Cb perception

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Cb perception

  1. 1. Welcome to Chapter No: 08 of MKT 425: Consumer Behavior Chapter Name: Perception Modular: Mr. Afjal Hossain Lecturer Department of Marketing, PSTU Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 01
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. Understand the roles of perception of defining any object. 2. To know the function of the different sensory organs. 3. To know how the perception of different people are changed over time. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 02
  3. 3. Definition Perception:  How a person see world around him?  How each person recognizes, selects, organizes and interprets the stimuli based on his/ her own needs, values and expectations? The process by which an individual uses information to create a meaningful picture of the world by •selecting, •organizing •interpreting Perception is important because people selectively perceive what they want and it affects how people see risks in a purchase. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 03
  4. 4. Definition Stimuli: Stimuli is the plural form of Stimulus. A stimulus is any unit of input to any of the sense. Examples, product, packages, advertisements and commercials. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 brand names, 04
  5. 5. Elements of Perception Elements of Perception 1. Sensation: Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 05
  6. 6. Elements of Perception (continued) Sensory Receptors: Sensory receptors are human organs or sensory organs that receive sensory inputs. Sensory Organs Functions Eyes To see Ears To hear Nose To smell Mouth To taste Skin To feel Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 06
  7. 7. Elements of Perception (continued) 2. Absolute Threshold The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. The point at which a person can detect a difference between “something” and “nothing” is his/ her absolute threshold for that stimulus. Ex: The distance at which a driver can note a specific billboard on a highway is that individual's absolute threshold. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 07
  8. 8. Elements of Perception (continued) Sensory Adaptation: It is a problem that concerns many national advertisers which is why they try to change their advertising campaign regularly. The only reason they think that the ads will no longer provide sufficient sensory input to be noted. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 08
  9. 9. Elements of Perception (continued) Sensory Adaptation: Other Reasons: • They are using so much clutter • They are decreasing sensory input • They are placing their ads in unusual/ technological media • Package designers try to determine consumer’s absolute threshold Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 09
  10. 10. Elements of Perception (continued) 3. Differential Threshold The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli. Ex: The price of juice pack can’t notice but the price of milkpowder/ electricity will be noticed. It is also known as Just Noticeable Difference/ j.n.d. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 010
  11. 11. Elements of Perception (continued) Marketing Implications of j.n.d. Manufacturers/ Marketers use j.n.d. for their products for 2 reasons: • Negative changes (below the j.n.d.) reduction in product size/ quality, increase the product price • Product improvements (above the j.n.d.) lower price, updated packaging, larger size etc. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 011
  12. 12. Elements of Perception (continued) 4. Subliminal Perception When people perceive the thing at the level beyond they should be is called subliminal perception. Ex: Bangla Film. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 012
  13. 13. Elements of Perception (continued) 5. Supraliminal Perception When people perceive the thing at the level above they should be is called supraliminal perception. Ex: English Film. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 013
  14. 14. Dynamics of Perception One of the major principles of perception is dynamics of perception: Raw sensory input by itself does not produce or explain the coherent picture of the world. Indeed, the study of perception is what we subconsciously add to or subtract from raw sensory inputs to produce our own private picture of the world. There are 3 aspects of perception: 1. 2. 3. Perceptual Selection Perceptual Organization Perceptual Interpretation Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 014
  15. 15. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 1. Perceptual Selection Perceptual Selection is to recognize the stimuli. Stimuli selected based on two major factors: • Consumer previous experience • Their motives at the time These factors give rise to 4 important concepts of concerning perception: a. Selective Exposure b. Selective Attention c. Perceptual Defense d. Perceptual Blocking Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 015
  16. 16. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization The principles of perceptual organization is first developed by Gestalt and referred to as Gestalt psychology. Three basic principles are: • Figure-ground • Grouping • Closure Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 016
  17. 17. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization • Figure-ground – Organization depends on what we see as figure (object) and what we perceive a ground (context). Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 017
  18. 18. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization • Figure-ground Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 018
  19. 19. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization • Grouping – Organization depends on what we form a unified picture or information as groups or chunks of information rather than as discrete bits of information. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 019
  20. 20. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization • Laws of Perceptual Grouping Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 020
  21. 21. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization • Closure – We perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 021
  22. 22. Dynamics of Perception 3. Perceptual Interpretation The interpretation of stimuli is uniquely individual because • It is based on what they expect to see in the light of previous experience • Number of plausible explanations they can envision • Motives and interest at the time of perception. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 022
  23. 23. Perceptual Distortion 1. Physical Appearances People like those people who are smart, beautiful etc… 2. Stereotypes Black & White men are arrested together meaning that white arrests black. 3. First Impressions People love at first sight. 4. Jumping to Conclusions You will be slim/ heavy if you purchase this product. 5. Halo Effect Whenever one thing can be interpreted from different angle. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 023
  24. 24. Query?
  25. 25. Thank You … For staying with me … Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk “Consumer Behavior” 8th edition, Prentice Hall – 2006 025

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