Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A.<br />1<br />Part I<br />Chapter One<br />Introduction<br />Defining Developm...
2<br />Beginnings<br />
3<br />Introduction<br />What will happen to the baby just born, or to the schoolchild trying to make a friend, or to the ...
4<br />Defining Development<br />The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people—all kinds of peop...
5<br />1. Science<br />developmental study is a science….<br />theories<br />data<br />analysis<br />critical thinking<br ...
6<br />2. Diversity<br />studying all kinds of people<br />young and old<br />rich and poor<br />every ethnicity, backgrou...
7<br />3. Connections Between Change and Time<br />Changing or remaining the same over time<br />transformations<br />cons...
8<br />Dynamic Systems Theory<br />stresses the fluctuations and transitions<br />the dynamic synthesis of multiple levels...
9<br />Bioecological Systems<br />Urie Bronfenbrenner <br />a leader in understanding ecological systems approach <br />he...
10<br />The Ecological Model<br />microsysems<br />a person’s immediate surroundings<br />exosystems<br />local institutio...
11<br />Five Characteristics of Development<br />“…developmentalists are acutely aware of the reciprocal connections betwe...
12<br />1. Multidirectional<br />changes in direction; development is dynamic, not static<br />each fraction of a second<b...
13<br />Gains and Losses<br />
14<br />The Butterfly Effect<br />the power of a small change<br />all change may have a large effect<br />every change af...
15<br />2. Multicontextual<br />“…humans develop in dozens of contexts that profoundly affect their development…”<br />phy...
16<br />The Historical Context<br />corhort<br />people born within a few years of one another<br />these people are affec...
17<br />The Socioeconomic Context<br />socioeconomic status (SES)<br />“social class”<br />more than money<br />occupation...
18<br />
19<br />3. Multicultural<br />“…culture affects each human at every moment… culture is so pervasive, people rarely notice ...
20<br />Deciding What to Do Each Moment<br />culture<br />the patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to ...
21<br />Ethnicity, Race, and Income<br />ethnic groups<br />share certain attributes<br />ancestral heritage<br />national...
22<br />Ethnicity, Race, and Income<br />race<br />used to categorize groups of people <br />based on appearance<br />95% ...
23<br />Ethnicity, Race, and Income<br />social construction<br />SES (socioeconomic status) <br />a form of income or wea...
24<br />Issues and Applications<br />“My Name Wasn’t Mary”<br />
25<br />4. Multidisciplinary<br />“…a broad array of disciplines and cross-cutting topics… each person develops simultaneo...
26<br />The Three Domains<br />
27<br />Mirror Neurons<br />reflected brain cells<br />observed actions<br />mirror the intentions, sensations, and emotio...
28<br />5. Plasticity<br />denotes two complementary aspects of development<br />human traits can be molded<br />yet maint...
29<br />Developmental Study as a Science<br />based on objective evidence<br />laden with subjective perceptions<br />maki...
30<br />Steps of the Science Method<br />to avoid distortions of unexamined opinions and to control the biases of personal...
31<br />Ways to Test Hypotheses<br />Four methods:<br />Observation<br />The Experiment<br />The Survey<br />The Case Stud...
32<br />Observation<br />record behavior systematically and objectively<br />occur in a naturalistic setting<br />tries to...
33<br />The Experiment <br />used to establish cause<br />a particular treatment to expose to a specific condition<br />no...
34<br />The Experiment <br />
35<br />The Survey<br />Information is collected from a large number of people by: <br />interview<br />questionnaire<br /...
36<br />The Case Study<br />intensive study of one individual or situation<br />asking about past history<br />current thi...
37<br />Studying Change over Time<br />
38<br />Studying Change over Time<br />Cross-Sectional Research<br />designed to compare groups of people who differ in ag...
39<br />Studying Change over Time<br />Longitudinal Research<br />design in which the same individuals are followed over t...
40<br />Studying Change over Time<br />Cross-Sequential Research<br />designed to first study several groups of different ...
41<br />Caution from Science<br />developmental scientists also discover changes that are not beneficial<br />television, ...
42<br />Caution from Science<br />Correlation and Causation<br />can be confusing<br />a correlation indicates the degree ...
43<br />Caution from Science<br />Quantity and Quality<br />a second caution concerns how much scientists should rely on d...
44<br />Caution from Science<br />Ethics in Research<br />Caution for all scientists is to ensure that research meets ethi...
45<br />Caution from Science<br />Protection of Research Participants<br />Researcher must ensure that participation is vo...
46<br />Caution from Science<br />What should we Study?<br />Consider the most important ethical concern: <br />“Are scien...
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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A.<br />1<br />Part I<br />Chapter One<br />Introduction<br />Defining Development<br />Five Characteristics of Development<br />Developmental Study as a Science<br />Cautions from Science<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Beginnings<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Introduction<br />What will happen to the baby just born, or to the schoolchild trying to make a friend, or to the emerging adult wondering how to pay for college, or to the elder contemplating retirement?<br />Why should you care?<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Defining Development<br />The science of human development seeks to understand how and why people—all kinds of people, everywhere—change or remain the same over time. <br />There are 3 crucial elements.<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />1. Science<br />developmental study is a science….<br />theories<br />data<br />analysis<br />critical thinking<br />sound methodology<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />2. Diversity<br />studying all kinds of people<br />young and old<br />rich and poor<br />every ethnicity, background<br />sexual orientation<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />3. Connections Between Change and Time<br />Changing or remaining the same over time<br />transformations<br />consistencies of human life<br />beginning to end<br />understanding each segment of life<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Dynamic Systems Theory<br />stresses the fluctuations and transitions<br />the dynamic synthesis of multiple levels of analysis<br />the interaction between people and within each person<br />parent and child<br />prenatal and postnatal life<br />between ages 2 and 102<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Bioecological Systems<br />Urie Bronfenbrenner <br />a leader in understanding ecological systems approach <br />he believed that developmentalists need to examine all systems surrounding the development of each person<br />microsysems<br />exosystems<br />macrosystems<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />The Ecological Model<br />microsysems<br />a person’s immediate surroundings<br />exosystems<br />local institutions, such as schools and churches<br />macrosystems<br />larger social setting, including cultural values, economic polices, and political processes<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Five Characteristics of Development<br />“…developmentalists are acutely aware of the reciprocal connections between one moment in life and another… leading to five principles that are useful for understanding any age of human life…”<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />1. Multidirectional<br />changes in direction; development is dynamic, not static<br />each fraction of a second<br />years are analyzed, revealing unexpected twist and turns<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Gains and Losses<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />The Butterfly Effect<br />the power of a small change<br />all change may have a large effect<br />every change affects a dynamic system<br />a tiny event could have an enormous impact, not that is always does<br />opposite can occur… large changes can affect people in contradictory ways (i.e., lottery jackpots) <br />
  15. 15. 15<br />2. Multicontextual<br />“…humans develop in dozens of contexts that profoundly affect their development…”<br />physical surroundings<br />family patterns<br />Social context<br />historical<br />socioeconomic<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />The Historical Context<br />corhort<br />people born within a few years of one another<br />these people are affected by the same<br />values<br />events<br />technologies<br />culture<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />The Socioeconomic Context<br />socioeconomic status (SES)<br />“social class”<br />more than money<br />occupation<br />education<br />place of residence<br />includes advantages and disadvantages<br />Question: does low SES cause damage in infancy or in late adulthood?<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />3. Multicultural<br />“…culture affects each human at every moment… culture is so pervasive, people rarely notice their culture while they are immersed in it…”<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Deciding What to Do Each Moment<br />culture<br />the patterns of behavior that are passed from one generation to the next<br />groups have their own culture<br />values<br />customs<br />clothes<br />dwellings<br />cuisine<br />assumptions<br />people are influenced by more than one culture<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Ethnicity, Race, and Income<br />ethnic groups<br />share certain attributes<br />ancestral heritage<br />national origin<br />religion<br />culture<br />language<br />ethnic categories arise from history, sociology, and psychology, not from biology<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Ethnicity, Race, and Income<br />race<br />used to categorize groups of people <br />based on appearance<br />95% of the genetic differences between one person and another occur within, not between, supposed racial groups<br />race is misleading as a biological category<br />race = social construction<br />an idea created by society<br />perceived racial differences lead to discrimination <br />affect cognition<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Ethnicity, Race, and Income<br />social construction<br />SES (socioeconomic status) <br />a form of income or wealth<br />overlaps with ethnicity and race<br />national history and SES affect culture, development<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Issues and Applications<br />“My Name Wasn’t Mary”<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />4. Multidisciplinary<br />“…a broad array of disciplines and cross-cutting topics… each person develops simultaneously in body, mind, and spirit…”<br />Development is divided into three domains; <br />biosocial<br />cognitive<br />psychosocial<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />The Three Domains<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Mirror Neurons<br />reflected brain cells<br />observed actions<br />mirror the intentions, sensations, and emotions of those around<br />implications of Mirror-Neuron Research<br />possible cultural transmission or social organization<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />5. Plasticity<br />denotes two complementary aspects of development<br />human traits can be molded<br />yet maintaining durability of identity<br />culture and upbringing affect both aspects of plasticity<br />Genes and other biological influences<br />provides hope and realism<br />hope = changes is possible<br />realism = each developing person must build on what has come before<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Developmental Study as a Science<br />based on objective evidence<br />laden with subjective perceptions<br />making developmental science challenging <br />
  30. 30. 30<br />Steps of the Science Method<br />to avoid distortions of unexamined opinions and to control the biases of personal experience<br />ask a question<br />developing a hypothesis<br />test the hypothesis<br />draw conclusions<br />Make the finding available<br />Replication<br />
  31. 31. 31<br />Ways to Test Hypotheses<br />Four methods:<br />Observation<br />The Experiment<br />The Survey<br />The Case Study<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Observation<br />record behavior systematically and objectively<br />occur in a naturalistic setting<br />tries to be unobtrusive<br />can occur in a laboratory or in searches of archival data<br />
  33. 33. 33<br />The Experiment <br />used to establish cause<br />a particular treatment to expose to a specific condition<br />notes whether their behavior changes<br />independentvariable = imposed treatment or special condition<br />dependentvariable = specific behavior being studied<br />experimental group: is given a particular treatment<br />control group: does not get the treatment<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />The Experiment <br />
  35. 35. 35<br />The Survey<br />Information is collected from a large number of people by: <br />interview<br />questionnaire<br />some other means<br />wording and the questions can influence answers <br />
  36. 36. 36<br />The Case Study<br />intensive study of one individual or situation<br />asking about past history<br />current thinking<br />future plans<br />can provide unanticipated insight<br />
  37. 37. 37<br />Studying Change over Time<br />
  38. 38. 38<br />Studying Change over Time<br />Cross-Sectional Research<br />designed to compare groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics <br />(i.e., education, SES, ethnicity)<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />Studying Change over Time<br />Longitudinal Research<br />design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed <br />
  40. 40. 40<br />Studying Change over Time<br />Cross-Sequential Research<br />designed to first study several groups of different ages and then follow those groups over the years <br />
  41. 41. 41<br />Caution from Science<br />developmental scientists also discover changes that are not beneficial<br />television, divorce, shift work, automobiles.<br />
  42. 42. 42<br />Caution from Science<br />Correlation and Causation<br />can be confusing<br />a correlation indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.<br />a correlation is positive if both variables tend to increase or decrease together<br />a correlation is negative if one variables tends to increase when the other decreases<br />a correlation is zero if no connection is evident<br />
  43. 43. 43<br />Caution from Science<br />Quantity and Quality<br />a second caution concerns how much scientists should rely on data produced<br />quantitative research: provides data that can be expressed with numbers <br />qualitative research contains descriptions of conditions, and participants’ ideas<br />
  44. 44. 44<br />Caution from Science<br />Ethics in Research<br />Caution for all scientists is to ensure that research meets ethical standards<br />“code of ethics”<br />A set of moral principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow<br />
  45. 45. 45<br />Caution from Science<br />Protection of Research Participants<br />Researcher must ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless <br />
  46. 46. 46<br />Caution from Science<br />What should we Study?<br />Consider the most important ethical concern: <br />“Are scientists studying issues that are crucial to human development?”<br />

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