CHANGE AT WORK:A COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT PROCESS FOR TRANSFORMING ORGANIZATIONS OSCAR MINK, PIETER ESTERHUYSEN, BARBARA MINK , AND KEITH OWEN
The Total Transformation Management Process (TTMP) Successful change efforts must incorporate two concepts (often overlooked) that anchor each end of the process: work on the entire system, and pay special attention to the human side TOTAL TRANSFORMATION MANAGEMENT PROCESSComprehensive nature of Process by which Refers to guidance, not Refers to step-by-stepthe model and its organizations examine what control. If an organization is to action. The processapplication as a they were, what they are, implement change begins at a certain point,integrated process for what they will need to be, successfully, it must manage and stops only aftermanaging both large-and and how to make the a balance between change completion, then repeatssmall-scale change. necessary changes. and continuity. itself all over again.
Overview of the TTMP Monitor with Action Research The TTMP integrates six major models into Form TLT and ARTs one practical model: Evaluate the need for change 1. The Open Organization Model (Mink, Shultz, and Mink, 1979) Describe the future state Transition Describe the present state 2. The Concerns-Based Adoption Assess the present Model(Hall, Wallace, and Dossett, 1973) in terms of the future 3. The Group Development Model (Mink, Plan for the change Mink, and Owen, 1987) Intervene at three levels: 4. The Linking Pin Model (Likert, 1961) Individual, Group, & Organization 5. The Organizational Transition Model: Manage the transition (Beckhard and Harris, 1987) Stabilize the change 6. The Action Research Model (Argyris and Schon, 1974) Total Transformation Management Process
1. The Open Organization Model This model describes the interrelationships between individuals, groups, and organizations by investigating three characteristics: 1. Unity: refers to integrated wholeness or coherence, which enables adaptability 2. Internal responsiveness: refers to openness and interchange within the system 3. External responsiveness refers to openness and interchange with the environmentINTERVENTION
2. The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) CBAM has four sub-models: 1. Stages of Concern deals with feelings of individuals involved in change 2. Levels of Use describes how individuals interact with a new program 3. Innovation Configurations are the adaptations made in the program itself 4. Intervening (game plan) is the overall design for change effortsINTERVENTION (Individual)
3. The Group Development Model This model describes a five-step process by which a high level of effectiveness can be created and nurtured. The steps include: 1. Developing Trust 2. Recognizing and accepting individual differences 3. Giving and receiving feedback 4. Solving problems 5. Letting go of the pastINTERVENTION (Group)
4. The Linking Pin Model Successful managers form a link between two groups: 1. Those they supervise 2. Those to whom they report The work of organizations is accomplished by interlocking groups, connected by those “linking” individuals.INTERVENTION (Organization)
5. The Organizational Transition Model Richard Beckhard and Reuben Harris discuss the dilemma of achieving a change while maintaining adequate stability to continue operations. This involves developing appropriate strategies and systems for managing transition between the present and future states. Their model addresses five major phases in the change process: 1. Evaluating the need for change 2. Defining the desire future state 3. Describing the present state 4. Getting from the present to future 5. Managing the transitionTRANSITION
6. The Action Research Model When implementing change we get caught up with single loop – i.e. Plan – Do. The Double loop or reflective Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) model should not be overlooked. The ongoing process of action research is represented in the TTMP by the outer ring that surrounds all other steps of the process. The inward pointing arrows in the TTMP model represent the interaction, reflection, and evaluation that take place every step along the way.