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Chapter 6: Learning Disabilities


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Learning Disabilities

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Chapter 6: Learning Disabilities

  1. 1. Chapter 6Chapter 6 Learning DisabilitiesLearning Disabilities Adapted from NICHCY's Building the Legacy Training Curriculum on IDEA 2004
  2. 2. • How are learning disabilities and dyslexia defined? • What are the characteristics of students with learning disabilities? • How are students with learning disabilities identified? • What principles guide effective instruction for students with learning disabilities? Chapter 6 QuestionsChapter 6 Questions
  3. 3. IDEA Definition ofIDEA Definition of Learning DisabilitiesLearning Disabilities • Processing disorder - in spoken or written language (phonological, auditory, visual, spatial, etc.). • Low academic achievement - below expectations, poor response to interventions • Synonymous with other terms - such as perceptual disabilities, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia • Exclusion clause - not the result of other disabilities, disadvantage, or limited English proficiency
  4. 4. • Heterogeneity – average or above intelligence, uneven development of academic skills • Academic Difficulties – reading (80%), written expression, math (25%) • Cognitive Skill Deficits - memory, attention, metacognition • Social Problems – difficulty with social cues, conversation • Motivation Issues - frustration, avoidance, behavior problems, disengagement Primary CharacteristicsPrimary Characteristics
  5. 5. Texas Education Code Definition: A disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. DyslexiaDyslexia Myths about Dyslexia
  6. 6. • In Texas, students with dyslexia may qualify for accommodations under Section 504 or services under IDEA. • Texas schools must provide intensive individualized intervention and accommodations to students with dyslexia, even if they don’t meet the criteria for Section 504 or IDEA. DyslexiaDyslexia For more information, see Texas Dyslexia Handbook.
  7. 7. According to IDEA (2004) a district… •May not require use of severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement •Must permit use of a process based on the child's response to scientific, research-based intervention (RTI) Identifying Learning DisabilitiesIdentifying Learning Disabilities
  8. 8. Indentifying Learning DisabilitiesIndentifying Learning Disabilities Discrepancy Model (traditional method) • Intelligence (IQ) test • Achievement Tests • Greater than 1 Standard Deviation (>15) between IQ and achievement indicates a severe discrepancy Example (standard score mean = 100): • IQ = 102 • Reading = 76 • Math = 88 Qualifies in reading (102-76=26), not math (102=88=14)
  9. 9. Response to Intervention When child’s progress is not sufficient to meet age or grade level standards, after multiple levels or tiers of instruction have been administered, inadequate instruction is eliminated as a possible cause of disability. Identifying Learning DisabilitiesIdentifying Learning Disabilities
  10. 10. Identifying Learning DisabilitiesIdentifying Learning Disabilities Formal evaluation may include: • Achievement test in 1 or more of 8 areas:  Oral expression  Listening comprehension  Written expression  Basic reading skill  Reading fluency skills  Reading comprehension  Math calculation  Math problem solving For more info, see:
  11. 11. Explicit Instruction
  12. 12. Explicit Instruction
  13. 13. • Key concepts or principles that facilitate the most efficient and broadest acquisition of knowledge • “Anchors” to which smaller ideas can be connected Big IdeasBig Ideas Big Ideas in Reading
  14. 14. • Temporary instructional support • Withdraw gradually as proficiency increases • Sequence from easy to difficult • Separate potentially confusing information • Manageable amount of information at a time (chunks) Mediated ScaffoldingMediated Scaffolding
  15. 15. Systematic review of skills and content •Distributed over time •Varied to promote generalization •Sufficient to enable learner to master skills •Cumulative with information integrated into more complex tasks Judicious ReviewJudicious Review
  16. 16. • Explicitly teach widely applicable strategies for learning, problem solving, etc. • Model steps in strategy, using think-aloud process • Provide prompts and practice examples Conspicuous StrategiesConspicuous Strategies