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Chp2 Forces Building the Land

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Chp2 Forces Building the Land

  1. 1. Forces Building the Land Chapter 2
  2. 2. Key Words <ul><li>Define the following terms in your own words and then with the definition from the back of your text. </li></ul><ul><li>Plates </li></ul><ul><li>Plate tectonics </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><li>Seismologist </li></ul><ul><li>Convection currents </li></ul><ul><li>Subduction zones </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic time </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>All the earth’s surface is made up of different landforms-mountains, valleys, hills, plains, and lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>How did all these landforms get there? </li></ul><ul><li>What caused the earth to be this way? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the earth shaped and built? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What we are going to look at in this chapter… The Geologic age of the Earth The ability of parts of the Earth’s crust to move around How volcanoes and earthquakes are formed by plate tectonics
  5. 5. Moving Continents: The Theory of Plate Tectonics <ul><li>Six major plates cover the Earth’s surface. These plates are like large slabs of rock that make up the Earth’s crust (Outer layer of the earth) </li></ul><ul><li>These plates have been moving around under the Earth’s surface for billions of years because of forces called PLATE TECTONICS. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The movement of the plates is caused by convection currents coming from the earth’s core. </li></ul><ul><li>These currents can cause plates to move apart or come together. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Convection currents
  8. 8. Show slide show of plate tectonics (2) Teachers domain Plate Tectonics: Alfred Wegener
  9. 9. Movement of plates
  10. 10. Global Hotspots p. 15 <ul><li>When plates move apart from one another, magma rises through the open space and then cools, forming a ridge. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Converging Plates <ul><li>If plates come together, two things can happen: If they crash into each other, they form a mountain chain. </li></ul><ul><li>If one plate slides below another, a volcano is created. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Sudbury Basin
  13. 13. The Big Nickel, Sudbury ON
  14. 14. Most Volcanic activity
  15. 16. Geologic Eras
  16. 17. Take a trip into the Earth’s History http://www.scotese.com/
  17. 18. Geologic Time <ul><li>Precambrian Era </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth formed from a mass of floating gas </li></ul><ul><li>The era lasted 4 000 000 000 years </li></ul><ul><li>During this period, many cycles of mountain building and erosion took place </li></ul><ul><li>As millions of years passed, land and ocean developed </li></ul><ul><li>First living organisms were single celled and a few multi-celled developed at the end of the era </li></ul><ul><li>87% of the Earth’s history was during this time </li></ul>
  18. 19. Precambrian Era
  19. 20. Paleozoic Era <ul><li>Canadian Shield gradually worn away by forces of erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Eroded rock particles were called sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Sediments were moved by rivers and deposited in the shallow seas which surrounded the shield </li></ul><ul><li>Sediments were compressed (pushed together) into sedimentary rock </li></ul><ul><li>These rocks formed bedrock </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rock was pushed to form the Appalachian mountains </li></ul><ul><li>First animals were fish, shell fish and amphibians—fossils were formed </li></ul>
  20. 21. Mesozoic Era <ul><li>The Rockies started to form at the end of the era. These are also fold mountains formed by the folding of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate was warm, there were swamps and forests </li></ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs and reptiles were present </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation that fell to the ground got covered with water and sand </li></ul><ul><li>Over millions of years, the pressure of the sediments compressed into layers of vegetation and then turned into coal deposits, now found in Alberta and Saskatchewan. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Animals in the Mesozoic Era
  22. 23. Cenozoic Era <ul><li>Final changes that gave Canada its shape </li></ul><ul><li>More mountain folding and faulting </li></ul><ul><li>The sea disappeared and the land rose—the Prairies were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers-First activity 1 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>They acted like giant bulldozers that scraped and gouged the land </li></ul><ul><li>When they melted large amounts of clay, sand and silt were dumped into the Canadian Shield </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers created the great lakes and other rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciation happened 4 times during this era </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals now existed </li></ul>
  23. 24. Reptile Family Tree
  24. 25. Cenozoic Era <ul><li>Final changes that gave Canada its shape </li></ul><ul><li>More mountain folding and faulting </li></ul><ul><li>The sea disappeared and the land rose—the Prairies were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers-First activity 1 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>They acted like giant bulldozers that scraped and gouged the land </li></ul><ul><li>When they melted large amounts of clay, sand and silt were dumped into the Canadian Shield </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers created the great lakes and other rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciation happened 4 times during this era </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals now existed </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Four Eras of Geologic Time What do you notice? First Invertebrates First land plants First fish First reptiles First amphibians First dinosaurs, mammals, birds End of dinosaurs Millions of years ago 0- 100- 200- 300- 400- 500- 600- 700- 4600-
  26. 27. Homework <ul><li>Workbook: pps. 8 -11 </li></ul><ul><li>On page 8 start at number 3 and continue. </li></ul><ul><li>TEXT: pg. 19 #s 1-2 </li></ul>
  27. 28. Label the Landform regions and create a legend wb. P. 12

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