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Practical Implementation
of Microgrid Control,
Protection, and
Communications
Scott Manson
Technology Director, SEL
Control Cost, Quality, Features
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
Both Mechanical and Electrical Systems
Must Be Modeled Accura...
Factory Acceptance Tests Improved With
Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
0 10 20 30 40
Time (s)
Frequen...
Inverter-Based Generation Has Limited
Overload Capacity
Short-Term
Capacity Limit
Long-Term
Capacity Limit
Inverter-Based
...
Load Balancing Must Happen Faster
With Inverter-Based GenerationPower,Frequency
Time
Rotating Generation Power
Rotating Ge...
FAST Load Shedding Prevents
Blackouts
Grid-Tied
Operation
Islanded
Operation
Synchronization
Systems
Automatic
Decoupling
...
PF Deadband
–PF
+PF
–P +P
–PF
+PF
+Q
–Q
Enlargement of Origin
–100 +100
–50
+50
Deadband
Control
Boundary
+28.9
PFsp1, sp2...
Frequency and Voltage Define
Power System Resilience
1/f
t
f
V
V
2V
63
57
Rotating
Generator
Sets
1.3 0.7
Generation Shedd...
A
CB2 CB1
57
60
63
f (Hz)
B
Reliability Improved With Several
Load-Balancing Techniques
CB1 Opens:
Contingency
Load Sheddi...
How Much “Responsive” Generation Is
Required to Ensure Stability?
Step 1: Identify grid time constants
+
–
–
DER Frequency...
How Much “Responsive” Generation Is
Required to Ensure Stability?
Step 2: Tabulate Incremental Reserve Margins (IRM)
DER R...
How Much “Responsive” Generation Is
Required to Ensure Stability?
Step 3: Compare Total IRM to Largest Disturbance
Event k...
Macrogrid
Power
Frequency
Microgrid
Power
Frequency
Load
Frequency(Hz)
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
0 50 100 150 200 250 300...
Intelligent Relays Are Used to Adapt
DER Controllers
Turbine
Electric
Generator
Valve
Turbine
Controller
Microgrid
Macrogr...
Protection Must Adapt to Changing
Fault Conditions
 Fault levels
 Grounding
 Directions
 Impedances
DER
t
I
Relay
20,0...
Fault Current Independent Protection
Schemes Are Preferred
 Line current differential
 Transformer differential
 Bus di...
Security for Critical Infrastructure
• Avoid OS and software
• Made in the USA
• Mature Processes
• Vertical Integration
•...
Conclusions
 Testing reduces installation and maintenance costs
 Fast control systems prevent outages
 Reliable load ba...
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10.3_Practical Implementation of Microgrid Control, Protection, and Communications_Manson_SEL

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Presentation from the EPRI-Sandia Symposium on Secure and Resilient Microgrids: Practical Implementation of Microgrid Control, Protection, and Communications, presented by Scott Manson, SEL, Baltimore, MD, August 29-31, 2016.

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10.3_Practical Implementation of Microgrid Control, Protection, and Communications_Manson_SEL

  1. 1. Practical Implementation of Microgrid Control, Protection, and Communications Scott Manson Technology Director, SEL
  2. 2. Control Cost, Quality, Features Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Both Mechanical and Electrical Systems Must Be Modeled Accurately! Controller Inputs Controller Status Controls Dynamic Simulation System Outputs 0.96 1.0 Power (pu) Frequency (pu) 1.0 Steady-State Droop Line 3 2 1 Transient Governor Behavior Governor Frequency Set Point
  3. 3. Factory Acceptance Tests Improved With Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) Frequency(Hz) Field Simulation
  4. 4. Inverter-Based Generation Has Limited Overload Capacity Short-Term Capacity Limit Long-Term Capacity Limit Inverter-Based Generation Q P Rotating Generators Q P
  5. 5. Load Balancing Must Happen Faster With Inverter-Based GenerationPower,Frequency Time Rotating Generation Power Rotating Generator Frequency Power Frequency Load Inverter-Based Power Inverter-Based Frequency
  6. 6. FAST Load Shedding Prevents Blackouts Grid-Tied Operation Islanded Operation Synchronization Systems Automatic Decoupling Load Shedding Subcycle FAST Controller Relay Status Trip
  7. 7. PF Deadband –PF +PF –P +P –PF +PF +Q –Q Enlargement of Origin –100 +100 –50 +50 Deadband Control Boundary +28.9 PFsp1, sp2 PFactual1 PFactual1 +0.5PF –0.5PF+0.5PF –0.5PF Power Factor Control Limits Must Be Considered Carefully!
  8. 8. Frequency and Voltage Define Power System Resilience 1/f t f V V 2V 63 57 Rotating Generator Sets 1.3 0.7 Generation Shedding Load Shedding Allowable Operation 65 1.2 0.8 55 Inverter Technology
  9. 9. A CB2 CB1 57 60 63 f (Hz) B Reliability Improved With Several Load-Balancing Techniques CB1 Opens: Contingency Load Shedding Island Generator Autobalancing Aka “AGC” CB2 Opens Underfrequency Load Shedding Overfrequency Generation Runback
  10. 10. How Much “Responsive” Generation Is Required to Ensure Stability? Step 1: Identify grid time constants + – – DER Frequency/ Droop Controller Steady-State Electrical Load Frequency + – Simplification Frequency 1 JS 1 R 2 R 1 S  DER Frequency/ Droop Controller Power System 2 (seconds) Utility 0.5 to 1.2 Microgrid 0.25 to 2.5
  11. 11. How Much “Responsive” Generation Is Required to Ensure Stability? Step 2: Tabulate Incremental Reserve Margins (IRM) DER Rating (kW) IRM(%) IRM(MW) PV 200 0 0 Battery (SLOW) 1000 5 50 Battery (FAST) 1000 100 1000 Steam Extraction Turbine 1200 0 0 CHP 900 10 90 Gas Turbine 1500 40 600 Diesel Genset 1000 40 400 Totals 6800 31.5 2140
  12. 12. How Much “Responsive” Generation Is Required to Ensure Stability? Step 3: Compare Total IRM to Largest Disturbance Event kW Small Motor 200 LCI drive 2000 Large Feeder 5000 Small Feeder 800 Available IRM 2140 50 49.4 49 48 Hz DERs will trip
  13. 13. Macrogrid Power Frequency Microgrid Power Frequency Load Frequency(Hz) 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (seconds) Unstable Microgrid Governor Controls must be Adapted for Changing load Composition Load Responses Are Different for Islanded Microgrids
  14. 14. Intelligent Relays Are Used to Adapt DER Controllers Turbine Electric Generator Valve Turbine Controller Microgrid Macrogrid Relay Microgrid Controller Relay Relay Relay Relay Relay Relay Relay Relay Relay It’s an Island !
  15. 15. Protection Must Adapt to Changing Fault Conditions  Fault levels  Grounding  Directions  Impedances DER t I Relay 20,000 20,000 2,000 2,000
  16. 16. Fault Current Independent Protection Schemes Are Preferred  Line current differential  Transformer differential  Bus differential  Time domain (future)
  17. 17. Security for Critical Infrastructure • Avoid OS and software • Made in the USA • Mature Processes • Vertical Integration • Cyber Security
  18. 18. Conclusions  Testing reduces installation and maintenance costs  Fast control systems prevent outages  Reliable load balancing maintains stability  Adaptive protection saves lives  Security in depth is mandatory

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