Research Design


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Research Design

  2. 2. Meaning A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection & analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. It constitutes the blue print for the collection , measurement & analysis of data. 2
  3. 3. Features of research design Research design is a plan that specifies the sources and type of information relevant to the research problem. It is a strategy for solving the problem. It includes time & cost budget. It contains method to be used in proce- ssing & analyzing data. It contains procedures & techniques to be used for gathering information. It contains population to be studied. 3
  4. 4. Important concepts relating toresearch design. Dependent & independent variables. Extraneous variable. Controlled. Confounded relationship Research hypothesis Experimental & non-experimental hypothesis. Experimental & controlled groups. Treatment. Experiment Experimental units. 4
  5. 5. Different research designs. Research design for exploratory research :- There are three purpose for exploratory research… (a) diagnosing a situation. (b) screening alternatives. (c) discovering new ideas. 5
  6. 6. Techniques Experience survey. Secondary Data analysis. Case study. Pilot study for qualitative analysis:- There are three categories in pilot study… (!) focus group interview. (!!) projective techniques. (!!!) depth interviews. 6
  7. 7. Experience survey It is an exploratory research technique in which individuals who are knowledgeable about a particular research problem are surveyed. The purpose of surveying such experts is to help formulate the problem and clarify concepts rather than develop conclusive evidence. 7
  8. 8. Secondary data analysis It is an economical & quick source of background information. Preliminary review of data collected for another purpose to clarify issues in the early stages of research effort. Using secondary data may be equally important in applied research. 8
  9. 9. Case study The purpose of the case study method is to obtain information from one or a few situations that are similar to the researcher’s problem situation. Conducting a case study often requires the cooperation of the person whose history is being studied. Generalizing from a few cases can be dangerous, because most situations are atypical in some sense. 9
  10. 10. Pilot study for qualitativeanalysis It includes any small scale exploratory research project that uses sampling but does not apply rigorous standards. A the primary data usually are collected from employees , consumers , voters or other subjects of ultimate concern rather than from experts. It’s three categories are… - focus group interview - projective techniques - depth interviews 10
  11. 11. Focus group interview (FGI) There is one moderator/ interviewer and there is 6 to 10 persons in one group. An unstructured free flowing interview with a small group of people and any issue we can discuss with the help of FGI. Focus group allow people to discuss their true feelings, anxiety & frustrations and to express the depth of their conviction in their own words. 11
  12. 12. FGI- advantages Primary advantages:- - less expensive - easy to conduct - quick analysis - brief Specific advantages:- - synergy effect - spontaneous - security 12
  13. 13. - snow balling- structured- stimulation- serendipity- specialization- speed 13
  14. 14. Points / factors to beconsidered Group composition Environmental conditions Moderator Careful listening Planning the focus group outline 14
  15. 15. FGI- weaknesses Out of control Dominating members Topic of discussion changes. Some members avoid active involvement. 15
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