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Classification of instruments

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This is a simple explanation of how instruments are classified

  • Slide 12/21: Is the term "unsual" ethnocentric? Those instruments are most likely very usual instruments at their native surroundings.
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Classification of instruments

  1. 1. Classification of Instruments
  2. 2. Classification • Musical instruments may be classified or grouped in several ways • Traditionally, the European culture classifies instruments according to orchestral instrument families.
  3. 3. Orchestral Instruments • Woodwind – most were originally made from wood; all produce sound by blowing, some of them by vibrating a reed. • Brasswind – originally made from brass; also produce sound by blowing • Percussion – these instruments are made from a variety of materials and involve some physical impact (percussion) to produce sound • String – These instruments have strings
  4. 4. Some instruments from…
  5. 5. Some instruments from…
  6. 6. Some instruments from…
  7. 7. Some instruments from…
  8. 8. Ethnographic Classification • Orchestral classification does not cover the wide variety of instruments and playing styles which are found in various ethnic groups worldwide. • Early in the 20th century Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs derived a system to classify all musical instruments.
  9. 9. Ethnographic Classification • The Hornbostel-Sachs system is based on how an instrument creates vibrations in order to produce sound. • This is the most widely accepted system of musical instrument classification used today.
  10. 10. Classification of Instruments • Hornbostel-Sachs system identifies five categories of instruments. • Aerophones • Chordophones • Idiophones • Membranophones • Electrophones
  11. 11. Aerophones • An aerophone produces its sound by the vibration of air • The two main families that are aerophones are woodwind and brass instruments. • Most Woodwinds use the air and reeds to vibrate. • Brass use air and the player’s lips to vibrate. • Some keyboard instruments also use air as the source of vibration and can be considered aerophones. • Can you name any Aerophones?
  12. 12. Unusual Aerophones • • • • • Dgeridoo - Australia Panflute - Peru Bagpipe – British Isles Shakuhachi - Japan Shofar – Middle Eastern (Jewish)
  13. 13. Chordophone Instruments • Chordophones are part of the string instrument family. • They produce sound by the vibrating of strings. • To make the sounds: pluck, bow or strike the strings. • This is done by a pick, bow or the musician’s hand. • Can you name any Chordophones?
  14. 14. Unusual Chordophones • • • • Celtic Harp – British Isles Koto - Japan Washtub Bass – Southern USA, Jamaica Harpsichord - Europe
  15. 15. Electrophone Instruments • This is the newest category of instruments. They have only been around since the 20th century. • Electrophones produce an electronic sound. • The two main families of electrophones are electronic instruments and amplified acoustical instruments. • What are some Electrophones that you have heard?
  16. 16. Membranophones • Membranophones produce sound • when a stretched skin (membrane) vibrates. • Different materials can be used to make membranophones, including wood, metal, or ceramics.
  17. 17. Membranophone Instruments • These instruments may have definite or indefinite pitch. What does this mean? • percussion family • These belong to the. How many different kinds of drums do you know?
  18. 18. Idiophone Instruments • Idiophones produce a sound by the vibration of the actual instrument itself. • These instruments can be struck, rubbed, shaken or plucked. • This category belongs to the percussion family. • How many can you name?
  19. 19. Review • Instruments can be classified into what 5 categories? • Aerophones produce sound by the vibration of what? • Chordophones produce sound by the vibration of what? • Electrophones produce what kind of sounds? • Membranophones produce sound by vibrating what? • Idiophones use the vibration of what? • Can you give examples of each category?
  20. 20. Instrument Match • Aerophone • Chordophone • Idiophone • Membranophone • Electrophone • • • • • • • • Flute Conga Mandolin Synthesizer Pipe Organ Timpani Guiro Amplified Acoustic Guitar • Castinets • Cello
  21. 21. Acknowledgements • Adapted from a presentation found on LewistonPorter Central School District’s web site. • http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/texth/H ornbostel-Sachs.html • http://thebirdfeednyc.com/2012/08/20/musicalinstrument-families/

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