Matthew Rylander
Senior Project Engineer
PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop
May 6, 2014
Increasing Hosting Capacity ...
2© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Overview
Objective
• Demonstrate, via simulation, hig...
3© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Method for Analysis
Step 1: Create thousands of possi...
4© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Step 1: PV Deployment
Baseline – No PV
20% Customers ...
5© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Step 2: PV Impact Analysis
• Voltage Magnitude
– Prim...
6© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Step 3: Impact of Advanced Inverters
PV at Unity Powe...
7© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Advanced Inverter Functions
• Absorbing reactive powe...
8© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Advanced Inverter Control, cont.
• Inverter voltage d...
9© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utility Feeder
Feeder
Characteristics
Feeder
Voltage ...
10© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utility-Scale PV at Maximum Load
Primary Voltage Mag...
11© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utility-Scale PV at Maximum Load
Primary Voltage Dev...
12© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utility-Scale PV at Maximum Load
Feeder Head Demand
...
13© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Utility-Scale PV
Advanced Inverter Summary
0 2000 40...
14© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Control Off
Volt-Var 1
Vo...
15© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Potential Adverse Impacts Due to Increased
Var Flow
...
16© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Inverter Settings are Critical
%AvailableVars
% volt...
17© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
• Feeder hosting capacity can increase with ...
18© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.
Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity
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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Increasing Hosting Capacity with Advanced Inverter Functions: Matt Rylander, EPRI

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Increasing Hosting Capacity with Advanced Inverter Functions: Matt Rylander, EPRI

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2014 PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop: Increasing Hosting Capacity with Advanced Inverter Functions: Matt Rylander, EPRI

  1. 1. Matthew Rylander Senior Project Engineer PV Distribution System Modeling Workshop May 6, 2014 Increasing Hosting Capacity with Advanced Inverter Functions
  2. 2. 2© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Overview Objective • Demonstrate, via simulation, higher feeder PV hosting capacity via use of advanced inverter functions Outline • Method for analysis – Possible PV deployments – Advanced inverter functions – Feeder end-use load – Feeder response metrics • Analysis results • Summary of findings
  3. 3. 3© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Method for Analysis Step 1: Create thousands of possible PV deployments – Utility-scale PV – Customer-owned PV Step 2: Run all PV deployments from zero to full output while holding all controls fixed – Observe feeder-wide impact • Voltage Magnitude • Voltage Deviation – Repeat for different load conditions Step 3: Repeat step 2 with advanced inverter functions
  4. 4. 4© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Step 1: PV Deployment Baseline – No PV 20% Customers with PV 30% Customers with PV 50% Customers with PV Beyond… PV Systems Process is repeated 100’s of times to capture many possible scenarios
  5. 5. 5© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Step 2: PV Impact Analysis • Voltage Magnitude – Primary voltage nodes should be < 1.05 Vpu – Secondary voltage nodes should be < 1.05 Vpu • Voltage Deviation – Primary voltage nodes should be < 0.03 Vpu – Secondary voltage nodes should be < 0.05 Vpu 1.035 1.04 1.045 1.05 1.055 1.06 1.065 1.07 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 MaximumFeederVoltage(Vpu) Total PV Penetraionof Deployment (MW) Minimum Hosting Capacity Maximum Hosting Capacity A B C Worst-CaseResultforEach UniquePVDeployment Increasing penetration (MW) Threshold of violation A – All penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location B – Some penetrations in this region are acceptable, site specific C – No penetrations in this region are acceptable, regardless of location Details on analysis method: Stochastic Analysis to Determine Feeder Hosting Capacity for Distributed Solar PV. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2012. 1026640. MaximumFeederVoltages(pu)
  6. 6. 6© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Step 3: Impact of Advanced Inverters PV at Unity Power Factor PV with Volt/var Control 2500 cases shown Each point = highest primary voltage ANSI voltage limit ANSI voltage limit Increasing penetration (kW) MaximumFeederVoltage(pu) MaximumFeederVoltages(pu) Increasing penetration (kW) No observable violations regardless of PV size/location Possible violations based upon PV size/location Observable violations occur regardless of size/location Minimum Hosting Capacity Maximum Hosting Capacity Minimum Hosting Capacity Max Hosting Capacity
  7. 7. 7© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Advanced Inverter Functions • Absorbing reactive power at constant power factor – Unity power factor (Base case, control off) – 98% power factor – 95% power factor • Inverter voltage determines reactive power output Volt-Var 1 Volt-Var 2
  8. 8. 8© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Advanced Inverter Control, cont. • Inverter voltage determines active power output • Dynamic control of reactive power output based on voltage deviation Volt-Watt 1 Volt-Watt 2 0 100 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 WattsGenerated(%) Local Voltage (pu) 0 100 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 WattsGenerated(%) Local Voltage (pu) -50 0 50 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 ReactiveCurrent(%) Local Voltage Change (pu)
  9. 9. 9© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Utility Feeder Feeder Characteristics Feeder Voltage (kV) 12.47 Peak Load ~ 6 MW Minimum Load 0.7 Existing PV (MW) 1.7 Substation LTC Yes Feeder Regulators 3 Capacitors 2 – fixed 3 – voltage controlled Total Circuit Miles 58 Feeder “Footprint” 35 mi2 Sub Reg Cap
  10. 10. 10© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Utility-Scale PV at Maximum Load Primary Voltage Magnitude • Dyn-Var and Volt-Watt 2 controls help is minimal • Volt-Watt 1, Volt-Var 1, and 95% pf controls help limit voltage magnitude Line indicates average impact from all PV deployments 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2 1.22 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 MaximumFeederVoltage(pu) Total PV (kW)
  11. 11. 11© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Utility-Scale PV at Maximum Load Primary Voltage Deviation • Dyn-Var and Volt-Watt 2 controls help in minimal • Volt-Watt 1, Volt-Var 1, and 95% pf controls help limit voltage deviation
  12. 12. 12© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Utility-Scale PV at Maximum Load Feeder Head Demand • Volt-Watt controls limits PV active power output • All other controls only impact the reactive power demand – Bulk power system to provide or local resources – 95% pf and Volt-Var 1 require the most reactive power -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 FeederPower(kW) Total PV (kW) Control Off 98%pf Volt-Var 1 Volt-Var 2 95%pf Volt-Watt 1 Dyn-Var Volt-Watt 2 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 FeederPower(kvar) Total PV (kW) Control Off 98%pf Volt-Var 1 Volt-Var 2 95%pf Volt-Watt 1 Dyn-Var Volt-Watt 2
  13. 13. 13© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Utility-Scale PV Advanced Inverter Summary 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Control Off Volt-Var 1 Volt-Var 2 98%pf 95%pf Volt-Watt 1 Volt-Watt 2 Dyn-Var Feeder Hosting Capacity (kW) Control No observable violations regardless of PV size/location Possible violations based upon PV size/location Observable violations occur regardless of size/location
  14. 14. 14© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Control Off Volt-Var 1 Volt-Var 2 98%pf 95%pf Volt-Watt 1 Volt-Watt 2 Dyn-Var Feeder Hosting Capacity (kW) Control Customer-Owned PV Advanced Inverter Summary No observable violations regardless of PV size/location Possible violations based upon PV size/location Observable violations occur regardless of size/location
  15. 15. 15© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Potential Adverse Impacts Due to Increased Var Flow PV @ Unity Power Factor PV @ 0.98 Power Factor PV @ 0.95 Power Factor Hosting Capacity Based on Feeder Overvoltage (kW) Hosting Capacity Based on LTC/Line Regulator Operations (kW) Increased hosting capacity Decreased hosting capacity 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 P3 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 P3 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 P3 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 P3 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 P3 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 P3 No observable violations regardless of PV size/location Possible violations based upon PV size/location Observable violations occur regardless of size/location
  16. 16. 16© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Inverter Settings are Critical %AvailableVars % voltage 100% 0.95 1.05 -100% 1.0V %AvailableVars % voltage 100% 0.99 1.01 -100% 1.0 Volt-var A 1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 PVTerminalVoltage(pu) Time (seconds) 1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 PVTerminalVoltage(pu) Time (seconds) Unity Power Factor Volt-var A Volt-var B 1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 PVTerminalVoltage(pu) Time (seconds) If wrong setpoints are used, adverse impacts can occur 0 0.5 1 PVActive Power Volt-var B
  17. 17. 17© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary • Feeder hosting capacity can increase with advanced inverter functions – Volt-Var and off-nominal power factor provides the greatest benefit • Volt-Var and power factor control requires reactive power resources – Requiring significant reactive power can have adverse impact • Inverter settings must be chosen carefully
  18. 18. 18© 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity

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