One estimate of global water distribution: Water volume, Water volume, Percent of fresh Percent of total Water source in cubic in cubic miles water water kilometersOceans, Seas, & 321,000,000 1,338,000,000 -- 96.5BaysIce caps, Glaciers,& Permanent 5,773,000 24,064,000 68.7 1.74SnowGroundwater 5,614,000 23,400,000 -- 1.7 Fresh 2,526,000 10,530,000 30.1 0.76 Saline 3,088,000 12,870,000 -- 0.94Soil Moisture 3,959 16,500 0.05 0.001Ground Ice & 71,970 300,000 0.86 0.022PermafrostLakes 42,320 176,400 -- 0.013 Fresh 21,830 91,000 0.26 0.007 Saline 20,490 85,400 -- 0.006Atmosphere 3,095 12,900 0.04 0.001Swamp Water 2,752 11,470 0.03 0.0008Rivers 509 2,120 0.006 0.0002Biological Water 269 1,120 0.003 0.0001Total 332,500,000 1,386,000,000 - 100Source: Gleick, P. H., 1996: Water resources. In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, ed. by S. H. Schneider, Oxford University Press,New York, vol. 2, pp.817-823.
Users are Agriculture (agro-ecosystem) Municipal Supply IndustriesThreats Over-exploitation Pollution: Municipal wastewater, Industries: Agriculture (fertilizers, herbicides & pesticides)
CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: AN ALTERNATIVETECHNOLOGY FOR TREATING POLLUTED WATERS
WETLAND APPLICATIONS PHYOREMEDIATION BANK STABILIZATION BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
Phytoremidiation: 2 Case Studies» Treatment of Duck pond water in SMS School, Jaipur» Bioremediation of Textile Dye Wastewater in Sanganer
Microbial community: 1. FungiPerformance of pure cultures of 12 fungal species after 7 days growth inPDA containing acid brown dye (500 mg/L) Growth Medium Medium Mycelium color after Original mycelium Conclusion:Fungus decolorisa 7 days color Biosorption tionAspergillus flavus Moderate Brown Moderate Base brownish Pale base ProminentAspergillus niger Moderate Brown Prominent Blackish brown Blackish ProminentAspergillus ochracious Moderate Brown Prominent Pale brown Pale ProminentCladosporium Luxuriant Brown Prominent Greyish brown Grey Prominent cladosporioidesCladosporium Poor Brown Poor Dark green to Dark green to Present sphaerospermum mottled mottled (not evident)Curvularia lunata Moderate Brown Moderate Blackish Blackish brown ProminentDrechslera tetramera Luxuriant Brown Prominent Black thick matte Black thick matte Not evidentFusarium culmorum Moderate Brown No clearing White White NilFusarium oxysporum Moderate Brown Moderate Pale brown White ProminentP. chrysosporium Luxuriant Brown Prominent Brownish White ProminentRhizopus sps. Luxuriant Brown Prominent Brownish White to pale ProminentTrichoderma Luxuriant Brown Prominent Greenish brown Green Prominent 9 species were found prominent in biosorption of dyes
Bacterial counts (cfu) in the inflow and bioreactor and wetland outflows. Counts/ml Wastewater Inflow 4.4x106 – 23.04x107 Bioreactor outflow 14.67x106 – 69.97x107 Wetland outflow 6x106 – 29.87x1072Bacillus species dominant in the community werefound prominent in dye decolourization in laboratorystudies
Advantages•Low construction cost (Rs. 3,00,000/ETP)•All inputs indigenously available•Easy to operate by a non-matriculate person•Low energy requirements•Low maintenance cost: 5 Rs / 1000L (1m3)inclusive of all expenditures•Not specific for a particular brand of dyes.Effectively treated wastewater containing Rapiddyes, Aniline, Direct dyes, Sulphur dyes andReactive dyes during the study period
• Biomanipulation: Includes modification in food chain• We have applied it Check dam wherein all fish were killed due to withdrawal of water in 2006-07.• We introduced duckweeds and Ceratophyllum in the dam in 2005 covering about 30% lake.• Grazers include Daphnia during winters while Moina in warmer periods.• Presently, water is very clean.
Biodiversity refers to three levels of variability of life:• Different types of ecosystems• Different species• Diversity of genetic make up both within and among species
• DISTRIBUTION – Diversity of terrestrial species increases from the poles to the equator but this pattern is not reflected for marine biodiversity. – Tropical rainforest covering about 7%of the Earth’s surface may contain 50%of all terrestrial species exiting on the Earth. – Marine diversity though not as well documented as the terrestrial, is probably far greater. 43 of the 70 phyla of all life forms are found in the ocean.
Importance of biodiversityIt provides:Potential source of food, medicine and industrial materials.• 80% of world food supply is provided by fewer than two dozen of plant and animal species. 25% of all medicines available today are derived from tropical plants.4/5 of human population in the developing countries rely on traditional medicines , mostly derived from tropical plants.• Fish alone provides 40% of the animal protein for 60% of the world’s population living along the coastal regions.• Vital services such as renewing the earth atmosphere, absorbing pollution and maintaining soil fertility• Ethical and spiritual inspiration for many societies.Without genetic variability, life loses its ability to survive change- a quality known as adaptation
Why to conserve biodiversity?Extinction rate of species:• Normal: 0.1 species /day• Present: 100 species /day (1000 times)Species at risk:• About 10% of temperate region plant species• 11% of world’s 9000 bird species• Destruction of forests in the tropics threatens 1,30,000 species which live no where.• 50% 0f the world mangroves and now coral reef• 9 of the 17 fishing grounds of the world are on the way to exhaustion
Biodiversity at a GlanceEstimated number of species in the world and theirscarcity Group No. of Total no. of % of No. of % ofS No identified species identifie scarce identifie species d species species d scarce1 Mammals, 14,484 15,210 95 728 5 reptiles & amphibians2 Birds 9,040 9,225 98 683 83 Fish 19,056 21,000 90 472 34 Plants 322,311 480,000 67 - -5 Insects 751,000 30000,000 3 895 <16 Other 276,594 3000,000 9 530 <1 invertebrates & microorganisms7 Total 1392,485 33,525,435 4 - -
Endemic Animal speciesMammals: 79Birds: 44Reptiles: 15Amphibians: 3Endemic plant species: 1500In situ ConservationNational Parks: 69Sanctuaries: 399Total area conserved: 1, 30, 000 km2 (about 4% of total land area)Ex situ Conservation: Collection & preservation of genetic resourcesNational Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi for wildrelatives of crop plants;National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, KarnalNational Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow
Categories of fundamental human factors contributing to the erosion ofbiological diversity. Factor Example of impact on conservation S No, 1 Population growth Demographic pressure 2 Poverty Hunger, deforestation, trading of species in danger of extinction, lack of popular support 3 Bad perception Desire of quick results and negation of failure in the long term 4 Anthropocentralism Absence of support for non-utilization causes 5 Cultural transitions Unsustained management of resources during colonization and quick social changes 6 Economy Absence of planning as a result of the internationalization of markets and the erratic prices of the goods. 7 Implication of policies Social crisis, wars, corruption, non-fulfillment of law
Developed countries relatively poorer inbiodiversity have improved their quality of lifeat the expense of biodiversity, and in mostcases that of developing countries.
Causes of biodiversity Loss in Tropical Countries of Asia•Deforestation has divided wild life in to isolated groups incapableto combat natural disasters. It has also led to about 65% habitatloss, being alarming in Bangladesh (94%), Honkong (95%), SriLanka (85%) and Vietnam (80%)•Inbreeding due to loss of corridors (migration routes)•Illegal trades of wildlife to Europe (import birds), North Americaand some Asian countries such as Japan, Taiwan and Honkong(import skin of snakes and cats)•Wild life Hunting for pleasure and to satiate taste buds(antelopes, wild pigs and even birds)•Application of wildlife products in aphorizing medicines such asrhinoceros horn and tiger bones
Extinction rate of species• Normal: 0.1 species /day• Present: 100 species /day (1000 times)Species at risk:• About 10% of temperate region plant species• 11% of world’s 9000 bird species• Destruction of forests in the tropics threatens 1, 30,000species which live no where.• 50 % 0f the world mangroves and now coral reef• 9 of the 17 fishing grounds of the world are on the way toexhaustion
FOSTERING OF BIODIVERSITY• Our everyday attitudes can help conserve the plant diversity• Protect natural spaces and farmlands on the outskirt of cities• Replant burned areas with local species• Hang artificial nests for insect eating birds• Stop the introduction of exotic species• Create orchards in public gardens in order to foster the population of the worlds that seek refuge in urban areas• During periods of bad weather for example in winter hang feeding boxes in private and public gardens• Breed wild animals in captivity (fish, aquatic insects, butterfly) for their reintroduction in to their natural habitat• Spread out the spores when picking mushroom