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8th PV Performance Modeling and Monitoring Workshop

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21 gi 8th_pvpmc_talk_abq_final_ext_170508t19_new

  1. 1. www.gantner-environment.comPage 1 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Page 1 Optimized PV performance using state of the art monitoring for increased asset value 8th PV Performance Modelling and Monitoring Workshop Albuquerque; May 10th, 2017 5/18/2017Juergen Sutterlueti et al.
  2. 2. www.gantner-environment.comPage 2 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Outline 1 5/18/2017 Market trends 2 Gantner PV Business 3 Building blocks for “PV asset monitoring” 4 Real time data processing 5 Prediction (Mechanistic Power Model) 6 Plant Control – supportive functions for the grid 7 Outlook & Next Improvements
  3. 3. www.gantner-environment.comPage 3 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Source IRENA, 2016, Price erosion of Cost per MWh of PV Electricity Tender PV Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) between 2010 and 2016 How to measure PV performance and mitigate risk? 5/18/2017 PV Market: • Globally distributed • PV market conditions are harsh & dynamic • Extreme cost pressure vs. “similar quality” But still: • PV Assets are an attractive strategic investment and stable ROI is expected • PV Monitoring is the main source for Quality status and Risk reduction tool.
  4. 4. www.gantner-environment.comPage 4 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Gantner PV Business 5/18/2017 • A world leader in independent PV performance monitoring equipment and services • 3.6 GW sold, and over 110 customer projects being monitored by Gantner • Recent new customer contracts in key emerging markets, e.g. Egypt, Jordan • Global R&D partnerships with Sandia National Labs, Fraunhofer, TUV Rheinland, et al. • Over 32 local reps and 10 offices for Level 1 support worldwide; • Outdoor test facility for PV module characterization and analysis, located in Arizona, US
  5. 5. www.gantner-environment.comPage 5 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA gantner.webportal – Software as a Service Solutions Main benefits • One unified platform for effective and automated PV plant / Asset management • Vendor-independent, scalable PV plant monitoring • Real time data handling with advanced analytics and asset benchmark, KPIs • Effective O&M handling (Alarms, Document handling, issue management, reporting) reduces risk and O&M costs; IEC 61724 Ed.2:2017 ready • Optimized PV production leads to increased asset value and reduced risk • Provides baseline for energy prediction (day ahead), energy trading, etc. • Independent Data Archive Reduced Risk of Stranded Data, Increases Project Bankability 5/18/2017
  6. 6. www.gantner-environment.comPage 6 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Building blocks for “PV asset monitoring” (Analog) big data in context of Photovoltaics • Make it traceable • Do harmonized processing • Make it structured – but still agile • Allow real time operations (aggregation, filters, benchmark, corrections) • Comparison: Target vs. actual, prediction 5/18/2017
  7. 7. www.gantner-environment.comPage 7 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Data processing – real time E.g: 5000 channels per 10 MW to import and process 5/18/2017 Fast check to validate all measurements sensors, inverters, strings etc. – first as sensible, then good. Automated checks (real time), constant performance Regular sanity checks Multiple import data streams, standardized
  8. 8. www.gantner-environment.comPage 8 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Traceable data management and import Data processing - real time REAL time platform 5/18/2017 Multiple sources need harmonized data concept • Naming convention: ▪ For fast and easy use ▪ Structure: {Parameter}_{Modifier}-{Component}-{ID} Example: Pdc -Inv-1.1.1-1, Pdc_T-Inv-1.1.1-1 Gi-GiPyr-1.1 Idc-Mpp-1.01.01.03.1 • Color code & Unit convention • Filters/Limits: ▪ Run all data sets with standardized filters • Converter for 3rd party
  9. 9. www.gantner-environment.comPage 9 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Structure view 5/18/2017 • Automatic (visual) hint where issues are happening ▪ Bold lines show problems ▪ Warning: Orange, Alarm: Red, No issues: Green ▪ Fast validation check of all measurements (sensors, inverters, strings) • Possible by Inventory concept and Naming convention • Allows configuration changes • Good feedback during plant startup and commissioning (limits check, .. ) • Automatically rendered Structure • Real time calc from Module to Site Level
  10. 10. www.gantner-environment.comPage 10 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time data processing - Live Demonstration - (see Appendix for examples) 5/18/2017
  11. 11. www.gantner-environment.comPage 11 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Aggregation Aggregation - from PV Module up to site level 5/18/2017
  12. 12. www.gantner-environment.comPage 12 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Normalization Normalization / Deviation of Strings, SCB, Inverter 5/18/2017 Absolute Values: I MEASURED differs for larger and smaller arrays Normalized values: IMEASURED/INOMINAL show similar values
  13. 13. www.gantner-environment.comPage 13 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Benchmark I Different assets 5/18/2017
  14. 14. www.gantner-environment.comPage 14 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Benchmark II Different assets 5/18/2017
  15. 15. www.gantner-environment.comPage 15 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Benchmark – Table view 5/18/2017
  16. 16. www.gantner-environment.comPage 16 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Prediction I Mechanistic Power Model (all levels): Target vs. Actual 5/18/2017 more details : Ransome, S.; Sutterlueti, J.: „Choosing the best Empirical Model for predicting energy yield”; 7th PVPMC Workshop, SUPSI, Canobbio Switzerland, March 2017 https://www.slideshare.net/sandiaecis/15-2017-pvpmc7ransome170330t081corrected2- 74980695 We invite all interested people to join us in developing this further and also add it to IEC 61853, we are already working with several 3rd parties.  PMEASURED / PNOMINAL  PFIT / PNOMINAL Difference
  17. 17. www.gantner-environment.comPage 17 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Real time calculation: Prediction II Mechanistic Power Model (e.g. at all levels): Target vs. Actual; different levels 5/18/2017
  18. 18. www.gantner-environment.comPage 18 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA CONTROL level Plant Control – supportive functions for the grid Example Reference site in UK and R&D project • Control Function and date interface is a must for any inverter/storage concept • Open interfaces and protocols are key to enable efficient Operation • DNO requirements can all be fulfilled • Project: ▪ DNO: UK Power Networks, UK ▪ Size: 45,6 MW AC ▪ 1122 Inverters, 4 grid connection points • Full monitoring and control ▪ Absolute production constraint ▪ Power gradient constrain ▪ Voltage Control ▪ Reactive Power Control ▪ Power Factor Control ▪ Frequency Control ▪ Ramp rate limitation • Gantner Control is part of: ▪ ReWP – „Regelleistung durch Wind- und Photovoltaikparks“ (72.6MW, 15 plants) ▪ Members:
  19. 19. www.gantner-environment.comPage 19 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Outlook & Next Improvements • Improved operations and maintenance (O&M) capabilities • Estimation of the degradation rate • Detection and classification of failures, result of “Innovative Performance Monitoring System for Improved Reliability and Optimized Levelized Cost of Electricity” (IPERMON), with University of Cyprus • Capacity testing • PV production forecasting (component level) Software as a Service 5/18/2017
  20. 20. www.gantner-environment.comPage 20 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Outlook: Ready for Full Digitalization? • for future technology applications ▪ IoT, IoE, AI, Big Data analysis, Neural networks, preventive O&M ▪ PlugIn ready • Cloud (public, private, local cloud), scalable • Open interfaces: ▪ can all other devices: Ready for the future • 3rd party hardware I/O integration • New and • Options for paid services as ▪ Pushes applications, data and computing power (services) to the logical extremes of a network. ▪ Edge computing layer compute, storage, and networking. ▪ Units will be which becomes the primary job of the device. Device and platform requirements for Digitalization
  21. 21. www.gantner-environment.comPage 21 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Summary Asset Monitoring Solutions should consist of • Independent & open interfaces • Granular data collection • Harmonized & traceable data sets (secondary market sales) • Easy to use data analysis tools, including financial KPI’s • Provide tools for O&M Engineers and Investors/Owners • One unified platform for effective and automated PV plant management • Investor's profit is dominated by OPEX  O&M strategy and efficiency is key success factor (Post-FiT/ITC market) • Metrics will focus on “How much was Not produced" when you focus on IPP, PPA or NetMetering projects 5/18/2017
  22. 22. www.gantner-environment.comPage 22 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Thank you very much for your attention! Sample projects out of 3.6 GWp with turn key Gantner Instruments HW & SaaS Solutions incl. Grid Control We would like to thank the Gantner team for their indefatigable effort in realizing successful customer projects globally. www.gantner-webportal.com j.sutterlueti@gantner-instruments.com 5/18/2017
  23. 23. www.gantner-environment.comPage 23 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Appendix 5/18/2017
  24. 24. www.gantner-environment.comPage 24 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA About Gantners PV Business Unit Gantner’s PV Business Unit has quickly grown to become one of the leading independent providers of performance monitoring equipment and services for utility-scale PV projects in many markets around the world. The company currently boasts over 110 projects (3.6GW) of PV projects installed with Gantner monitoring equipment. PV customers include developers, EPC’s and investors, and all have come to appreciate that Gantner’s equipment enables superior performance monitoring that results in significant financial benefits for the projects, including lower O&M costs, lower LCoE and higher ROI. 5/18/2017
  25. 25. www.gantner-environment.comPage 25 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Products and Services Robust Hardware and Software for Optimized Control • Based on proven Gantner architecture and decades of experience in many industries • Wide range of products to provide customer flexibility: DG or Central, combiner boxes, data logger, controller • SCADA, String, Combiner Box or Project Level • Independent & open interfaces • Independent web-portal solution • Granular data collection • User-friendly data analysis tools, including financial KPI’s Robust Hardware and Software for Optimized Control 5/18/2017
  26. 26. www.gantner-environment.comPage 26 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA String Level Products 5/18/2017 • Identify design and production errors quickly – inverter malfunction, soiling, shading, PV module degradation • DC shunts provide 10x more accurate current measurements • Up to 1500V • Consume < 1.5W • Inverter independent • More than 2GW installed String.bloxx Series DC and AC Combiner Boxes
  27. 27. www.gantner-environment.comPage 27 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Data Level Performance Monitoring 5/18/2017 • One device can handle up to 100MWdc • Signal conditioning, data storage, communication (Analog inputs, Digital I/Os, RS-485 Ports, Ethernet interface, Industrial data memory, Touch screen display) • Collect all string-level data, plus met data and key equipment status • Support protocols from all leading inverters • Comply with grid interface standards (IEC 61724 Ed 2, DNP3) • Ready for NEW IEC 61724-1:2017
  28. 28. www.gantner-environment.comPage 28 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA CONTROL level Plant Control – Same for Central or Decentral Example Reference site in UK and R&D project • Control Function and date interface is a must for any inverter/storage concept • Open interfaces and protocols are key to enable efficient Operation • DNO requirements can all be fulfilled • Project: ▪ DNO: UK Power Networks, UK ▪ Size: 45,6 MW AC ▪ 1122 Inverters, 4 grid connection points • Full monitoring and control ▪ Absolute production constraint ▪ Power gradient constrain ▪ Voltage Control ▪ Reactive Power Control ▪ Power Factor Control ▪ Frequency Control ▪ Ramp rate limitation • Gantner Control is part of: ▪ ReWP – „Regelleistung durch Wind- und Photovoltaikparks“ (72.6MW, 15 plants) ▪ Members: PlantControl
  29. 29. www.gantner-environment.comPage 29 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA gantner.webportal – Software as a Service Solutions Main benefits • One unified platform for effective and automated PV plant management • Vendor-independent PV plant monitoring • Fully compliant w/ international standards like IEC 61724 Ed.2 • Comprehensive financial KPIs for Investors • Optimized PV production leads to increased asset value and reduced risk • Provides baseline for energy prediction (day ahead), energy trading, etc. 5/18/2017 SCADAlevel
  30. 30. www.gantner-environment.comPage 30 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Summary • Data Requirements Are Growing – PV Market Expansion, PV Grid Integration • Reliable Data Drives Value ▪ DC shunt architecture provides 10x more accuracy ▪ Lower O&M, Increased Production, Lower LCoE, Higher ROI • Gantner’s Open Interface Provides Versatility to Project Owners, Operators and Grid Operators • Q.Reader provides single platform for grid integration – both monitoring and external PV power plant control • Independent Data Archive Reduced Risk of Stranded Data, Increases Project Bankability • Strong Track Record – 3.6GW being monitored worldwide, best-in-class customers and partners 5/18/2017 Strategy
  31. 31. www.gantner-environment.comPage 31 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Technical Features (selection) I Functions (selection) 5/18/2017 • Data consistency • Perform real-time sanity checks for physical meaningful values • Uptime tracking / Availability audit • Provide overall Sensor review for measurement validity • Monitor Irradiation sensor drift • All incoming data is tested for measurement-, data consistency or data transfer issues Filters • New Filter Parameters: Sun position, AOI, Shading status, Clearness Index (kTh), Module Temperature (Irradiation weighted) • O&M activities as filter option • Include required filters from IEC 61724 Ed.2 – 2917 Parameters (selection) • Normalized parameters for direct comparison • Weather types to compare similar weather, as energy yield is influenced by several parameters at different weather • Real Nominal Power “Real Pnom” (extrapolation to STC, PTC)
  32. 32. www.gantner-environment.comPage 32 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Technical Features (selection) II Functions (selection) 5/18/2017 Analysis Functions • Map view • Dashboard • Heatmaps • Benchmark Performance of all installations • Separation of main losses : Irradiation, Temperature, Soiling/Dust, AOI • Behavior vs. Time, Temperature, Irradiation, Season • Long term degradation • Extrapolation to STC, NOCT conditions • Empirical data fits: compare trend with outliers • Performance Guarantees: target vs. actual • String level visualization (voltage & current) Data handling • Real time analysis platform • Database cluster with highest availability (Fail over) • Automated, decentralized backup • Hosted according to EU regulations • Accessible from mobile devices with HTML5, W3C • Loss stages: The losses of the PV Power plant can be analysed and checked vs. typical values. • Different user level with selected rights
  33. 33. www.gantner-environment.comPage 33 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Conventions: Naming, Unit, Color 5/18/2017
  34. 34. www.gantner-environment.comPage 34 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Mechanistic Power Model (MPM) 5/18/2017
  35. 35. www.gantner-environment.comPage 35 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA What is an empirical model? • It’s a simple mathematical model for calculating PMAX as a function of weather inputs PMAX = GI*{C1*fn1(GI,TMOD…) + C2*fn2(GI,TMOD…) + … } Constant Irradiance Module_Temp Empirical Fit Coefficients Sum or product of terms 1..n Input Dependencies • It doesn't need any physical understanding  it’s simple  values aren’t useful • It should be able to be fitted by any simple software e.g. Excel solver (rather than specialised fitting software) 5/18/2017
  36. 36. www.gantner-environment.comPage 36 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA How is an empirical model used? • Determining bad measurement data (out of usual range) • Interpolation of missing PMAX values • Instantaneous performance validation • Predicting performance at given conditions e.g. STC • Simple energy yield estimation Summing predicted PMAX vs. climate data (GI, TMOD …) 5/18/2017
  37. 37. www.gantner-environment.comPage 37 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA We can improve models by normalising them and making them more “Mechanistic” Empirical Model Not normalised. Coefficients scale with array size or module numbers “Meaningless parameters” such as “TAMB*TMOD” No idea what values mean good performance e.g. PMEAS = GI * i=1..n Ci * fni(GI,TMOD…) Mechanistic Model Normalise coefficients by dividing by reference values e.g. nVOC = VOC.MEASURED/VOC.REFERENCE Now we can more easily compare modules and understand degradation changes e.g. PRDC= (PMEAS/PNOM/GI)= C1 + C2*Tmod + C3*Ln(Gi) + C4*Gi + C5*WS + ? P TOLERANCE GAMMA LLEC RS WIND % %/K %@LIC %@STC %/(ms-1) 5/18/2017
  38. 38. www.gantner-environment.comPage 38 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA A simple normalised 6 parameter mechanistic model (L) PRDC equation 5/18/2017 • The PRDC is the sum of each of these terms • Plot on a stacked chart to determine the value of each term and its shape vs. irradiance • Some terms may be redundant or insignificant e.g. C3 vs. C6 PRDC = C1 + C2*dTMOD + C3*ln(GI) + C4*GI + C5*WS + C6/GI + ...
  39. 39. www.gantner-environment.comPage 39 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA A simple normalised 6 parameter mechanistic model (L) PRDC equation 5/18/2017 PRDC = C1 + C2*dTMOD + C3*ln(GI) + C4*GI + C5*WS + C6/GI + ... PRDC equation PRDC vs. irradiance = Sum +ve and -ve coefficients How many terms are independent? How many are significant?
  40. 40. www.gantner-environment.comPage 40 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA PRDC vs. Irradiance for different technologies – Model L PRDC = C1 + C2*dTMOD + C3*ln(GI) + C4*GI + C5*WS + C6/GI [CONST] [ dTMOD ] [ ln(Gi) ] [ Gi ] [ WS ] [ 1/GI ] 5/18/2017 CdTe c-Si a-Si:uc-Si Simple to fit Worst dTmod coeff Flattest PRDC vs Irradiance
  41. 41. www.gantner-environment.comPage 41 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Best fits to PRDC vs Gi c-Si for models A, C, D, E and J vs. New Model L (Gantner Instruments data) 5/18/2017 “Normal conditions” A’ C D E J L Empirical Empirical Empirical Mechanistic Mechanistic Mechanistic New model L has sensible looking fit
  42. 42. www.gantner-environment.comPage 42 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA PV Performance understanding 5/18/2017 Performanceunderstanding
  43. 43. www.gantner-environment.comPage 43 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Gantner Instruments Test Site, AZ/USA Characterise modules outdoor where possible - to develop performance algorithms 5/18/2017 2 D Tracker: 6 channels w/ spectrometer Weather sensors: Irradiance, Temperature, Wind, Spectrum, RH, .. 24 Channels fixed: c-Si (ABC, HIT, n-type, ..), CdTe, CI(G)S, a-Si, a-Si:uc-Si; 6 tracked Performanceunderstanding
  44. 44. www.gantner-environment.comPage 44 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Gantner Instruments Test Site, AZ/USA Characterise modules outdoor where possible - to develop performance algorithms 5/18/2017 • Unique PV Module performance track record since 2010 • Baseline for next generation of PV Modeling and prediction of PV Plant performance and monitoring • Technology benchmark • Bankability support for EPCs, Investors, Insurance • Key for improved Utility PV Monitoring concepts USP: High performance data acquisition, 3rd party technology benchmark, advanced characterization and Analysis methods Tested PV Module references: First Solar, Trina, Yingli, Sunpower, Manz, SolarWorld, Solar Frontier, Kaneka, Hanergy, MiaSole, Q-Cells, Bosch Solar, Panasonic Cooperations with leading Institutions, experts, EPCs and IPPs. Benefits Performanceunderstanding
  45. 45. www.gantner-environment.comPage 45 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Loss Factor Model (LFM) – used by leading institutes, PVLib, .. LFM • 6 normalised orthogonal parameters associated with ISC, RSC, IMP, VMP, ROC and VOC • Multiply all 6 together to give the PRDC or MPR • Easy sanity check for bad data if not ~1 • Easy to see good from bad values e.g. 98% or 90% • Differentiates PV technologies – e.g. Thin Film usually has a higher loss due to ROC (from TCO resistivity) Use to characterise PV Modules based on IV measurements 5/18/2017 Plot LFM values vs To show Time Degradation or annealing Irradiance Low light performance Module Temperature Thermal coefficients Performanceunderstanding
  46. 46. www.gantner-environment.comPage 46 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Gantner.webportal Demo Links / Screenshots 5/18/2017
  47. 47. www.gantner-environment.comPage 47 Confidential|SubjecttoNDA Structure 5/18/2017
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