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PERSUASIVE BY DESIGN:A MODEL AND TOOLKIT
FOR DESIGNING EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS
Sander Hermsen Reint Jan Renes Jeana Frost
Hogeschool Utrecht Hogeschool Utrecht Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Touchpoints!
Persuasief ontwerpen
voor duurzaam en gezond gedrag
Touchpoints
■ Evidence-based design
■ use of reliable, valid knowledge to inform
behavior change concepts
■ gaining importance in past decade
■ health, sustainability
2
■ Evidence-based design
■ use of reliable, valid knowledge to inform
behavior change concepts
■ gaining importance in past decade
■ health, sustainability
■ Important source of knowledge:
behavioral sciences
■ problem: impenetrable field
3
Our proposed model
• Evidence-based
• More possibilities for informing designs
• Easy to use
6
Our proposed model
• Evidence-based
• More possibilities for informing designs
• Easy to use
• Uses for model:
- Case analysis for target group research
- Concept Analysis for discovering strenghts and weaknesses in concepts
- Decisional Accountability 7
Method
• literature search
• refining draft versions through co-design sessions
• first tool: workshop
• interviews
• observations
• questionnaire
8
Results from literature
and co-design sessions
1) Model must distinguish between two modes of
behavior: automatic (habits, impulses) and controlled
3) Controlled behavior is best explained by insights
from control theory
3) Many processes threaten behavior change
5) We’re social animals
9
Results from literature
1. Dual process theory
• Automatic behavior
• Controlled behavior
! Blue layer
10
CUE
Changed
Behavior
Original
Behavior
No change in
Behavior
Goal achieved:
Self-Monitoring
Perception of own
behaviour
Comparison
of goal and
behaviour
Discrepancy?
fitting capability,
motivation
opportunity
Attempting
new behaviour
Disengagement
from goal
Goal
(want to / ought to)
no
no
yes
yes
2. Controlled behavior is
best explained by
insights from
control theory
- self-regulatory cycle
! Blue layer
Results from literature
11
Changed
Behavior
Goal achieved:
Self-Monitoring
Perception of own
behaviour
Comparison
of goal and
behaviour
Discrepancy?
fitting capability,
motivation
opportunity
Attempting
new behaviour
Disengagement
from goal
Goal
(want to / ought to)
no
no
yes
yes
3. Many processes threaten
behavior change
! Red layer
■ Resistance
■ Biases, white lies
■ Threats to motivation
(e.g. frustration)
■ Cognitive dissonance
reduction strategies
■ Etcetera...
12
Competing /
Conflicting Goals
Resistance
Reactance and scepsis
Cognitive dissonance
reduction,
competing norms
Frustration,
motivation declineCompeting /
conflicting
behaviours, habits
Biases,
White lies
Lack of
relevant
information
Changed
Behavior
Goal achieved:
Self-Monitoring
Perception of own
behaviour
Comparison
of goal and
behaviour
Discrepancy?
fitting capability,
motivation
opportunity
Attempting
new behaviour
Disengagement
from goal
Goal
(want to / ought to)
no
no
yes
yes
Results from literature
4. We’re social animals
! Green layer
■ Social comparison
■ Social norms
■ Peer pressure
■ Social commitment
■ Cooperation and shared goals
■ Social inhibition, social validation
13
Social
Norms
Peer Pressure,
SocialValidation
Social
Commitment
Cooperation,
shared goals
Social
Comparison
Social
Inhibition
CUE
Changed
Behavior
Original
Behavior
No change in
Behavior
Goal achieved:
Self-Monitoring
Perception of own
behaviour
Comparison
of goal and
behaviour
Discrepancy?
fitting capability,
motivation
opportunity
Attempting
new behaviour
Disengagement
from goal
Goal
(want to / ought to)
no
no
yes
yes
Results from literature
Black layer
■ Interventions
in controlled
behavior
■ norm communication,
feedback, action planning,
involving social factors
14
+!
feasible steps
Action planning
!
!
!
Reporting
Performance
Feedback
Norm / Goal
Setting Targets by
communicating
norms and goals
Involving
Social Factors
Intervening in
reflective/controlled
behavior
Social
Norms
Peer Pressure,
SocialValidation
Social
Commitment
Cooperation,
shared goals
Social
Comparison
Social
Inhibition
Competing /
Conflicting Goals
Resistance
Reactance and scepsis
Cognitive dissonance
reduction,
competing norms
Frustration,
motivation declineCompeting /
conflicting
behaviours, habits
Biases,
White lies
Lack of
relevant
information
Self-Monitoring
Perception of own
behaviour
Comparison
of goal and
behaviour
Discrepancy?
fitting capability,
motivation
opportunity
Attempting
new behaviour
Disengagement
from goal
Goal
(want to / ought to)
no
no
yes
yes
Changed
Behavior
Original
Behavior
No change in
Behavior
Goal achieved:
Purple layer
■ Interventions aimed at automatic behavior
■ removing cues, placing alternative cues,
disrupting cue-behavior-link
15
i
Intervening in
automatic
behavior
placing
alternative
cue
Reporting
Performance
Feedback
i
disrupting
cue –
behavior link
i
removing
cue
CUE
Changed
Behavior
Original
Behavior
No change in
Behavior
Goal achieved:
16
REFLECTIVE BEHAVIOR
REFLEXIVE BEHAVIOR
boundary conditions
i
Communicator interventions aimed at
explicit, controlled behaviour
threats to self regulatory cycle
social influences on self regulatory cycle
steps in the self regulatory cycle
(model based, reflective behaviour)
i
Communicator interventions aimed at
implicit, automatic behaviour
i
Intervening in
automatic
behavior
placing
alternative
cue
attractiveness
and availability
of goal
Reporting
Performance
Feedback
i
disrupting
cue –
behavior link
i
removing
cue
+!
feasible steps
Action planning
!
!
!
Reporting
Performance
Feedback
Norm / Goal
Setting Targets by
communicating
norms and goals
Involving
Social Factors
Intervening in
reflective/controlled
behavior
Social
Norms
Peer Pressure,
SocialValidation
Social
Commitment
Cooperation,
shared goals
Social
Comparison
Social
Inhibition
Competing /
Conflicting Goals
Resistance
Reactance and scepsis
Cognitive dissonance
reduction,
competing norms
Frustration,
motivation declineCompeting /
conflicting
behaviours, habits
Biases,
White lies
Lack of
relevant
information
CUE
Changed
Behavior
Original
Behavior
No change in
Behavior
Goal achieved:
Self-Monitoring
Perception of own
behaviour
Comparison
of goal and
behaviour
Discrepancy?
fitting capability,
motivation
opportunity
Attempting
new behaviour
Disengagement
from goal
Goal
(want to / ought to)
no
no
yes
yes
Persuasive by Design
Behaviour Change Model
tekst
http://www.touchpoints-hu.nl/
First tool derived from model:
Sets of questions to test concepts
■ Ten sets
■ 6 sets from blue layer, 2 from red layer, 2 from green layer
■ Each set has additional questions from black + purple layers
17
Testing the model
■ Workshops
■ Anders op Weg, concepts for persuading people to reduce
car use during rush our. 8 participants
■ Enexis, concepts for reducing company CO2 footprint
through behavior change. 12 participants
18
Testing the model
■ Workshop consisted of
■ Introduction of the model
■ Introduction of sets of questions derived from the model to
challenge the design concepts
■ Working on the concepts using model and questions
■ Feedback, questionnaires and interviews
19
Workshop results:
Questionnaires and interviews
✓ Participants indicated:
■ valuable insights
■ both for current project and for work overall
✓ We observed:
■ richer concepts that were better thought-through and
more sharply defined
■ problems and pitfalls of concepts became clear
20
“Of great value. I am one of the more sceptical people in my
team; this enables us to think more clearly about our goals and
the means that we need to develop to achieve them!”
Workshop results:
Questionnaires and interviews
- Participants indicated:
■ the complexity of the model makes it hard to use
without guidance
- We observed:
■ participant were most likely to use the best explained
examples and principles
■ the model is impossible to use without introduction
21
“I would like to see a simpler version.”
Results
✓ Evidence-based model
✓ More possibilities for informing designs
! Easy to use
22
Results
✓ Evidence-based model
✓ More possibilities for informing designs
! Easy to use
‣Next phase
■prototyping and testing tools based upon model
■especially aiming at a ‘stand alone’-tool
■ graphic novel techniques
■ interactive infographic techniques
23
Thank you
■ Your questions?
■ more information:
sander.hermsen@hu.nl @sanderhermsen
■ Download model pdf and questions at
http://www.touchpoints-hu.nl/
24

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Persuasive By Design Model presented at Chi Sparks 2014 by Sander Hermsen

  • 1. PERSUASIVE BY DESIGN:A MODEL AND TOOLKIT FOR DESIGNING EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS Sander Hermsen Reint Jan Renes Jeana Frost Hogeschool Utrecht Hogeschool Utrecht Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Touchpoints! Persuasief ontwerpen voor duurzaam en gezond gedrag
  • 2. Touchpoints ■ Evidence-based design ■ use of reliable, valid knowledge to inform behavior change concepts ■ gaining importance in past decade ■ health, sustainability 2
  • 3. ■ Evidence-based design ■ use of reliable, valid knowledge to inform behavior change concepts ■ gaining importance in past decade ■ health, sustainability ■ Important source of knowledge: behavioral sciences ■ problem: impenetrable field 3
  • 4. Our proposed model • Evidence-based • More possibilities for informing designs • Easy to use 6
  • 5. Our proposed model • Evidence-based • More possibilities for informing designs • Easy to use • Uses for model: - Case analysis for target group research - Concept Analysis for discovering strenghts and weaknesses in concepts - Decisional Accountability 7
  • 6. Method • literature search • refining draft versions through co-design sessions • first tool: workshop • interviews • observations • questionnaire 8
  • 7. Results from literature and co-design sessions 1) Model must distinguish between two modes of behavior: automatic (habits, impulses) and controlled 3) Controlled behavior is best explained by insights from control theory 3) Many processes threaten behavior change 5) We’re social animals 9
  • 8. Results from literature 1. Dual process theory • Automatic behavior • Controlled behavior ! Blue layer 10 CUE Changed Behavior Original Behavior No change in Behavior Goal achieved: Self-Monitoring Perception of own behaviour Comparison of goal and behaviour Discrepancy? fitting capability, motivation opportunity Attempting new behaviour Disengagement from goal Goal (want to / ought to) no no yes yes
  • 9. 2. Controlled behavior is best explained by insights from control theory - self-regulatory cycle ! Blue layer Results from literature 11 Changed Behavior Goal achieved: Self-Monitoring Perception of own behaviour Comparison of goal and behaviour Discrepancy? fitting capability, motivation opportunity Attempting new behaviour Disengagement from goal Goal (want to / ought to) no no yes yes
  • 10. 3. Many processes threaten behavior change ! Red layer ■ Resistance ■ Biases, white lies ■ Threats to motivation (e.g. frustration) ■ Cognitive dissonance reduction strategies ■ Etcetera... 12 Competing / Conflicting Goals Resistance Reactance and scepsis Cognitive dissonance reduction, competing norms Frustration, motivation declineCompeting / conflicting behaviours, habits Biases, White lies Lack of relevant information Changed Behavior Goal achieved: Self-Monitoring Perception of own behaviour Comparison of goal and behaviour Discrepancy? fitting capability, motivation opportunity Attempting new behaviour Disengagement from goal Goal (want to / ought to) no no yes yes Results from literature
  • 11. 4. We’re social animals ! Green layer ■ Social comparison ■ Social norms ■ Peer pressure ■ Social commitment ■ Cooperation and shared goals ■ Social inhibition, social validation 13 Social Norms Peer Pressure, SocialValidation Social Commitment Cooperation, shared goals Social Comparison Social Inhibition CUE Changed Behavior Original Behavior No change in Behavior Goal achieved: Self-Monitoring Perception of own behaviour Comparison of goal and behaviour Discrepancy? fitting capability, motivation opportunity Attempting new behaviour Disengagement from goal Goal (want to / ought to) no no yes yes Results from literature
  • 12. Black layer ■ Interventions in controlled behavior ■ norm communication, feedback, action planning, involving social factors 14 +! feasible steps Action planning ! ! ! Reporting Performance Feedback Norm / Goal Setting Targets by communicating norms and goals Involving Social Factors Intervening in reflective/controlled behavior Social Norms Peer Pressure, SocialValidation Social Commitment Cooperation, shared goals Social Comparison Social Inhibition Competing / Conflicting Goals Resistance Reactance and scepsis Cognitive dissonance reduction, competing norms Frustration, motivation declineCompeting / conflicting behaviours, habits Biases, White lies Lack of relevant information Self-Monitoring Perception of own behaviour Comparison of goal and behaviour Discrepancy? fitting capability, motivation opportunity Attempting new behaviour Disengagement from goal Goal (want to / ought to) no no yes yes Changed Behavior Original Behavior No change in Behavior Goal achieved:
  • 13. Purple layer ■ Interventions aimed at automatic behavior ■ removing cues, placing alternative cues, disrupting cue-behavior-link 15 i Intervening in automatic behavior placing alternative cue Reporting Performance Feedback i disrupting cue – behavior link i removing cue CUE Changed Behavior Original Behavior No change in Behavior Goal achieved:
  • 14. 16 REFLECTIVE BEHAVIOR REFLEXIVE BEHAVIOR boundary conditions i Communicator interventions aimed at explicit, controlled behaviour threats to self regulatory cycle social influences on self regulatory cycle steps in the self regulatory cycle (model based, reflective behaviour) i Communicator interventions aimed at implicit, automatic behaviour i Intervening in automatic behavior placing alternative cue attractiveness and availability of goal Reporting Performance Feedback i disrupting cue – behavior link i removing cue +! feasible steps Action planning ! ! ! Reporting Performance Feedback Norm / Goal Setting Targets by communicating norms and goals Involving Social Factors Intervening in reflective/controlled behavior Social Norms Peer Pressure, SocialValidation Social Commitment Cooperation, shared goals Social Comparison Social Inhibition Competing / Conflicting Goals Resistance Reactance and scepsis Cognitive dissonance reduction, competing norms Frustration, motivation declineCompeting / conflicting behaviours, habits Biases, White lies Lack of relevant information CUE Changed Behavior Original Behavior No change in Behavior Goal achieved: Self-Monitoring Perception of own behaviour Comparison of goal and behaviour Discrepancy? fitting capability, motivation opportunity Attempting new behaviour Disengagement from goal Goal (want to / ought to) no no yes yes Persuasive by Design Behaviour Change Model tekst http://www.touchpoints-hu.nl/
  • 15. First tool derived from model: Sets of questions to test concepts ■ Ten sets ■ 6 sets from blue layer, 2 from red layer, 2 from green layer ■ Each set has additional questions from black + purple layers 17
  • 16. Testing the model ■ Workshops ■ Anders op Weg, concepts for persuading people to reduce car use during rush our. 8 participants ■ Enexis, concepts for reducing company CO2 footprint through behavior change. 12 participants 18
  • 17. Testing the model ■ Workshop consisted of ■ Introduction of the model ■ Introduction of sets of questions derived from the model to challenge the design concepts ■ Working on the concepts using model and questions ■ Feedback, questionnaires and interviews 19
  • 18. Workshop results: Questionnaires and interviews ✓ Participants indicated: ■ valuable insights ■ both for current project and for work overall ✓ We observed: ■ richer concepts that were better thought-through and more sharply defined ■ problems and pitfalls of concepts became clear 20 “Of great value. I am one of the more sceptical people in my team; this enables us to think more clearly about our goals and the means that we need to develop to achieve them!”
  • 19. Workshop results: Questionnaires and interviews - Participants indicated: ■ the complexity of the model makes it hard to use without guidance - We observed: ■ participant were most likely to use the best explained examples and principles ■ the model is impossible to use without introduction 21 “I would like to see a simpler version.”
  • 20. Results ✓ Evidence-based model ✓ More possibilities for informing designs ! Easy to use 22
  • 21. Results ✓ Evidence-based model ✓ More possibilities for informing designs ! Easy to use ‣Next phase ■prototyping and testing tools based upon model ■especially aiming at a ‘stand alone’-tool ■ graphic novel techniques ■ interactive infographic techniques 23
  • 22. Thank you ■ Your questions? ■ more information: sander.hermsen@hu.nl @sanderhermsen ■ Download model pdf and questions at http://www.touchpoints-hu.nl/ 24