Innovative approches for solving


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Innovative approches for solving

  2. 2. Important Natural Resources to Sustain Life on the Earth Water Soil Biodiversity
  3. 3. Water
  4. 4. One estimate of global water distribution: Water volume, Water volume, Percent of fresh Percent of total Water source in cubic in cubic miles water water kilometersOceans, Seas, & 321,000,000 1,338,000,000 -- 96.5BaysIce caps, Glaciers,& Permanent 5,773,000 24,064,000 68.7 1.74SnowGroundwater 5,614,000 23,400,000 -- 1.7 Fresh 2,526,000 10,530,000 30.1 0.76 Saline 3,088,000 12,870,000 -- 0.94Soil Moisture 3,959 16,500 0.05 0.001Ground Ice & 71,970 300,000 0.86 0.022PermafrostLakes 42,320 176,400 -- 0.013 Fresh 21,830 91,000 0.26 0.007 Saline 20,490 85,400 -- 0.006Atmosphere 3,095 12,900 0.04 0.001Swamp Water 2,752 11,470 0.03 0.0008Rivers 509 2,120 0.006 0.0002Biological Water 269 1,120 0.003 0.0001Total 332,500,000 1,386,000,000 - 100Source: Gleick, P. H., 1996: Water resources. In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, ed. by S. H. Schneider, Oxford University Press,New York, vol. 2, pp.817-823.
  5. 5. Users are Agriculture (agro-ecosystem) Municipal Supply IndustriesThreats Over-exploitation Pollution: Municipal wastewater, Industries: Agriculture (fertilizers, herbicides & pesticides)
  8. 8. Phytoremidiation: 2 Case Studies» Treatment of Duck pond water in SMS School, Jaipur» Bioremediation of Textile Dye Wastewater in Sanganer
  9. 9. Duckpond: Clean water
  10. 10. Duckpond: Polluted water
  11. 11. 1.Duck pond: 13,000L Water2. Bioreactor: 2 Chambers2a. Fluidized bed2b. Packed bedHydraulic: Vertical UpflowRT: 12h3. Wetlands3a. Typha + Lemna3b. CeratophyllumRT: 36hInstallation : 2003
  12. 12. Bioreactor
  13. 13. Constructed WetlandTypha + Lemna
  14. 14. Characteristics of untreated and treated duckpond waterParameter Untreated TreatedTransparency Turbid ClearOdour Slight Odorous AbsentpH 7.4 7.4EC (m/mho/cm) 0.7 0.6COD (ppm) 150-200 30-50BOD (ppm) 75-100 10-30
  15. 15. Case Study :2Bioremediation of Textile dye Wastewaters of Sanganer , Jaipur
  16. 16. Current Practice ofWastewater Management• Mostly disposed off Untreated or after improper treatment due to expensive technology not affordable by Small Scale Industries
  17. 17. Traditional Block Printing
  18. 18. Screen Printing
  19. 19. Washing of Screen After Printing
  20. 20. Dyes Fixation & Washing
  21. 21. Discharge of Dye wastewater in Pools
  22. 22. Discharge of dye wastewater in drain
  23. 23. Biological Effluent Treatment Plant
  24. 24. Microbial community: 1. FungiPerformance of pure cultures of 12 fungal species after 7 days growth inPDA containing acid brown dye (500 mg/L) Growth Medium Medium Mycelium color after Original mycelium Conclusion:Fungus decolorisa 7 days color Biosorption tionAspergillus flavus Moderate Brown Moderate Base brownish Pale base ProminentAspergillus niger Moderate Brown Prominent Blackish brown Blackish ProminentAspergillus ochracious Moderate Brown Prominent Pale brown Pale ProminentCladosporium Luxuriant Brown Prominent Greyish brown Grey Prominent cladosporioidesCladosporium Poor Brown Poor Dark green to Dark green to Present sphaerospermum mottled mottled (not evident)Curvularia lunata Moderate Brown Moderate Blackish Blackish brown ProminentDrechslera tetramera Luxuriant Brown Prominent Black thick matte Black thick matte Not evidentFusarium culmorum Moderate Brown No clearing White White NilFusarium oxysporum Moderate Brown Moderate Pale brown White ProminentP. chrysosporium Luxuriant Brown Prominent Brownish White ProminentRhizopus sps. Luxuriant Brown Prominent Brownish White to pale ProminentTrichoderma Luxuriant Brown Prominent Greenish brown Green Prominent 9 species were found prominent in biosorption of dyes
  25. 25. Bacterial counts (cfu) in the inflow and bioreactor and wetland outflows. Counts/ml Wastewater Inflow 4.4x106 – 23.04x107 Bioreactor outflow 14.67x106 – 69.97x107 Wetland outflow 6x106 – 29.87x1072Bacillus species dominant in the community werefound prominent in dye decolourization in laboratorystudies
  26. 26. Advantages•Low construction cost (Rs. 3,00,000/ETP)•All inputs indigenously available•Easy to operate by a non-matriculate person•Low energy requirements•Low maintenance cost: 5 Rs / 1000L (1m3)inclusive of all expenditures•Not specific for a particular brand of dyes.Effectively treated wastewater containing Rapiddyes, Aniline, Direct dyes, Sulphur dyes andReactive dyes during the study period
  28. 28. • Biomanipulation: Includes modification in food chain• We have applied it Check dam wherein all fish were killed due to withdrawal of water in 2006-07.• We introduced duckweeds and Ceratophyllum in the dam in 2005 covering about 30% lake.• Grazers include Daphnia during winters while Moina in warmer periods.• Presently, water is very clean.
  29. 29. Check Dam
  30. 30. MansagarLake Water
  31. 31. Check dam Water
  32. 32. Daphnia
  33. 33. Moina
  34. 34. Vorticella
  35. 35. Mesocyclops
  36. 36. SoilPedogenesis: Soil does not form overnight. Very slow process;may takes thousands and in some cases even millions of yearsImportance• Provide anchorage to plants•Source of mineral nutrients
  37. 37. Threats• Erosion• Waterlogging• Salinization• Pollution
  38. 38. Wetlands for Bank Stabilization
  40. 40. Before Plantation
  41. 41. 2. Lake Bank & Islands Lake Bank: Length = About 5km Width = 5-10mMarshy• Arundo donax (narsal)• Cyperus involucratus (Umbrella palm)• Pandanus (Kewra)• Phragmites karka (reeds)• Typha angustata (cattails)• Cyperus littoralis• Cyperus tuberosus• Ranunculus sp.• Cyperus alopecuroides• Scirpus sp.• SachharumNaturally Occurring• 1. Eclipta prostrata (Bhringraj)• 2. Alternanthera sessilis• 3. Paspalum sp.
  42. 42. After Plantation
  43. 43. Island
  44. 44. Eggs of Spot Billed Duck
  45. 45. Biodiversity: Scope & Conservation
  46. 46. Biodiversity refers to three levels of variability of life:• Different types of ecosystems• Different species• Diversity of genetic make up both within and among species
  47. 47. • DISTRIBUTION – Diversity of terrestrial species increases from the poles to the equator but this pattern is not reflected for marine biodiversity. – Tropical rainforest covering about 7%of the Earth’s surface may contain 50%of all terrestrial species exiting on the Earth. – Marine diversity though not as well documented as the terrestrial, is probably far greater. 43 of the 70 phyla of all life forms are found in the ocean.
  48. 48. Importance of biodiversityIt provides:Potential source of food, medicine and industrial materials.• 80% of world food supply is provided by fewer than two dozen of plant and animal species. 25% of all medicines available today are derived from tropical plants.4/5 of human population in the developing countries rely on traditional medicines , mostly derived from tropical plants.• Fish alone provides 40% of the animal protein for 60% of the world’s population living along the coastal regions.• Vital services such as renewing the earth atmosphere, absorbing pollution and maintaining soil fertility• Ethical and spiritual inspiration for many societies.Without genetic variability, life loses its ability to survive change- a quality known as adaptation
  49. 49. Why to conserve biodiversity?Extinction rate of species:• Normal: 0.1 species /day• Present: 100 species /day (1000 times)Species at risk:• About 10% of temperate region plant species• 11% of world’s 9000 bird species• Destruction of forests in the tropics threatens 1,30,000 species which live no where.• 50% 0f the world mangroves and now coral reef• 9 of the 17 fishing grounds of the world are on the way to exhaustion
  50. 50. Biodiversity at a GlanceEstimated number of species in the world and theirscarcity Group No. of Total no. of % of No. of % ofS No identified species identifie scarce identifie species d species species d scarce1 Mammals, 14,484 15,210 95 728 5 reptiles & amphibians2 Birds 9,040 9,225 98 683 83 Fish 19,056 21,000 90 472 34 Plants 322,311 480,000 67 - -5 Insects 751,000 30000,000 3 895 <16 Other 276,594 3000,000 9 530 <1 invertebrates & microorganisms7 Total 1392,485 33,525,435 4 - -
  51. 51. INDIA’S BIODIVERSITY Plants AnimalsFlowering plants : 15,000 Insects: 50000Algae:1600 Molluscs: 4000Fungi: 20000 Fishes 2000Bryophytes: 2700 Amphibians: 140Pteridophytes: 600 Reptiles: 420Unidentified: 5100 Birds: 1200Total = 45,000 Mammals: 340 Unidentified: 91,900 Total = 1,50,000
  52. 52. Endemic Animal speciesMammals: 79Birds: 44Reptiles: 15Amphibians: 3Endemic plant species: 1500In situ ConservationNational Parks: 69Sanctuaries: 399Total area conserved: 1, 30, 000 km2 (about 4% of total land area)Ex situ Conservation: Collection & preservation of genetic resourcesNational Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi for wildrelatives of crop plants;National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, KarnalNational Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow
  53. 53. Categories of fundamental human factors contributing to the erosion ofbiological diversity. Factor Example of impact on conservation S No, 1 Population growth Demographic pressure 2 Poverty Hunger, deforestation, trading of species in danger of extinction, lack of popular support 3 Bad perception Desire of quick results and negation of failure in the long term 4 Anthropocentralism Absence of support for non-utilization causes 5 Cultural transitions Unsustained management of resources during colonization and quick social changes 6 Economy Absence of planning as a result of the internationalization of markets and the erratic prices of the goods. 7 Implication of policies Social crisis, wars, corruption, non-fulfillment of law
  54. 54. Developed countries relatively poorer inbiodiversity have improved their quality of lifeat the expense of biodiversity, and in mostcases that of developing countries.
  55. 55. Causes of biodiversity Loss in Tropical Countries of Asia•Deforestation has divided wild life in to isolated groups incapableto combat natural disasters. It has also led to about 65% habitatloss, being alarming in Bangladesh (94%), Honkong (95%), SriLanka (85%) and Vietnam (80%)•Inbreeding due to loss of corridors (migration routes)•Illegal trades of wildlife to Europe (import birds), North Americaand some Asian countries such as Japan, Taiwan and Honkong(import skin of snakes and cats)•Wild life Hunting for pleasure and to satiate taste buds(antelopes, wild pigs and even birds)•Application of wildlife products in aphorizing medicines such asrhinoceros horn and tiger bones
  56. 56. Extinction rate of species• Normal: 0.1 species /day• Present: 100 species /day (1000 times)Species at risk:• About 10% of temperate region plant species• 11% of world’s 9000 bird species• Destruction of forests in the tropics threatens 1, 30,000species which live no where.• 50 % 0f the world mangroves and now coral reef• 9 of the 17 fishing grounds of the world are on the way toexhaustion
  57. 57. FOSTERING OF BIODIVERSITY• Our everyday attitudes can help conserve the plant diversity• Protect natural spaces and farmlands on the outskirt of cities• Replant burned areas with local species• Hang artificial nests for insect eating birds• Stop the introduction of exotic species• Create orchards in public gardens in order to foster the population of the worlds that seek refuge in urban areas• During periods of bad weather for example in winter hang feeding boxes in private and public gardens• Breed wild animals in captivity (fish, aquatic insects, butterfly) for their reintroduction in to their natural habitat• Spread out the spores when picking mushroom
  58. 58. Sitaram Temple (Scared Grove): Fostering Biodiversity
  59. 59. Plum Headed Parakeet
  60. 60. Commiphora
  61. 61. Anogiessus Regeneration
  62. 62. Invasion of Exotic Species Prosopis juliflora: Mansagar lake
  63. 63. Control in Lake
  64. 64. Juliflora on Foot Hill
  65. 65. Juliflora: Nahargarh hill top
  66. 66. Waterhyacinth Verbesina
  67. 67. Parthenium
  68. 68. Waterhyacinth mat in Mansagar lake
  69. 69. Biodiversity Conservation Mongoose
  70. 70. Varanus Snake Bird feeding on Arundo seeds Peahen with chicks
  71. 71. Mulberry Guava
  72. 72. Zizyphus GularJamun
  73. 73. THANKYOU