 Characteristics of resource distribution
- It is mainly in Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet in western region.
The hydropower resources of the three parts above account for
as high as 75.2% of the total in western region.
 Characteristics of resource distribution
 2: Highly concentrated , it is mainly distributed on ten rivers.
 Characteristics of resource distribution
The temporal distribution of water
resources in China is uneven.
The water yield in flood season
(from June to October) accounts
for 70%-80% of that all year
round, while the water yield in dry
season (from November to May
of the next year) only accounts
for 20-30%.
 3: Uneven spatial and temporal distribution,
mainly concentrated in flood season.
 Characteristics of resource distribution
After the year 2000, China’s hydropower embraced the stage of
rapid development.
It only took 6 years to achieve installed capacity of 100 GW of
hydropower, and the total installed capacity exceeded 200 GW.
 Development history of hydropower in China
78 GW
2000
480 kW
1910
100 GW
2004
Shilongba
Hydropower
station, the first
one in China
The installed
capacity of
hydropower in
China moved
up to second
in the world
Gongboxia hydropower
Station on the Yellow
River was put into
operation, the installed
capacity of hydropower
in China leaped to the
first in the world.
Xiaowan hydropower
Station on
Lancangjiang was
put into operation,
the total installed
capacity of
hydropower in China
exceeded 200 GW.
200 GW
2010
By 2012, the installed capacity of hydropower in China reached 249
GW, and annual power generation reached 864.1 billion kWh.
The increased installed capacities in the past three decades are
16GW , 43GW, and 136.7GW, respectively.
 Current situation of hydropower development in
China
 The development level of hydropower in Eastern China &
Central China is high
 The development level of hydropower in Western China is
relatively low
The hydroelectric development in China
focuses on western region.
Development level of hydropower in
different regions of China
Eastern region Central region Western region
 Comparison between the level of hydropower
development in China and those in developed countries
Compared with developed countries, the level of hydropower
development in China is still very low.
It is growing rapidly. Many large projects have been put into
operation.
 The Three Gorges Project, with the largest installed
capacity in the world
Installed Capacity:
22500 MW
Reservoir Capacity:
39.3 billion m3
Height of Dam :
181m
 The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and
dams in China
The Xiaowan Dam, the highest arch dam constructed in the
world
Installed capacity:
4200 MW
Reservoir capacity:
15 billion m3
Height of dam:
294.5 m
 The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and
dams in China
 The Shuibuya Dam, the highest CFRD (Concrete Faced
Rockfill Dam) constructed in the world
Installed capacity:
1840 MW
Reservoir capacity:
4.58 billion m3
Height of dam:
233 m
 The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and
dams in China
 The Nuozhadu Dam, the highest ECRD (Earth Cored
Rockfill Dam) constructed in China
Installed capacity:
5850 MW
Reservoir capacity:
23.7 billion m3
Height of dam:
261.5 m
 The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and
dams in China
 The Longtan Dam, a RCC Gravity Dam constructed with
the largest volume of concrete in the world.
Installed capacity:
6300 MW
Reservoir capacity:
27.3 billion m3
Height of dam:
216.5 m
 The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and
dams in China
II. The role of reservoirs & dams in economic and
social development in China
Reservoirs
& Dams
Reservoirs and dams play
an important role in
promoting economic and
social development
in China.
Flood control
Navigation
Irrigation
Tourism
GHG emissions
mitigation
Promotion of local
economic & social
development
Power
generation
Employment of labor force,
Fiscal revenues,
Construction of
infrastructures,
…
 Multifunction and comprehensive utilization
 Lower price and stable supply from hydropower for
supporting the growth of China’s economy
The electricity price of hydropower is
far lower than that of thermal power
and wind power.
The hydropower output keeps 17%
of the electricity amount in one year.
The composition of electric
power supply in China in 2012
Flood control
In flood season of 2012, the peak inflow
was cut down from 71200 m3
/s to 43000m3
/s
to avoid the flood disaster downstream of
Three Gorgtes Project.
More than 80% reservoirs and dams in
China have the irrigation function. The
irrigation area with reservoirs
approximately accounting for one third of
the total irrigation area in China.
Irrigation
Water supply,
Improvement of navigation channels
Aquatic farming in reservoir areas.
Tourism
Others
 Bring the comprehensive utilization benefits including
flood control, irrigation, water supply, etc.
Annual runoff hydrograph
of a typical river
Since the seasonal
allocation of water
resources in China is
uneven, it is required
to build reservoirs
with certain regulation
ability to regulate river
runoff, store the water
in flood season and
supply water in dry
season in order to
improve the utilization
of water resources.
 Improved management capacity of water
resources with reservoirs in China
Since 1950, the total standard coal saved in power generation
through hydropower in China is equivalent to the total energy
consumption in 2010.
The hydropower
generation reached
864.1 billion kWh in 2012
260 million tons
of standard coal
was saved.
780 million tons of
CO2 emission was
reduced.
The total hydropower
generation is 9.457
trillion kWh.
2.85 billion tons
of standard coal
was saved.
85.5 billion tons
of CO2 emission
was reduced.
 The conspicuous effect of energy conservation
and emission reduction
 Beneficial to people in mountainous areas in West China
and help them to get rid of poverty and become better off
Comparison of villagers’ housing before and after
 Improve local infrastructures such as transportation, communication, etc.,
create opportunities for labor employment, increase income of the
masses, and promote the process of urbanization.
 Change local industrial structure, promote the development of relevant
industries such as tourism, aquatic farming, etc., speed up local economic
and social development, and help resettled residents to get rid of poverty
and become better off.
III. Future prospects and challenges of
hydropower development in China
 Due to a large population in China, the resources availability
per capita is lower than that of the world average
 The economic development in China can’t be realized
without the support of energy sources
For the past 30 years from 1980 to 2010, China’s GDP has remained the
annual average growth rate of 10% with energy annual average growth
rate of 5.8%, and the energy utilization efficiency has been
continuously improved.
 Hydropower makes up the secondary big part of
the whole energy resources
The hydropower resource in the composition of
remaning energy sources in China is 45.7%, only
second to coal.
Composition of remaining
energy sources in China
Raw coal: 50.1%
Hydropower
resource: 45.7%
Petroleum:
1.8%
Natural gas:
2.5%
 The per capita energy consumption in China is basically
equivalent to the world average level
The per capita energy
consumption in China is
2.67 t, one fifth of that in
the U.S., one half of that
in Germany, one half of
that in Japan.
By 2050, the per capita
energy consumption in
China will be 4.4 t, basically
equivalent to the present
energy consumption level of
moderately developed
countries.
The per capita power
consumption in China is
3600 kWh, only one fourth
of that in the U.S., one half
of that in Germany, 40% of
that in Japan.
By 2050, the per capita power
consumption in China will
reach 7300 kWh, basically
equivalent to that at present in
moderately developed
countries of Europe.
 The level of per capita power consumption in China is
relatively low
 The development of renewable energy resources is
required in tackling climate change
 China committed to the development of clean and low-
carbon economy in the energy structure adjustment
The proportion of renewable energy sources in energy
consumption will be increased to 30% by 2050 from 11.4% in 2015.
 Hydropower plays an important role in the adjustment
of energy structure in China
 Hydropower has always ranked first in non-fossil energy.
 The proportion of hydropower in non-fossil energy consumption
will be reduced gradually from 63% in 2015 to 38% in 2050.
Compared to renewable energy sources such as wind power,
photovoltaic power generation, biomass power generation,
hydropower is still the first choice in the power generation schemes
of renewable energy sources in a future period.
Technical
advantage
Advantage of
adjustability
For hydropower, there is basically no restrictive engineering
technical obstacle in engineering technology, and there is
much experience.
Cost
advantage
Compared to other power generation projects of renewable
energy sources, the cost of hydropower is relatively low,
while the cost of other projects is relatively high.
For hydropower, water yield can be adjusted through the
construction of reservoirs, and the quality of power
generation can be improved.
Scale
advantage
At present, large-scale application of other renewable energy
sources other than hydropower still faces many problems and
restrictions.
 Priority shall be given to the development of
hydropower among the renewable energy resources
No sufficient effective coordination and
communication among the different
departments, the comprehensive utilization
function is not given full play, and
economic benefits are hampered.
More and more local
demands, imperfect benefit
distribution and sharing
mechanism, management
system and coordination
mechanism, etc. make it
difficult to carry out
resettlement work for
hydropower projects, and
make it increasingly difficult
to carry out resettlement of
affected residents.
The insufficient
systematic and scientific
criteria for assessment
and the adverse effect of
public opinion make it
still difficult to carry out
coordination between
hydropower
development and
environmental
protection.
 Major problems encountered in development
 Development planning and goal
 The hydropower stations will be constructed on big rivers in the
western part of China.
 The power stations on these rivers generally feature large scale with
large storage capacity and high dams.
 Among the hydropower projects to be built, there are over 55 projects
with the dam height of more than 100m and over 20 projects with the dam
height of more than 200m.
 Large stations and high dams
High mountains and deep valley;
Earthquake;
Soft rock mass and big Faults;
1. More complicated regional geology
澜沧江上游河段 怒江上游河段
 Key issues focused
Collapsed accumulation body
Landslide mass
Debris flow, etc.
High dams and discharge energy dissipation;
Surrounding rock stability in large caverns;
High and steep cut slopes;
Large capacity turbine generator units,
Long-distance power transmission with large
capacity , etc.
溪洛渡地下厂房龙滩地下厂房
2. More difficult project engineering technologies
High slope at dam abutment, Jinping—I Project
 Key issues focused
3. More difficult to coordinate of protection and development
Protection areas;
Ecological system of rivers;
Rare animals and plants;
Living environment of fish;
Change of water flow and sediment of the river; etc.
向家坝鱼类增殖站 长洲鱼道
 Key issues focused
4. More difficult to resettlement of rural residents affected
Large population of ethnic minorities,
Relatively backward productivity and economic development,
Influenced by religious beliefs, holy mountains and holy water,
Lack of cultivated land,
A fragile ecological environment.
 Key issues focused
THANKS
FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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Roles of Dams & Hydro as Renewable Energy in China

  • 1. Roles of Dams & Hydro as Renewable Energy in China ZHOU JIANPING HYDROCHINA CORPORATION Wednesday, August 14
  • 2. Outline I. Basic conditions and development situation of waterpower resources in China II. The role of reservoirs & dams in economic and social development in China III. Future prospects and challenges of hydropower development in China
  • 3. I. Basic conditions and development situation of waterpower resources in China
  • 4.  Abundant Waterpower Resources in China 我国水力 源 量居世界首位资 总 。 Annual waterpower output of technically exploitable reserves Annual waterpower output of theoretical reserves 40.6% Annual waterpower output of economically exploitable reserves Annual waterpower output of theoretical reserves 28.8%
  • 5. The technically exploitable hydropower resources in China accounts for 17% of the world’s. The sum of technically exploitable hydropower resources in top ten countries is approximately 900 million kWh, accounting for 62% of the whole in the world. Comparison with other countries
  • 6.  1: China’s hydropower resources are mainly distributed in western region.  Characteristics of resource distribution
  • 7. - It is mainly in Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet in western region. The hydropower resources of the three parts above account for as high as 75.2% of the total in western region.  Characteristics of resource distribution
  • 8.  2: Highly concentrated , it is mainly distributed on ten rivers.  Characteristics of resource distribution
  • 9. The temporal distribution of water resources in China is uneven. The water yield in flood season (from June to October) accounts for 70%-80% of that all year round, while the water yield in dry season (from November to May of the next year) only accounts for 20-30%.  3: Uneven spatial and temporal distribution, mainly concentrated in flood season.  Characteristics of resource distribution
  • 10. After the year 2000, China’s hydropower embraced the stage of rapid development. It only took 6 years to achieve installed capacity of 100 GW of hydropower, and the total installed capacity exceeded 200 GW.  Development history of hydropower in China 78 GW 2000 480 kW 1910 100 GW 2004 Shilongba Hydropower station, the first one in China The installed capacity of hydropower in China moved up to second in the world Gongboxia hydropower Station on the Yellow River was put into operation, the installed capacity of hydropower in China leaped to the first in the world. Xiaowan hydropower Station on Lancangjiang was put into operation, the total installed capacity of hydropower in China exceeded 200 GW. 200 GW 2010
  • 11. By 2012, the installed capacity of hydropower in China reached 249 GW, and annual power generation reached 864.1 billion kWh. The increased installed capacities in the past three decades are 16GW , 43GW, and 136.7GW, respectively.  Current situation of hydropower development in China
  • 12.  The development level of hydropower in Eastern China & Central China is high  The development level of hydropower in Western China is relatively low The hydroelectric development in China focuses on western region. Development level of hydropower in different regions of China Eastern region Central region Western region
  • 13.  Comparison between the level of hydropower development in China and those in developed countries Compared with developed countries, the level of hydropower development in China is still very low. It is growing rapidly. Many large projects have been put into operation.
  • 14.  The Three Gorges Project, with the largest installed capacity in the world Installed Capacity: 22500 MW Reservoir Capacity: 39.3 billion m3 Height of Dam : 181m  The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and dams in China
  • 15. The Xiaowan Dam, the highest arch dam constructed in the world Installed capacity: 4200 MW Reservoir capacity: 15 billion m3 Height of dam: 294.5 m  The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and dams in China
  • 16.  The Shuibuya Dam, the highest CFRD (Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam) constructed in the world Installed capacity: 1840 MW Reservoir capacity: 4.58 billion m3 Height of dam: 233 m  The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and dams in China
  • 17.  The Nuozhadu Dam, the highest ECRD (Earth Cored Rockfill Dam) constructed in China Installed capacity: 5850 MW Reservoir capacity: 23.7 billion m3 Height of dam: 261.5 m  The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and dams in China
  • 18.  The Longtan Dam, a RCC Gravity Dam constructed with the largest volume of concrete in the world. Installed capacity: 6300 MW Reservoir capacity: 27.3 billion m3 Height of dam: 216.5 m  The existing and ongoing landmark large reservoirs and dams in China
  • 19. II. The role of reservoirs & dams in economic and social development in China
  • 20. Reservoirs & Dams Reservoirs and dams play an important role in promoting economic and social development in China. Flood control Navigation Irrigation Tourism GHG emissions mitigation Promotion of local economic & social development Power generation Employment of labor force, Fiscal revenues, Construction of infrastructures, …  Multifunction and comprehensive utilization
  • 21.  Lower price and stable supply from hydropower for supporting the growth of China’s economy The electricity price of hydropower is far lower than that of thermal power and wind power. The hydropower output keeps 17% of the electricity amount in one year. The composition of electric power supply in China in 2012
  • 22. Flood control In flood season of 2012, the peak inflow was cut down from 71200 m3 /s to 43000m3 /s to avoid the flood disaster downstream of Three Gorgtes Project. More than 80% reservoirs and dams in China have the irrigation function. The irrigation area with reservoirs approximately accounting for one third of the total irrigation area in China. Irrigation Water supply, Improvement of navigation channels Aquatic farming in reservoir areas. Tourism Others  Bring the comprehensive utilization benefits including flood control, irrigation, water supply, etc.
  • 23. Annual runoff hydrograph of a typical river Since the seasonal allocation of water resources in China is uneven, it is required to build reservoirs with certain regulation ability to regulate river runoff, store the water in flood season and supply water in dry season in order to improve the utilization of water resources.  Improved management capacity of water resources with reservoirs in China
  • 24. Since 1950, the total standard coal saved in power generation through hydropower in China is equivalent to the total energy consumption in 2010. The hydropower generation reached 864.1 billion kWh in 2012 260 million tons of standard coal was saved. 780 million tons of CO2 emission was reduced. The total hydropower generation is 9.457 trillion kWh. 2.85 billion tons of standard coal was saved. 85.5 billion tons of CO2 emission was reduced.  The conspicuous effect of energy conservation and emission reduction
  • 25.  Beneficial to people in mountainous areas in West China and help them to get rid of poverty and become better off Comparison of villagers’ housing before and after  Improve local infrastructures such as transportation, communication, etc., create opportunities for labor employment, increase income of the masses, and promote the process of urbanization.  Change local industrial structure, promote the development of relevant industries such as tourism, aquatic farming, etc., speed up local economic and social development, and help resettled residents to get rid of poverty and become better off.
  • 26. III. Future prospects and challenges of hydropower development in China
  • 27.  Due to a large population in China, the resources availability per capita is lower than that of the world average
  • 28.  The economic development in China can’t be realized without the support of energy sources For the past 30 years from 1980 to 2010, China’s GDP has remained the annual average growth rate of 10% with energy annual average growth rate of 5.8%, and the energy utilization efficiency has been continuously improved.
  • 29.  Hydropower makes up the secondary big part of the whole energy resources The hydropower resource in the composition of remaning energy sources in China is 45.7%, only second to coal. Composition of remaining energy sources in China Raw coal: 50.1% Hydropower resource: 45.7% Petroleum: 1.8% Natural gas: 2.5%
  • 30.  The per capita energy consumption in China is basically equivalent to the world average level The per capita energy consumption in China is 2.67 t, one fifth of that in the U.S., one half of that in Germany, one half of that in Japan. By 2050, the per capita energy consumption in China will be 4.4 t, basically equivalent to the present energy consumption level of moderately developed countries.
  • 31. The per capita power consumption in China is 3600 kWh, only one fourth of that in the U.S., one half of that in Germany, 40% of that in Japan. By 2050, the per capita power consumption in China will reach 7300 kWh, basically equivalent to that at present in moderately developed countries of Europe.  The level of per capita power consumption in China is relatively low
  • 32.  The development of renewable energy resources is required in tackling climate change
  • 33.  China committed to the development of clean and low- carbon economy in the energy structure adjustment The proportion of renewable energy sources in energy consumption will be increased to 30% by 2050 from 11.4% in 2015.
  • 34.  Hydropower plays an important role in the adjustment of energy structure in China  Hydropower has always ranked first in non-fossil energy.  The proportion of hydropower in non-fossil energy consumption will be reduced gradually from 63% in 2015 to 38% in 2050.
  • 35. Compared to renewable energy sources such as wind power, photovoltaic power generation, biomass power generation, hydropower is still the first choice in the power generation schemes of renewable energy sources in a future period. Technical advantage Advantage of adjustability For hydropower, there is basically no restrictive engineering technical obstacle in engineering technology, and there is much experience. Cost advantage Compared to other power generation projects of renewable energy sources, the cost of hydropower is relatively low, while the cost of other projects is relatively high. For hydropower, water yield can be adjusted through the construction of reservoirs, and the quality of power generation can be improved. Scale advantage At present, large-scale application of other renewable energy sources other than hydropower still faces many problems and restrictions.  Priority shall be given to the development of hydropower among the renewable energy resources
  • 36. No sufficient effective coordination and communication among the different departments, the comprehensive utilization function is not given full play, and economic benefits are hampered. More and more local demands, imperfect benefit distribution and sharing mechanism, management system and coordination mechanism, etc. make it difficult to carry out resettlement work for hydropower projects, and make it increasingly difficult to carry out resettlement of affected residents. The insufficient systematic and scientific criteria for assessment and the adverse effect of public opinion make it still difficult to carry out coordination between hydropower development and environmental protection.  Major problems encountered in development
  • 38.  The hydropower stations will be constructed on big rivers in the western part of China.  The power stations on these rivers generally feature large scale with large storage capacity and high dams.  Among the hydropower projects to be built, there are over 55 projects with the dam height of more than 100m and over 20 projects with the dam height of more than 200m.  Large stations and high dams
  • 39. High mountains and deep valley; Earthquake; Soft rock mass and big Faults; 1. More complicated regional geology 澜沧江上游河段 怒江上游河段  Key issues focused Collapsed accumulation body Landslide mass Debris flow, etc.
  • 40. High dams and discharge energy dissipation; Surrounding rock stability in large caverns; High and steep cut slopes; Large capacity turbine generator units, Long-distance power transmission with large capacity , etc. 溪洛渡地下厂房龙滩地下厂房 2. More difficult project engineering technologies High slope at dam abutment, Jinping—I Project  Key issues focused
  • 41. 3. More difficult to coordinate of protection and development Protection areas; Ecological system of rivers; Rare animals and plants; Living environment of fish; Change of water flow and sediment of the river; etc. 向家坝鱼类增殖站 长洲鱼道  Key issues focused
  • 42. 4. More difficult to resettlement of rural residents affected Large population of ethnic minorities, Relatively backward productivity and economic development, Influenced by religious beliefs, holy mountains and holy water, Lack of cultivated land, A fragile ecological environment.  Key issues focused

Editor's Notes

  1. 2005年11月25日,国家发展和改革委员会在北京人民大会堂召开了“全国水力资源成果发布会”。 1.理论蕴藏量按照年水量和水头的乘积,以年电量和平均功率(年电量/8760)表示,与梯级电站布置无关。 2.技术可开发量是指在当前技术水平条件下,可以开发的资源量。根据河流水电规划成果进行统计。随着技术进步和能源开发的需要,技术可开发量比重还会增加。 3.经济可开发量则是指在当前技术经济条件下,具有经济开发价值的资源量,与其他能源比较具有市场竞争力。 我国水能资源量位居世界第一,储量为全球的15%,技术可开发量占17%,其他水电大国有俄罗斯、巴西、美国、加拿大 、印度等。
  2. 2005年11月25日,国家发展和改革委员会在北京人民大会堂召开了“全国水力资源成果发布会”。 1.理论蕴藏量按照年水量和水头的乘积,以年电量和平均功率(年电量/8760)表示,与梯级电站布置无关。 2.技术可开发量是指在当前技术水平条件下,可以开发的资源量。根据河流水电规划成果进行统计。随着技术进步和能源开发的需要,技术可开发量比重还会增加。 3.经济可开发量则是指在当前技术经济条件下,具有经济开发价值的资源量,与其他能源比较具有市场竞争力。 我国水能资源量位居世界第一,储量为全球的15%,技术可开发量占17%,其他水电大国有俄罗斯、巴西、美国、加拿大 、印度等。
  3. 1)水能资源总量丰富,居世界第一,从国际比较分析。 2)分布很不均匀,体现在空间、时间上,与社会经济发展不相适应。 3)水能资源富集程度高,主要集中在大江大河水电基地及大型水电站。 以上3张请修改,力求用图表示。
  4. 此处,用国家统计局数据,反映近10年或20年,中国GDP及其单位能耗指标, 按照国民经济社会发展规划,反映10年或20年我国经济发展和节能降耗趋势。
  5. 此处,用国家统计局数据,反映近10年或20年,中国GDP及其单位能耗指标, 按照国民经济社会发展规划,反映10年或20年我国经济发展和节能降耗趋势。
  6. 据国家发改委能源研究所预测2020年、2030年、2050年中国能源消费总量将分别达到50亿t、56亿t和63亿t标煤, 可再生能源从2010年的10%左右,逐步提升到2020年的15%以上,2030年的20%以上和2050年的30%以上。 可再生能源的地位也从补充能源、替代能源发展到主流能源和主导能源。
  7. By 2015, the installed capacity of hydropower in China will reach 260 million kW, and annual power generation will reach 910 billion kWh; By 2020, the installed capacity of hydropower in China will reach 350 million kW, and annual power generation will reach 1200 billion kWh; By 2030, the installed capacity of hydropower in China will reach 460 million kW, and annual power generation will reach 2000 billion kWh; By 2050, the installed capacity of hydropower in China will reach 530 million kW, and annual power generation will reach 2400 billion kWh;
  8. Located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and at the edge zone of transition to the second terrace and affected by the collision of Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate.