Report on evolution of processor by sandesh agrawal


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a best place to the beginners n seekers n for those which are very keen to learn on the topic - processor & automation.
The brain or engine of the PC is the processor (sometimes called microprocessor), or central processing unit (CPU). The CPU performs the system’s calculating and processing. The processor is easily the most expensive single component in the system, costing up to four or more times greater than the motherboard it plugs into. Intel is generally credited with creating the first microprocessor in 1971 with the introduction of a chip called the 4004. Today Intel still has control over the processor market, at least for PC systems. This means that all PC-compatible systems use either Intel processors or Intel-compatible processors from a handful of competitors (such as AMD or Cyrix).

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Report on evolution of processor by sandesh agrawal

  1. 1. Shri Govindram Seksaria Institute of Technology and Science, Indore Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering A REPORT ON EVOLUTION OF PROCESSORS Submitted on – 3rd April 2014 SUBMITTED TO: - SUBMITTED BY: - Smt. S.V CHARHATE SANDESH AGRAWAL Dr. S. K. Jain Roll no. – AB37039 Enroll. No. - 0801EI11047
  2. 2. ii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Many people have contributed to the success of this. Although a single sentence hardly suffices, I Sandesh Agrawal, AB37039 would like to thank Almighty God for blessing us with His grace. I extend my sincere and heartfelt thanks to Mrs. S. V. Charhate (Dean Academics) Electronics and Telecommunication, for providing us the right ambience for carrying out this work. I am profoundly indebted to my seminar guide Dr. S. K. Jain for innumerable acts of timely advice, encouragement and I sincerely express my gratitude to him. I express my immense pleasure and thankfulness to all the teachers and staff of the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, SGSITS for their cooperation and support. Last but not the least, I thank all others, and especially my classmates who in one way or another helped me in the successful completion of this work. By- Sandesh Agrawal (EI 3rd Year) AB37039 0801EI111047
  3. 3. iii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] ABSTRACT: The brain or engine of the PC is the processor (sometimes called microprocessor), or central processing unit (CPU). The CPU performs the system’s calculating and processing. The processor is easily the most expensive single component in the system, costing up to four or more times greater than the motherboard it plugs into. Intel is generally credited with creating the first microprocessor in 1971 with the introduction of a chip called the 4004. Today Intel still has control over the processor market, at least for PC systems. This means that all PC-compatible systems use either Intel processors or Intel-compatible processors from a handful of competitors (such as AMD or Cyrix). Intel’s dominance in the processor market had not always been assured. It is generally credited with inventing the processor. It is interesting to note that the microprocessor had only existed for 10 years prior to the creation of the PC! The microprocessor was invented by Intel in 1971. The PC was created by IBM in 1981. Now nearly 20 years later, we are still using systems based more or less on the design of that first PC (and mostly backward compatible with it). The processors powering our PCs today are still backward compatible in many ways with the 8088 selected by IBM in 1981. Processors can be identified by two main parameters: how wide they are and how fast they are. The speed of a processor is a fairly simple concept. Speed is counted in megahertz (MHz), which means millions of cycles per second—and faster is better! The width of a processor is a little more complicated to discuss because there are three main specifications in a processor that are expressed in width. They are l. Internal registers 2. Data input and output bus 3. Memory address bus Systems below 16MHz usually had no cache memory at all. Starting with 16MHz systems, high- speed cache memory appeared on the motherboard because the main memory at the time could not run at 16MHz. Microprocessors are mainly found in 4, 8, 16, 20, 32, 64-bit configuration. Many embedded uses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc., followed soon after. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mid-1970s on. Thousands of items that were traditionally not computer-related include microprocessors. These include large and small household appliances, cars (and their accessory equipment units), car keys, tools and test instruments, toys, light switches/dimmers and electrical circuit breakers, smoke alarms, battery packs, and hi-fi audio/visual components (from DVD players to phonograph turntables). Such products as cellular telephones, DVD video system and HDTV broadcast systems fundamentally require consumer devices with powerful, low-cost, microprocessors.
  4. 4. iv SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Table of Contents:- 1. Introduction iv 2. Microprocessor v 2.1. Definition 2.2. block diagram 2.3. Microprocessor based system 3. Microcontroller viii 3.1. Definition 3.2. Block diagram 3.3. Basic difference between microcontroller & microprocessor 4. Memory ix 4.1. Types of Memory 4.2. Description in brief 5. Evolution of computer xi 5.1. Mechanical 5.2. 1st generation- “Vacuum tubes” 5.3. 2nd generation – “transistors” 5.4. 3rd generation – “IC” 5.5. 4th generation – “Microprocessor” 6. Description of Each microprocessor xiii 7. Various facts regarding Microprocessor xx 8. Future xxi 9. Conclusion & Recommendation xxi 10. Bibliography xxii 11. Appendix: Year-wise table for evolution of Intel microprocessor xxiii
  5. 5. v SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] INTRODUCTION:- If we take a look around us, we would be sure to find a device that uses a microprocessor in some form or the other. Microprocessors have become a part of our daily lives and it would be difficult to imagine life without them today. From digital wrist watches, to pocket calculators, from microwaves, to cars, toys, security systems, navigation, to credit cards, microprocessors are ubiquitous. All this has been made possible by remarkable developments in semiconductor technology enabling in the last 30 years, enabling the implementation of ideas that were previously beyond the average computer architect’s grasp. The basic evolution in microprocessor was came in to known with the invention of Intel 4004, The 4004 processor was introduced on November 15, 1971, and originally ran at a clock speed of 108KHz (108,000 cycles per second, or just over one-tenth a megahertz). The 4004 contained 2,300 transistors and was built on a 10 micron process. And then in April 1972, Intel released the 8008 processor, after this various 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit and various dual core Pentium, Celeron processors. But there is a big question. What was before microprocessor?? We will also come to learn this thing in our syllabus. We will start our discussion with mechanical age, followed by 1st , 2nd, 3rd and present generation. I have said lot of things regarding microprocessor and its evolution but beginners have a lot of questions which are related to basics of microprocessor, they also have various questions like – what is microprocessor ?, what is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller? How many types of memory exist? How microprocessor’s programming is done? And a lot of questions, queries. So we will also cover some of these questions, some in detail and some in brief, depending upon the requirements. While discussing regarding evolution we will restrict ourselves to some Intel’s microprocessors including Pentium series, Celeron series etc. and will touch to some of the processors which are being produce by AMD, it is because only if we look around us we will found most are Intel processor, mostly used in laptops like i3, i5, i7 processor. AMD processors are also seen in the market.
  6. 6. vi SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Microprocessor A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC) or at most a few integrated circuits. All modern CPUs are microprocessors making the micro- prefix redundant. Definition- The microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society. General- purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet. Many more microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control over myriad objects from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control. In the NASA Apollo space missions to the moon in the 1960s and 1970s, all onboard computations for primary guidance, navigation and control were provided by a small custom processor called "The Apollo Guidance Computer". It used wire wrap circuit boards whose only logic elements neither were three-input NOR gates.[1] The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power. The integrated circuit processor was produced in large numbers by highly automated processes, so unit cost was low. Single-chip processors increase reliability as there are many fewer electrical connections to fail. As microprocessor designs get faster, the cost of manufacturing a chip (with smaller components built on a semiconductor chip the same size) generally stays the same. Microprocessors integrated into one or a few large-scale ICs the architectures that had previously been implemented using many medium- and small-scale integrated circuits. Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers. The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words. Other embedded uses of 4-bit and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc., followed soon after. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mid-1970s on.
  7. 7. vii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] BLOCK DIAGRAM A simple block diagram is shown in the figure which is clearly showing all the parts of a microprocessor- Microprocessor Based System:- Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) ALU is one of the basic units of a microprocessor. All the computing functions are maintained in this unit. As the name shows, the ALU can perform all the arithmetic operations (,-,*, /, %, etc) and all logical operations (AND, OR, NOT, XOR, etc). Control Unit (CU) Control unit is another important part of a microprocessor. The CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions, and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the next instruction
  8. 8. viii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] from memory. Another purpose of control unit is, controlling the data flow between microprocessor and peripheral devices/peripheral chips. Registers Registers are the important section of microprocessor chip. Registers are primarily used to store the data temporarily during the execution/runtime of the program. A microprocessor contains several kinds of registers that can be classified according to the instructions provided to the processor. These instructions are called instruction sets. The registers are basically 8bit, 16bit or 32 bit according to the type. Registers can easily accessible to the user by using various commands (instructions). Some registers are used to store address of memory locations that can be easily accessed by the microprocessor. Memory As in the name shows, memory are used to store the information (data & instructions) as in the binary form. According to this binary information’s, a microprocessor perform its operation during the execution period.
  9. 9. ix SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Microcontroller A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Programmer memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Micro-controllers may not implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. Using fewer pins, the chip can be placed in a much smaller, cheaper package. General Block diagram As we will see over block diagram we will found that CPU, memory, and various I/O functions are inbuilt to Microcontroller.
  10. 10. x SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Difference between Microprocessor and microcontroller:- MEMORY Memory refers to the physical devices used to store programs (sequences of instructions) or data (e.g. program state information) on a temporary or permanent basis for use in a computer or other digital electronic device. The term primary memory is used for the information in physical systems which function at high-speed (i.e. RAM), as a distinction from secondary memory, which are physical devices for program and data storage which are slow to access but offer higher memory capacity. Primary memory stored on secondary memory is called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store [2].
  11. 11. xi SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Types of memory Primary Memory / Volatile Memory: Primary Memory is internal memory of the computer. RAM AND ROM both form part of primary memory. The primary memory provides main working space to the computer. The following terms comes under primary memory of a computer are discussed below: Random Access Memory (RAM): The primary storage is referred to as random access memory (RAM) because it is possible to randomly select and use any location of the memory directly store and retrieve data. Read Only Memory (ROM): There is another memory in computer, which is called Read Only Memory (ROM). Again it is the ICs inside the PC that form the ROM. The storage of program and data in the ROM is permanent. The ROM stores some standard processing programs supplied by the manufacturers to operate the personal computer. The ROM can only be read by the CPU but it cannot be changed. The basic input/output program is stored in the ROM that examines and initializes various equipment attached to the PC when the power switch is ON. The memories, which do not lose their content on failure of power supply, are known as non-volatile memories. ROM is non-volatile memory. PROM: There is another type of primary memory in computer, which is called Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM). You know that it is not possible to modify or erase programs stored in ROM, but it is possible for you to store your program in PROM chip.
  12. 12. xii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] EPROM: This stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, which overcome the problem of PROM & ROM. EPROM chip can be programmed time and again by erasing the information stored earlier in it. Information stored in EPROM exposing the chip for some time ultraviolet light and it erases chip is reprogrammed using a special programming facility. When the EPROM is in use information can only be read. Evolution of processor: Mechanical Computers A French engineer by the name of ‘Blaise Pascal’ built the first working mechanical computer. This device was made completely from gears and was operated using hand cranks. This machine was capable of simple addition and subtraction, but a few years later, a German mathematician by the name of Leibniz made a similar machine that could multiply and divide as well. After about 150 years, a mathematician at Cambridge, Charles Babbage made his Difference Engine. This was primarily used to computer navigational charts, but could only add or subtract. This machine was designed to run a single algorithm and output the result by punching it into a copper engravers 4 plate. He then began to design the successor, the Analytical machine. This device had memory, a computational unit, input subsystems (card reader) and output systems (card puncher and printed output). The advantage of this machine was that it was the first general-purpose machine. It could read instructions from punched cards and then carried them out. Since this was one of the first rudimentary programmable machines, it needed assembly software [3] 1st Generation – “Vacuum Tubes” The first vacuum tube machine was the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It consisted of 18,000 vacuum tubes and 1500 relays. Architecturally, the machine had 20 registers, each capable of holding a 10 digit decimal number. Programming this behemoth was a herculean task; one had to set up 6000 multi-position switches and connect a multitude of sockets with jumper cables. This was followed by a myriad of other such machines including EDSAC, EDVAC. However, one of the most important inventions of the time was by Jon Von Neumann, who figured out that programming computers with huge number of switches and cables was slow and inflexible. He came to realize that the program could be represented in digital form in the computer memory, along with the data. He also figured that data could be manipulated in parallel rather than in series. The basic design, which he first described, is known as the Von Neumann machine. It was first used
  13. 13. xiii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] in the EDSAC, the first stored program computer, and is still the basis for nearly all digital computers, even now, more than half a century later [4] 2nd Generation- “Transistors” The transistor was invented at Bell labs in 1948. Within 10 years the transistor revolutionized computers, and by the late 50’s, vacuum tube computers were obsolete. The first of these devices were built at Lincoln Lab, MIT, called the TX-0 (Transistorized Experimental Computer – 0). Ken Olsen, one of the engineers working at this lab, formed a company, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in ’57 and in ’61 rolled out the PDP-1 the transistorized successor to the 709, the fastest computer in the world at the time. The PDP-1 cost $120,000; a direct result of the PDP-1 was a visual display and the ability to plot points anywhere on its 512 by 512 screen [3]. Within a few years, DEC released the PDP-8, a 12-bit machine, much cheaper than its predecessor, but with one important new invention: a single bus or ‘omnibus’ as they called it, a collection of parallel wires used to connect the components of the machine. 3rd Generation – “Integrated Circuits (IC)” With the invention of the IC, it was possible to make processors smaller, faster and cheaper than with transistors. IBM introduced its System 360 series of machines based on integrated circuits. These systems were designed so that they could perform both scientific as well as business calculations, since the entire family shared the same assembly language. Therefore commercial computing could be performed on low end System /360 Model 30’s while scientific computing could be performed on higher end System /360 Model 75’s. [5]. 4th Generation – “VLSI (Microprocessor)” When the IC was invented, it was feasible to put dozens of transistors on a single chip, but as time passed by, a few dozen became thousands, and tens of thousands and soon millions of transistors could be fit on a single chip. This allowed for more complex microprocessor design and faster processors. By the 80’s, the prices for the processors had dropped so low, that even individuals could afford small personal computers or PCs. Intel’s 8088 was the processor of choice and they built the machine from commercially available parts, introduced in 1981 and instantly became one of the best selling computer in history. However, in an effort to push the sales of PCs even further by allowing other companies to make plug in boards for the IBM PC, they committed one of the biggest blunders
  14. 14. xiv SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] in computing history. They published the entire plans and circuit diagrams and sold it for $49. Since the design was now completely public, other small companies started to build clone machines and thus the IBM PC clone market was born. Other companies also started to sell machines some of the interesting ones have been by Apple, Amiga, Commodore and Atari. However, the IBM PC was so popular, that others found it difficult to compete. The IBM PC’s came with MS DOS installed, supplied by Microsoft, together forming an alliance that has revolutionized home computing, as we know it. What was earlier an entire machine can now be fit into a small part of a microprocessor. In 1965, Gordon Moore had postulated that the power of these microprocessors would grow exponentially, doubling every two years. This law, better known as Moore’s law has, has more or less been accurate till this date in predicting microprocessor complexity and power. Description of microprocessors INTEL 4004 The 4004 processor was introduced on November 15, 1971, and originally ran at a clock speed of 108 KHz (108,000 cycles per second, or just over one-tenth a megahertz). The 4004 contained 2,300 transistors and was built on a 10 micron process. This means that each line, trace, or transistor could be spaced about 10 microns (millionths of a meter) apart. Data was transferred four bits at a time, and the maximum addressable memory was only 640 bytes. The 4004 was designed for use in a calculator, but proved to be useful for many other functions because of its inherent programmability
  15. 15. xv SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Intel 8008 In April 1972, Intel released the 8008 processor, which originally ran at a clock speed of 200 KHz (0.2MHz). The 8008 processor contained 3,500 transistors and was built on the same 10 micron process as the previous processor. The big change in the 8008 was that it had an 8-bit data bus, which meant it could move data 8 bits at a time—twice as much as the previous chip. It could also address more memory, up to 16KB. This chip was primarily used in dumb terminals and general-purpose calculators. Intel 8080 Introduced in April 1974, running at a clock rate of 2MHz. due mostly to the faster clock rate, the 8080 processor had 10 times the performance of the 8008. The 8080 chip contained 6,000 transistors and was built on a 6 micron process. Like the previous chip, the 8080 had an 8-bit data bus, so it could transfer 8 bits of data at a time. The 8080 could address up to 64KB of memory, significantly more than the previous chip. It was the 8080 that helped start the PC revolution, as this was the processor chip used in what is generally regarded as the first personal computer, the Altair 8800. The CP/M operating system was written for the 8080 chip, and Microsoft was founded and delivered its first product: Microsoft BASIC for the Altair. These initial tools provided the foundation for a revolution in software because thousands of programs were written to run on this platform. In fact, the 8080 became so popular that it was cloned. A company called Zilog formed in late 1975, joined by several ex-Intel 8080 engineers. In July of 1976, it released the Z-80 processor, which was a vastly improved version of the 8080. It was not pin compatible, but instead combined functions such as the memory interface and RAM refresh circuitry, which allowed cheaper and simpler systems to be designed. The Z-80 also incorporated a superset of 8080 instructions, meaning it could run all 8080 programs. It also included new instructions and new internal registers, so software that was designed for the Z-80 would not necessarily run on the older 8080. The Z-80 ran initially at 2.5MHz (later versions ran up to 10MHz), and contained 8,500 transistors. The Z-80 could access 64KB of memory. Intel 8085 Intel released the 8085, its follow up to the 8080, in March of 1976. Even though it predated the Z-80 by several months, it never achieved the popularity of the Z-80 in personal computer systems. It was
  16. 16. xvi SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] popular as an embedded controller, finding use in scales and other computerized equipment. The 8085 ran at 5MHz and contained 6,500 transistors. It was built on a 3-micron process and incorporated an 8-bit data bus. Intel 8086 Intel introduced the 8086 in June 1978.The 8086 chip brought with it the original x86 instruction set that is still present on x86-compatiblechips such as the Pentium III. A dramatic improvement over the previous chips, the 8086 was a full16-bit design with 16-bit internal registers and a 16-bit data bus. This meant that it could work on 16-bit numbers and data internally and also transfer 16-bits at a time in and out of the chip. The 8086contained 29,000 transistors and initially ran at up to 5MHz. The chip also used 20-bit addressing, meaning it could directly address up to 1MB of memory. Although not directly backward compatible with the 8080, the 8086 instructions and language was very similar and allowed older programs to be ported over quickly to run. This later proved important to help jumpstart the PC software revolution with recycled CP/M (8080) software. Although the 8086 was a great chip, it was expensive at the time and more importantly required inexpensive 16-bit support chip and board design. To help bring costs down, in 1979, Intel released crippled version of the 8086 called the 8088. The 8088 processor used the same internal core as the8086, had the same 16-bit registers, and could address the same 1MB of memory, but the external data bus was reduced to 8 bits. This allowed support chips from the older 8-bit 8085 to be used, and far less expensive boards and systems could be made. It is for these reasons that IBM chose the crippled chip, the 8088, for the first PC. This decision would affect history in several ways. The 8088 was fully software compatible with the8086, so it could run 16-bit software. Also, because the instruction set was very similar to the previous 8085 and 8080, programs written for those older chips could be quickly and easily modified to run. This allowed a large library of programs to be quickly released for the IBM PC, thus helping it become a success. The overwhelming blockbuster success of the IBM PC left in its wake the legacy of requiring backward compatibility with it. In order to maintain the momentum, Intel has pretty much been forced to maintain backward compatibility with the 8088/8086 in most of the processors it has released since then. Intel 80286  Introduced February 2, 1982
  17. 17. xvii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors]  Clock rates:  6 MHz with 0.9 MIPS  8 MHz, 10 MHz with 1.5 MIPS  12.5 MHz with 2.66 MIPS  16 MHz, 20 MHz and 25 MHz available.  Bus width: 16 bits data, 24 bits address.  Included memory protection hardware to support multitasking operating systems with per- process address space.  Number of transistors 134,000 at 1.5 μm  Addressable memory 16 MB  Added protected-mode features to 8086 with essentially the same instruction set  3–6X the performance of the 8086  Widely used in IBM-PC AT and AT clones contemporary to it. Intel 80386  Introduced October 17, 1985  Clock rates:  16 MHz with 5 MIPS  20 MHz with 6 to 7 MIPS, introduced February 16, 1987  25 MHz with 7.5 MIPS, introduced April 4, 1988  33 MHz with 9.9 MIPS (9.4 SPECint92 on Compaq/i 16K L2), introduced April 10, 1989  Bus width 32 bits data, 32 bits address  Number of transistors 275,000 at 1 μm  Addressable memory 4 GB  Virtual memory 64 TB  First x86 chip to handle 32-bit data sets  Reworked and expanded memory protection support including paged virtual memory and virtual-86 mode, features required at the time by Xenix and UNIX. This memory
  18. 18. xviii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] capability spurred the development and availability of OS/2 and is a fundamental requirement for modern operating systems like Linux, Windows, and OS X.  Used in desktop computing Pentium Pro  Introduced November 1, 1995  Precursor to Pentium II and III  Primarily used in server system  Socket 8 processor package (387 pins) (Dual SPGA)  Number of transistors 5.5 million  Family 6 model 1  256 KB integrated L2 cache  60 MHz system bus clock rate Pentium II  Introduced May 7, 1997  Pentium Pro with MMX and improved 16-bit performance  242-pin Slot 1 (SEC) processor package  Voltage identification pins  Number of transistors 7.5 million  32 KB L1 cache  512 KB ½ bandwidth external L2 cache  The only Pentium II that did not have the L2 cache at ½ bandwidth of the core was the Pentium II 450 PE. Pentium III  Katmai – 0.25 μm process technology  Introduced February 26, 1999  Improved PII, i.e. P6-based core, now including Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE)
  19. 19. xix SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors]  Number of transistors 9.5 million  512 KB ½ bandwidth L2 External cache  242-pin Slot 1 SECC2 (Single Edge Contact cartridge 2) processor package  System Bus clock rate 100 MHz, 133 MHz (B-models)  450, 500 MHz Introduced February 26, 1999  550 MHz Introduced May 17, 1999  600 MHz Introduced August 2, 1999  533, 600 MHz Introduced (133 MHz bus clock rate) September 27, 1999  Coppermine – 0.18 μm process technology  Introduced October 25, 1999  Number of transistors 28.1 million  256 KB Advanced Transfer L2 Cache (Integrated)  242-pin Slot-1 SECC2 (Single Edge Contact cartridge 2) processor package, 370-pin FC- PGA (Flip-chip pin grid array) package  System Bus clock rate 100 MHz (E-models), 133 MHz (EB models)  Slot 1, Socket 370 Intel Pentium  Clarkdale – 32 nm process technology  2 physical cores/2 threads  3 MB L3 cache  Introduced January 2010  Socket 1156 LGA  2-channel DDR3  Integrated HD GPU  Variants  G6950 – 2.8 GHz (no Hyper-Threading)[7]  G6960 – 2.933 GHz (no Hyper-Threading)
  20. 20. xx SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Core i3  Clarkdale – 32 nm process technology  2 physical cores/4 threads  64 Kb L1 cache  512 Kb L2 cache  4 MB L3 cache  Introduced January, 2010  Socket 1156 LGA  2-channel DDR3  Integrated HD GPU  Variants  530 – 2.93 GHz Hyper-Threading  540 – 3.06 GHz Hyper-Threading  550 – 3.2 GHz Hyper-Threading  560 – 3.33 GHz Hyper-Threading Core i5  Lynnfield – 45 nm process technology  4 physical cores  32+32 Kb (per core) L1 cache  256 Kb (per core) L2 cache  8 MB common L3 cache  Introduced September 8, 2009  Family 6 Model E (Ext. Model 1E)  Socket 1156 LGA  2-channel DDR3  Variants
  21. 21. xxi SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors]  750S – 2.40 GHz/3.20 GHz Turbo Boost  750 – 2.66 GHz/3.20 GHz Turbo Boost  760 – 2.80 GHz/3.33 GHz Turbo Boost  Clarkdale – 32 nm process technology  2 physical cores/4 threads  64 Kb L1 cache  512 Kb L2 cache  4 MB L3 cache  Introduced January, 2010  Socket 1156 LGA  2-channel DDR3  Integrated HD GPU  AES Support Various facts regarding Microprocessor  In 2003, about US$44 billion worth of microprocessors were manufactured and sold.[6] Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computer, those count for only about 2% of all CPUs sold.[7]  About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers, over two billion of which were sold in 1997.[8]  As of 2002, less than 10% of all the CPUs sold in the world are 32-bit or more. Of all the 32- bit CPUs sold, about 2% are used in desktop or laptop personal computers. Most microprocessors are used in embedded control applications such as household appliances, automobiles, and computer peripherals. Taken as a whole, the average price for a microprocessor, microcontroller, or DSP is just over $6.[7]  About ten billion CPUs were manufactured in 2008. About 98% of new CPUs produced each year are embedded.[9]
  22. 22. xxii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Future  There may be less cores and less GHz! However, there will be more GPU power. The most advanced games will require less CPU power, but more GPU power.  It's possible in the future multiple processors could be getting used instead of a single processor, like some servers do, but that's not a change in the processor itself, so much as motherboard and OS  Currently Intel is working with new materials (not silicon) to make CPUs. Carbon structured materials like Nano-tubes are being worked with to reduce wire sizes (which are already microscopic) and improve efficiency to make CPUs either smaller or far more powerful.  Tomorrow's machines won't just be faster – they may be radically different. By aping how the brain works or making use of sci-fi grade goo, tomorrow's computers will likely be unrecognisably by today's standards and definitions. In 25 years' time we may look back on silicon in the same way we now regard Babbage's Difference Engine. Conclusion New applications that make use of voice recognition, and image recognition use a lot of computational power. These kinds of applications have not been the research focus in the past in academia, where the focus is more on scientific and heavy engineering workloads. Indeed, ENIAC, one of the earliest computers was built to calculate missile trajectories, but now the focus of computing has shifted to non-scientific areas such as multimedia and graphics. The thinking in academia is still influenced by this early history and has led to the development of research areas that may not be the most relevant today. Future research in microprocessor architecture should span a wide variety of subjects, from incremental improvement in design and fabrication to revolutionary new designs and architectures. Parallelism, an area of research that has been already explored widely, has had mixed results. Although these machines are not difficult to build, the difficulty in programming has presented a formidable barrier to the use of massively parallel processors.
  23. 23. xxiii SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Back to the Moon: The Verification of a Small Microprocessor's Logic Design - NASA Office of Logic Design 2. A.M. Turing and R.A. Brooker (1952). Programmer's Handbook for Manchester Electronic Computer Mark II University of Manchester 3. A. S. Tanenbaum: Structured Computer Organization, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall International, 1990 4. Brey: The Intel x86 Architecture, 1998 5. Hennessy & Patterson: Computer Architecture A Quantitative Approach, 2nd Ed. 1996 6. WSTS Board of Directors. "WSTS Semiconductor Market Forecast World Release Date: 1 June 2004 - 6:00 UTC".Miyazaki, Japan, Spring Forecast Meeting 18–21 May 2004(Press release). World Semiconductor Trade Statistics. Archived from the original on 2004-12-07. 7. Turley, Jim (18 December 2002). "The Two Percent Solution". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). Retrieved 2009-12-23. 8. Cantrell, Tom (1998). "Microchip on the March". Archived from the original on 2007-02-20. 9. Barr, Michael (1 August 2009). "Real men program in C".Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  24. 24. xxiv SGSITS, Indore [Evolution of Processors] Appendix: