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III - FATORES ABIÓTICOS II

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III - FATORES ABIÓTICOS II

  1. 1. III – FATORES ABIÓTICOS II ESCOLA CATUJAL 14/15 PROFª SANDRA NASCIMENTO
  2. 2. Fatores abióticos LUZ TEMPERATURA ÁGUA SUBSTRATO VENTO Profª: Sandra Nascimento 2
  3. 3. III - Água3 Profª: Sandra Nascimento
  4. 4. Água  Serve de habitat e é indispensável a todas as suas atividades vitais.  Fatores como a humidade e a pluviosidade, condiciona a disponibilidade de água no meio ambiente. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 4
  5. 5.  Seres vivos hidrófilos  Seres vivos que vivem permanentemente na água. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 5 Influência da água nos seres vivos  Seres vivos higrófilos  Seres vivos que vivem em locais húmidos. Animal Hidrófilo Planta Hidrófila Animal Higrófilo Planta Higrófila
  6. 6.  Seres vivos mesófilos  Seres vivos que necessitam de quantidades moderadas de água. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 6  Seres vivos xerófilos  Seres vivos que habitam em locais secos. Animal Mesófilo Planta Mesófila Animal Xerófilo Planta Xerófila Influência da água nos seres vivos
  7. 7. Adaptações dos animais à escassez de água  Animais como o escorpião possuem um exoesqueleto quitinoso, que evita a perda da água por transpiração. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 7  O camelo e o dromedário apresentam reservas de tecido adiposo que utilizam para produzir água.
  8. 8. Adaptações dos animais à escassez de água  Alguns roedores, como o gerbilo, que vive em desertos, não transpiram e produzem pouca urina para evitar as perdas de água. Para além disso são mais ativos durante a noite. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 8
  9. 9.  Nas regiões secas as plantas desenvolvem adaptações morfo- lógicas, tais como :  caules carnudos, para acumular água de reserva;  folhas transformadas em espinhos, para reduzir as perdas de água por transpiração;  raízes extensas e pouco profundas para captar a maior quantidade de água possível. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 9 Adaptações das plantas à escassez de água
  10. 10.  Muitas plantas de ambientes desérticos apresentam, ainda, uma cutícula cerosa impermeável ou pelos, de forma a diminuir a transpiração. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 10 Adaptações das plantas à escassez de água
  11. 11. IV - SUBSTRATO11 Profª: Sandra Nascimento
  12. 12.  Meio sólido que serve de suporte à maior parte dos seres vivos.  Nos ambientes aquáticos:  substratos moles, como os fundos arenosos que podem ser encontrados no leito dos rios e nos oceanos, e que servem de suporte aos seres vivos;  substratos duros, como as rochas, sobre as quais vivem animais como as lapas e os mexilhões. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 12 Substrato
  13. 13. O que é o solo? Profª: Sandra Nascimento 13  Camada mais superficial da crusta terrestre, sendo constituído por matéria orgânica, matéria mineral, água e ar.
  14. 14. Composição do solo Matéria orgânica Seres vivos Folhas mortas Cadáveres de animais Matéria mineral Resulta das alterações físicas e química da rocha mãe Profª: Sandra Nascimento 14
  15. 15. Solo  Funciona como habitat para uma grande diversidade de seres vivos, tais como insetos, minhocas, toupeiras, fungos e bactérias. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 15
  16. 16. IV -VENTO16 Profª: Sandra Nascimento
  17. 17. Vento  Resulta da deslocação das massas de ar das altas para as baixas pressões.  Desempenha um papel importante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas Profª: Sandra Nascimento 17
  18. 18. Vento  Contribui para a dispersão de algumas sementes, como por exemplo as sementes aladas, de modo a que estas se possam dispersar por uma maior área, de forma a encontrarem condições mais apropriadas à sobrevivências das plantas após a germinação . Profª: Sandra Nascimento 18
  19. 19. Vento  O vento intervém na polinização de inúmeras plantas.  É responsável pelo transporte de bactérias e de fungos, bem como das suas estruturas reprodutoras. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 19
  20. 20. Vento  Nos ambientes aquáticos, o vento promove o arejamento das águas e dá origem à ondulação dos oceanos.  O vento pode condicionar a morfologia das plantas e dos animais. Em regiões muito ventosas encontram-se, preferencialmente, plantas rasteiras e animais de pequeno porte e achatados. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 20
  21. 21. Vento  Alguns seres vivos apresentam adaptações comportamentais de modo a tirarem partido do vento.  Ex: nuvens de gafanhotos que se movimentam aproveitando a deslocação das massas de ar. Profª: Sandra Nascimento 21

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