Raffles Institute_Office principles that work_Design Studio 3
DESIGN STUDIO 3TERM: JUN 2013LECTURER: SANDRA DRASKOVICOFFICE DESIGN PRINCIPLES THAT WORK
1. Open PlansHumans are social animals and want to be able tointeract with each other. Studies have shown thatan open plan improves the mood of employees. Somodern offices are often designed to encouragecollaboration, as modern employers understandthat employees being able to interact while theywork is beneficial to long-term productivity.Let employees carve out their own space.
So in the last several years, themove away from cubiclestructures and toward moreopen floor plans, wherecollaboration is as simple aslooking across the desk to seeyour co-worker sitting five feetaway, became incrediblypopular.A space thats full of collaborativespace but has zero quiet space is justas unsuccessful as a space thats fullof offices and has no collaborativespace. Its about finding a balance,and what that balance is for eachcompany. That ratio depends on thetype of work that companies do."BALANCECOLLABORATION
2. Hot DeskingHaving employees who aren’t chained to theirdesks translates to reduced office costs andincreased networking opportunities. Open spaceshave also become more valuable as technologicaladvances now allow workers to work from almostanywhere.Hot desking is a work space sharing model in whichemployees outnumber desks. In some suchenvironments, each work station has its owncomputer and the worker logs into a virtualdesktop.
2. Hot DeskingThe hot desk – a workstation not assigned to anindividual – is quite a common feature in officespace design already, but it is set to assume evenmore importance in 2012. Many top performingorganizations utilize hot desking to break down theformality of office space. Hot deskingencourages employees to interact with otheremployees they might not otherwise have comeacross.Hot desks are to be found in a range ofenvironments often including traditionalworkstations, meeting rooms, breakout areas andchill out zones.
2. Hot Desking - rethinktechnology – GENERATION YInternetMobile phoneLaptopMobility (not connected to place)Flexibility (work anywhere)Sharing (small space requirements)File storage (immediate and long termfiles)
3. Common SpacesDesigning informal areas for ad-hoc meetings andcollaboration on larger projects create acommunity feel to the workplace. Workingcollectively on tough problems can vastly improveproductivity. Activity rooms, break and rest spaces,variety in their design and flexibility of use is the keyto keeping up motivation at work.Improve creativity, concentration,socialization, efficiency through “ break”spaces designPLAY, INTERACTION & FUNCTIONALITY
4. Functional BuildingsLarge corporate office buildings are nowincreasingly equipped with cafes, restaurants,libraries, bars, and gyms. Google is probably thebest at this, the theory being that a happyemployee at work is more likely to stay at the officelonger. Idea generation is the name of the game,so many employers don’t mind whether a greatidea comes from an employee at the office gym ora worker as his desk.So long as the ideas keep coming, bothparties will be happy!
5. SustainableIncreasingly, green is the new black in office designprojects, more businesses want to design theirspace in a sustainable and environmentally friendlymanner. It’s not just employers; environmentalism isoften a key issue for many employees, too.Numerous issues are discussed here: How tochoose the most sustainable materials for finishes,such as flooring, and also how to select finishes,based on their impact on indoor air quality (IAQ).
Support the work of individualsWorkspaces that support the job.Standard cubes make layout easier, but they mayalso give space that is more or less than is actuallyneeded. Flexibility, adoptability and enough space.Proximity. Where the things and people associated with the jobare not to hand, it makes work harder and reducesefficiency.•Adequate storage at desk.•Nearby services (printers, coffee, stationery, etc.)•Teams near other teams with similar interests,customers•Connect both functional specialists andoperational teams.
Support the work of groupsGroups also need good workplace design.They must be able to easily work together.They must also feel like a group, exchange andcollaborate.1. Create community.2. Link communities.3. Design collaboratively.
Create a motivating environmentTo give of their best, people in the workplace mustbe well motivated. And the design of theworkplace can make a big difference.Light and comfortable.Natural light as a shared resource: not just amanagement perk.Color that alleviates boredom and createsinterest.Comfortable and ergonomic furniture.Social spaces.Shared space should be perceived as beneficialand useful by the majority.The ‘buzz’ of an active office is a positive socialsignal, indicating the presence of co-workersand providing cues to encourage active work.Clear signage so even visitors can find things.
Shared areasCreate people magnets. People often need to beencouraged to talk together.Quiet areas away from the core. The opposite effect of‘towards the core’ is where people seek quiet andisolation.Booths, with panels between seater tables (possibly withbenches) are both space-efficient and provide abalance of privacy and openness for informal meetings.Propose shared space. Increasing space shared acrossthe site reduces the need for individual and teamspace, but requires that people be prepared to share.No white elephants. Soft-seating areas, and play areasalthough inviting can be shunned when people areconcerned at appearing to be not working or wherethey are too far away.
Reflect company valuesDoes your office reflect theculture of your organisation?
What were theshortcomings of theformer spaceplanning?1. ƒHigh proportion of spaceassigned to individualwork space, low2. Proportion to shared workspace and support space3. ƒInflexible4. ƒDid not support informalcollaboration andteamwork5. ƒAccess to daylight andviews were limitedGuidelines for better design1. Accommodate both interactionand individual concentrated work• Support the need for privacy• Deal with noise and distraction Support high levels of collaborativework• More meeting spaces• More varied settings for meetings2. Respond to users’ desire forchange• Greater consistency of spaceallocation• Better paper handling and filestorage• Present a fresh image for the UN – inspace and its management• Improve environmental quality
BoundariesBoundaries that separate but do not divide.People need a strong sense of identity, bothindividually and with people with whom they work.Boundaries mark the edges of these groups,separating ‘them’ from ‘us’.The more complete the separation (preventingvisual and verbal connection), the greater theperceived division and the less communicationthere will be between groups.Physical things help mark boundaries,including aisles, walls, partitions, flooring,light, color.
Collaboration is new work modelAs a small company there is always a buzz,an energy between employees. Whencompany grows, move into large, moretraditional office spaces. Employees end upgetting private offices with windows andview. And the energy get lost.Maturity of company = traditional plan?Collaboration and interaction are the keywords in contemporary office planningtoward efficiency!
Good buy Big private OfficeHello shared private EnclavesSpace planning can restore interactionbetween people and enhanceentrepreneurial buzz without sacrificingprivacy. Sharing table, work space,technology, internet, lounge, meetingspace will make a team spirit amongemployees.Stations as middle space, satellite offices,multi-use furniture, lounge mixed with workstations, co-working facilities
Managed noise•Build a noise gradient: a greater noise may beexpected at the core, with quieter areas at theperiphery.•Match the people to the bustle. People have differentnoise needs. Some need calm and quiet whilst othersfeel lonely and left out if they are not sited near thecenters of action.•Manage the natural noise points. There are pointswhere noise naturally occurs and where people shouldnot be put at desks if they have a significant need forquiet.•By coffee machines and other intended break areas.•Next to meeting areas.•Next to people with louder tendencies.•At junctions where people pause before going their separateways.
Walkways and places between1. Promenade. Many people like to take occasional breaksfrom their desks and go for a stroll to think and refresh. Thiskind of area is sometimes called ‘Main Street’.2. Excuses to pause. When people are out walking they maymeet others but they often need an excuse to pause andmaybe have a common topic to talk about.Ways of doing this include:Notice boards (especially if they are well-laid out and up todate).White-boards where they can doodle.3. Space to stop. Where people stop, others need to pass by, soensure these areas are wide enough.4. Connecting shared areas. A walkway that connects breakoutand other shared areas encourages groups to visit oneanother.5. Anchors at the ends. Just as shopping Malls have major storesat either end to ensure people walk the full length, officewalkways can have major points of attraction at either end.
LAYOUT ORGANIZATION WORKOPEN OFFICE CUBICLE TEAM SPACEPRIVATE OFFICE SHARED OFFICE WORK LOUNGE
LAYOUT ORGANIZATION MEETINGSMALL MEETINGROOMLARGE MEETINGROOMSMALL MEETINGSPACELARGE MEETINGSPACEBRAINSTORMINGROOMMEETING POINT
LAYOUT ORGANIZATION - SUPPORTFILING AREA BREAK AREA CIRCULATIONLOCKERS ACTIVITY ROOM MAILING