Psychology 41 - Lifespan Development
                                       Pretest Chapters 14, 15, 16
                  ...
B) junk food was mostly selected along with one small healthy food item.
    C) healthy food was selected if it was cheape...
14. Annual nationwide surveys of high school seniors show that about ______ percent have tried alcohol and
    about _____...
21. The following is true of hypothetical thought.
    A) It is tied to the everyday world as the individual knows it.
   ...
C) sunk cost fallacy.
    D) economy of thought.


28. The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes e...
B) “Will I ever find someone to love?”
    C) “Who am I?”
    D) “Why don't my parents understand me?”


35. Seventeen-yea...
41. Miranda and her mother bicker constantly about daily routines, hair, and clothes. This bickering is
    indicative of:...
47. At age 17, Jeff aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he made
    more friends...
54. Cluster suicides:
    A) are statistical anomalies.
    B) occur in threes.
    C) are socially disconnected.
    D) a...
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pretest 14 and 17

  1. 1. Psychology 41 - Lifespan Development Pretest Chapters 14, 15, 16 Summer 2009 (Dr. S. Lee) 1. The term “menarche” refers to: A) the beginning of growth of the uterus. B) the first ovulation of a mature egg. C) a girl's first menstrual period. D) the first year of menstruation, which is usually anovulatory. 2. The first sign of puberty in a typical girl is: A) a spurt in height. B) the onset of breast growth. C) an increase in weight. D) the development of muscular strength. 3. The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the: A) cerebellum. B) hypothalamus. C) hippocampus. D) ovaries or testes. 4. The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is: A) the growth hormone. B) the follicle-stimulating hormone. C) the gonadotropin-releasing hormone. D) cortisol. 5. The most powerful effect on adolescent joy or anger usually comes from: A) fluctuating hormones. B) parents. C) the indirect psychological effects of puberty. D) the influence of television. 6. Family conflict and stress: A) may cause the early onset of puberty. B) may cause the late onset of puberty. C) typically increase after puberty. D) typically decrease after puberty. 7. In a recent experiment conducted on 10- to 14-year olds and their food choices: A) junk food was overwhelmingly selected over healthy food. Page 1
  2. 2. B) junk food was mostly selected along with one small healthy food item. C) healthy food was selected if it was cheaper than unhealthy food. D) healthy food was consistently selected regardless of peer influence or price. 8. A 14-year-old boy has disproportionately large feet and hands and a big nose. He most likely: A) is at the end of his growth spurt. B) has not started his growth spurt. C) has reached his full adult body size. D) is near the beginning of his growth spurt. 9. The growth spurt typically occurs during puberty in the following order: A) weight, height, muscle. B) weight, muscle, height. C) height, weight, muscle. D) muscle, height, weight. 10. Secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics that: A) occur later in development. B) are harder to detect. C) are inside the body. D) are not directly related to reproduction. 11. Imelda, a 15-year-old high school sophomore, has many interests, enjoys “re-inventing” herself often, and quickly picks up on the latest dances and fashions. The ease in which she learns and changes is attributed to: A) the completion of dendrite pruning in the prefrontal cortex. B) the unfinished dendrite pruning in the prefrontal cortex. C) the maturity of the executive functions. D) the stimulation of the limbic system. 12. The younger people are when they contract a STI: A) the more likely they are to seek treatment. B) the more likely they are to alert their sexual partners. C) the lower the rate of reinfection. D) the less likely they are to recognize symptoms. 13. Trends in drug use by adolescents in the United States show: A) steady increases from the mid-1970s on. B) steady decreases from the mid-1970s on. C) after decreases in the 1980s, a recent increase. D) less use of alcohol, more use of marijuana. Page 2
  3. 3. 14. Annual nationwide surveys of high school seniors show that about ______ percent have tried alcohol and about ______ percent have smoked at least one cigarette. A) 73; 47 B) 63; 37 C) 53; 27 D) 43; 17 15. Most adolescents think about themselves: A) rarely. B) occasionally. C) periodically. D) frequently. 16. In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to which of the following? A) the belief that one is destined to have a legendary life B) the notion that one cannot be harmed by unprotected sex C) the viewpoint that everyone else is smarter than oneself D) the view that one is noticed by everyone 17. The belief that one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt a normal person is referred to as: A) the invincibility fable. B) a personal fable. C) an imaginary audience. D) deductive reasoning. 18. The term “imaginary audience” refers to adolescents': A) ability to understand how others perceive them. B) false belief that everyone is constantly attending to their behavior and appearance. C) constant posing and posturing before mirrors. D) belief that others spy on them. 19. Ryan's thinking is no longer restricted to personal experience as it had been earlier in his life. Ryan is in the stage of: A) sensorimotor thought. B) preoperational thought. C) concrete operational thought. D) formal operational thought. 20. Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably: A) solve the problem through a trial-and-error strategy. B) put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale. C) understand the inverse relationship between distance and weight. D) put all the weights on one side of the scale. Page 3
  4. 4. 21. The following is true of hypothetical thought. A) It is tied to the everyday world as the individual knows it. B) It is emotionally based. C) It involves imagined possibilities. D) It is an aspect of concrete operational thinking. 22. Beginning with a logical idea and then using logic to draw specific conclusions describes: A) hypothetical reasoning. B) inductive reasoning. C) deductive reasoning. D) adolescent egocentrism. 23. Using inductive thinking, a person might think, “If it barks like a dog, and wags its tail like a dog, it must be a ______.” A) mammal B) animal C) dogfish D) dog 24. Brian has met three girls who tell him that Titanic is their all-time favorite movie. He concludes that all girls love Titanic. Brian has just used: A) hypothetical reasoning. B) inductive reasoning. C) deductive reasoning. D) adolescent egocentrism. 25. Identify the true statement about adolescents' intuitive thought. A) It almost always ends up at the same conclusion as analytic thought. B) It is slower than analytic thought. C) It is considered a separate pathway from analytic thought. D) It begins with a logical premise. 26. The dual-process model of adolescent thought suggests that two distinct pathways exist in the brain to process thought. One pathway processes analytic thought. The other pathway processes: A) ordered thought. B) logical thought. C) left-brained thought. D) intuitive thought. 27. Brent was determined to get a place on his middle school's basketball team because he practices at least two hours each day. He rarely makes a basket and becomes quickly winded because of his severe asthma. His determination is fueled by his: A) analytic thought processes. B) crisp, accurate logic. Page 4
  5. 5. C) sunk cost fallacy. D) economy of thought. 28. The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes has the effect of: A) creating a developmental mismatch. B) supporting development. C) improving student grades. D) increasing student collaboration. 29. In high-stakes testing situations, students are typically given: A) several different tests to address varying learning styles. B) a single test to determine success or failure. C) opportunities to move to the next level despite failure in the previous level. D) the opportunity to waive the test if failed more than three times. 30. Identify the recommendation you would make to a school district that is trying to structure its high schools to enhance adolescent cognitive development. A) Cut the length of subject periods from 40 minutes to 25 minutes so that students do not have to pay attention for such a long time. B) Enlarge schools so that students have more opportunities to find a group of friends. C) Create more opportunities for students to be involved in school clubs and sports. D) Discourage teachers and students from talking about personal matters by keeping teachers' lunch rooms, parking lots, and bathrooms separate from those of students. 31. According to extensive research, the ideal high school size is: A) 100 to 300 students. B) 200 to 400 students. C) 300 to 500 students. D) 400 to 600 students. 32. If high schools want to decrease the incidence of violence, they should: A) install metal detectors. B) plan regular police patrols. C) set clear standards of student behavior. D) offer activities that are focused exclusively on academics. 33. Adolescent thinking is a combination of: A) ego, logic, and emotion. B) fact and fantasy. C) certainty and objectivity. D) ego, emotion, and irrationality. 34. Psychosocial development during adolescence is often seen as a quest to answer the question: A) “What am I going to do with my life?” Page 5
  6. 6. B) “Will I ever find someone to love?” C) “Who am I?” D) “Why don't my parents understand me?” 35. Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voiced their disapproval, he replied, “Whatever.” Andrew's response indicates identity: A) diffusion. B) achievement. C) foreclosure. D) moratorium. 36. Identity diffusion refers to the identity status in which adolescents: A) take a pause in identity formation that allows for exploration of alternatives. B) form their identity prematurely. C) have few commitments to goals or values and fail to take on any role. D) understand who they are, connected to everything they have learned. 37. The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as: A) identity diffusion. B) role confusion. C) negative identity. D) moratorium. 38. Harold readily adopted his parent's religious faith without question. Happy and secure he enjoys participating in religious events with his parents. His identity status reflects: A) diffusion. B) achievement. C) foreclosure. D) moratorium. 39. Gender identity refers to ______, while sexual orientation refers to ______. A) self-definition as male or female; erotic desires B) erotic desires; self-definition as male or female C) chosen gender-role; homosexuality D) heterosexuality; homosexuality 40. Marissa and her mother bicker about her clothing, her choice of music, and her presence at family functions. After several years, her mother will most likely: A) escalate her bickering to include threats. B) dismiss Marissa as a hopeless case. C) adjust to the notion that Marissa needs more autonomy. D) allow Marissa to come and go as she pleases. Page 6
  7. 7. 41. Miranda and her mother bicker constantly about daily routines, hair, and clothes. This bickering is indicative of: A) a troubled relationship. B) an identity crisis. C) clinical depression. D) a close relationship. 42. Jordan's older brother is a very aggressive high school dropout who abuses drugs and alcohol. Jordan is likely to: A) follow in his brother's footsteps. B) learn from his brother's mistakes. C) adopt his parent's values over his brother's. D) distance himself from his brother. 43. Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. Abbie is demonstrating: A) position control. B) foreclosure for her son. C) parental monitoring. D) negative control. 44. Nate's parents engage in very high parental monitoring and control. Compared with Nate's peers whose parents engage in less parental monitoring, Nate is more likely to: A) use drugs and alcohol. B) be involved with weapons. C) be depressed. D) be delinquent. 45. Chris typically can be found with his group of close friends on the gym steps at lunchtime. He is socializing in a: A) clique. B) cluster. C) crowd. D) crew. 46. Cliques and crowds provide adolescents with social: A) control. B) support. C) deviancy. D) control and social support. Page 7
  8. 8. 47. At age 17, Jeff aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he made more friends with serious musical interests and drifted away from friends with other interests. He is exhibiting peer: A) exclusion. B) facilitation. C) selection. D) focus. 48. Identify the general pattern of heterosexual attraction, as described by Dunphy? A) small mixed-sex group, pairing off of couples, loose association of boys' and girls' same-sex groups B) small mixed-sex group, loose association of boys' and girls' same-sex groups, pairing off of couples C) loose association of boys' and girls' same-sex groups, small mixed-sex group, pairing off of couples D) loose association of boys' and girls' same-sex groups, pairing off of couples, small mixed-sex group 49. Jason is a gay high-school senior. His formation of friends and romantic bonds has proceeded: A) at much the same pace as his straight classmates. B) at a slower pace than his straight classmates. C) more quickly than that of his straight classmates. D) because he denied his sexual orientation. 50. Joel is 14 years old and has been using marijuana steadily for the past six months. Because of his early drug use, he is at an increased risk for: A) employment difficulties. B) depression. C) disapproval by peers. D) uneven relationship with his parents. 51. Luis was raised to believe that he is intelligent, skilled, and protected by his family. During adolescence, he will most likely exhibit: A) an increase in confidence. B) a decrease in confidence. C) no change in confidence. D) vacillating confidence. 52. Parasuicide refers to: A) any self-destructive behavior. B) the serious consideration of suicide as an option. C) a deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death. D) assisting someone else in the act of suicide. 53. Adolescents who perform acts of parasuicide: A) have clear intentions of killing themselves. B) are almost always disappointed that they did not kill themselves. C) will tend to try again if authority figures assume the attempt was serious. D) often feel relieved that they survived. Page 8
  9. 9. 54. Cluster suicides: A) are statistical anomalies. B) occur in threes. C) are socially disconnected. D) are relatively common in adolescence. 55. How widespread a particular behavior or circumstance is within a population is referred to as: A) likelihood. B) incidence. C) odds. D) prevalence. 56. Identify the accurate statement about adolescent crime. A) It is quite low, involving less than 20 percent of arrests for serious crimes. B) There are many one-time offenders. C) Chronic offenders tend to be convicted of many repeated violent offenses. D) The average girl has committed more crimes than the average boy, but she has not been arrested. 57. An adolescence-limited offender is someone who: A) attacks only adolescents. B) stops committing crimes by age 21. C) is never arrested. D) is a juvenile delinquent. Page 9

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