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2014 Wind Turbine Blade Workshop- Haag

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2014 Wind Turbine Blade Workshop- Haag

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2014 Wind Turbine Blade Workshop- Haag

  1. 1. By SECURE ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION BY A LEAP IN LEADING EDGE PROTECTION OF WIND TURBINE BLADES SANDIA BLADE WORKSHOP 2014 Albuquerque, NM Michael Drachmann Haag All rights reserved, February 2013
  2. 2. SECURE ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION BY A LEAP IN LEADING EDGE PROTECTION OF WIND TURBINE BLADES 1.Introducing LM Wind Power 2.Leading Edge Erosion is Affecting the Cost of Energy 3.Aerodynamic Testing and Results 4.Understanding Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) 5.Rain Erosion Testing and Results 6.The Journey towards Excellence 7.Conclusions and Outlook
  3. 3. 2013 ... the longest track record of supply and innovation in the industry… From technology pioneering to global industrial excellence 1st generation Lightning- Protection; Vortex generators VARTM vacuum infusion technology Pre-bending The world’s longest rotor blade introduced; LM Blade Monitoring FutureBlade technology (carbon/glass hybrid LM the world’s largest manufacturer of rotor blades Rotor blade production starts in Denmark Wind tunnel inaugurated Tailor-made aerodynamics with LM profiles Establishing a leading position through technology excellence and industrialization 1989 1996 1999 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2010 LM Drain-Receptor; LM Diverter-Strips; Multi-Receptor lightning protection; LM SuperRoot 1978 2008 GloBlade Introduction 2011 Newer longest blade record (LM 73.5) 2012 Launch of GloBlade 3 2013 Manufacturing 2.0 New Offshore blades for China (73+, 66) >160,000 blades delivered ~23% of global installed base 1978 ProBlade Collision Barrier for improved leading edge protection
  4. 4. Introducing ProBladeTM Collision Barrier ProBladeTM Collision Barrier is a new leading edge protective material system with outstanding erosion properties. Highly flexible 2-component solvent-free UV-resistant polyurethane based paint system. Proprietary application procedure developed and solely owned by LM Wind Power. It is applied where it is needed – directly at the leading edge. ……taking advantage of our reliable and cost efficient polyester gel coat surface on the rest of the blade surface. Offering minimum aerodynamic influence and less noise generation than tape.
  5. 5. …..leading edge erosion is affecting the Cost of Energy….. Resulting in increased O&M cost and signifcant loss in AEP
  6. 6. Airline layout: Top view: 37 m x 14 m LM Wind Power LSWT wind tunnel tests: Objective: Minimize aerodynamic impact of the leading edge protection system Test: LM airfoil (24% relative thickness) with: Clean LE ProBlade PPT Zigzag tape (5%c suction and 10%c pressure side) Aerodynamic Testing at LM Wind Power •Max wind speed: 105 m/s •Reynolds number: up to 6 million •Turbulence intensity: 0.1%
  7. 7. Aerodynamic Results •Adding leading edge protection has an impact on aerodynamic performance compared to a clean airfoil. •PPT may result in drag increase up to 100% (loses in AEP of around 1.5% compared to the clean blade). •ProBlade application has been optimized to minimize any aerodynamic effects, resulting in loses in AEP of less than 0.7%. •Aerodynamic impact of leading edge protection systems will in general be much lower than an eroded LE (worse than zigzag tape). Maximum lift decreases Drag increases
  8. 8. WDE affecting parameters Blade Tip Speed Material Properties Turbine location (on/off-shore) Droplet size distribution at site Annual rainfall Capacity factor of turbine Configuration and build-up of base material What is affecting Water Droplet Erosion (WDE)? Droplet properties Diameter: d Density: ρL Angle of attack: θ Speed of impact: v θ Material properties Density: ρS Strain at Failure Toughness Tear strength Modulus of Elasticity: ES
  9. 9. Increasing Tip Speeds…. Alstom Haliade 150-6MW XEMC Darwind XD115-4.5 MW
  10. 10. New markets are evolving…. Figure shows the mean annual rainfall (mm) all over the world Source: Defence Standard 00-35 Part 4 Section 6 p. 190 NASA, “Precipitation, Fog And Icing”
  11. 11. Data driven learning experience….. Site Kirkby Moor, UK Region Europe Location On-shore Blade Length [m] 17 Tip Speed [m/s] 62 Rainfall [mm/year] See graph Average wind speed [m/s] 6,75 Mean Daily Sun Irradiation [J/m2] 65 Annual Average Temperature [°C] 9,83 Leading Edge Material Polyester Gel Coat Operating Time [Years] 18 Average Tip Categorization at site 3,14
  12. 12. Initial turbine design – 1980-1990’s Current turbine design – 2000’s New turbine design – 2010’s Current RET Testing Instantenous impact force is increasing
  13. 13. Principle: Whirling Arm Duration: Variable Vroot: 123 m/s Vcenter: 140 m/s Vtip: 157 m/s Rain: 30-35 mm/h Droplet size: 1-2 mm Temperature: 20-25°C ASTM G73 ISO (under development) Rain Erosion Testing at LM Wind Power
  14. 14. ProBlade® performance Gel-coat vs. PPT vs. ProBlade® ProBlade 5,4x vs PPT 54x vs Gel Coat Gel-coat 1x PPT 10x vs Gel Coat LM developed application method shows a 5,4 times increase in performance compared to PPT in accelerated rain erosion testing
  15. 15. Polyurethane Protective Tape - Failure Mechanism Mass removal Film Rupture Droplet Impact
  16. 16. The journey towards excellence…. Building the Foundation Using field data and analyzing extreme sites and operating conditions Fully correlated and validated leading edge erosion reliability models
  17. 17. Securing AEP is becoming harder with increasing tip speeds and markets evolving in harsher climates. Selecting the right leading edge protection is now more essential than ever before. Through field studies and theoretical understanding we now know what happens when water droplets collide with our blades. A new approach to experimental validation has assisted us in defining the correct Critical-to-Quality parameters for developing a reliable leading edge protection system. ProBlade offers a significant improvement in leading edge protection over known products when applied with LM’s proprietary application procedure. Furthermore, ProBlade has a clear aerodynamic advantage over PPT. ProBlade is running on selected prototype turbines to enable understanding of its life-time expectancy. Conclusions
  18. 18. 3D scanning is employed to get an exact replicate of the surface after leading edge erosion. This methodology is an enabling technology for improved understanding of the failure mechanisms behind water droplet erosion. Drone inspections are beginning to offer easier access to high quality field inspection of blades at lower cost. This technology is a key enabler in establishing prevententive maintenance schemes . LM Wind Power have already encountered this technology and received impressive data. Outlook
  19. 19. Erosion System Impact Energy Droplet size, Impact velocity, Impact angle Damping Behaviour Water film, Surface characteristics, Elasticity of base materiale Erosion Resistance of Material Hardness, Elasticity, Fatigue resistance, Ductility Secure Annual Energy Production by a leap in leading edge protection of wind turbine blades, by controlling and understanding the complete erosion system
  20. 20. Thank you for your time Contact details: Head quarters: Michael Drachmann Haag LM Wind Power Group Lead Engineer Jupitervej 6 Materials & Processes 6000 Kolding Denmark Tel +45 7984 0384 Tel + 45 79 84 00 00 Mob +45 51388384 Fax +45 79 80 00 01 E mdh@windpower.com E info@lmwindpower.com W lmwindpower.com Note: The contents of this presentation are confidential and may not be copied, distributed, published or reproduced in whole or in part, or disclosed or distributed by recipients to any other person.

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