MeaningA research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection & analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.It constitutes the blue print for the collection , measurement & analysis of data.
Features of research designResearch design is a plan that specifies the sources and type of information relevant to the research problem.It is a strategy for solving the problem.It includes time & cost budget.It contains method to be used in proce- ssing & analyzing data.It contains procedures & techniques to be used for gathering information.It contains population to be studied.
Important concepts relating to researchdesign.Dependent & independent variables.Extraneous variable.Controlled.Confounded relationshipResearch hypothesisExperimental & non-experimental hypothesis.Experimental & controlled groups.Treatment.ExperimentExperimental units.
Different research designs.Research design for exploratory research :- There are three purpose forexploratory research… (a) diagnosing a situation. (b) screening alternatives. (c) discovering new ideas.
TechniquesExperience survey.Secondary Data analysis.Case study.Pilot study for qualitative analysis:- There are three categories in pilot study… (!) focus group interview. (!!) projective techniques. (!!!) depth interviews.
Experience surveyIt is an exploratory research technique in which individuals who areknowledgeable about a particular research problem are surveyed.The purpose of surveying such experts is to help formulate the problem andclarify concepts rather than develop conclusive evidence.
Secondary data analysisIt is an economical & quick source of background information.Preliminary review of data collected for another purpose to clarify issues inthe early stages of research effort.Using secondary data may be equally important in applied research.
Case studyThe purpose of the case study method is to obtain information from one or afew situations that are similar to the researcher’s problem situation.Conducting a case study often requires the cooperation of the person whosehistory is being studied.Generalizing from a few cases can be dangerous, because most situationsare atypical in some sense.
Pilot study for qualitative analysisIt includes any small scale exploratory research project that uses samplingbut does not apply rigorous standards.A the primary data usually are collected from employees , consumers ,voters or other subjects of ultimate concern rather than from experts.It’s three categories are… - focus group interview - projective techniques - depth interviews
Focus group interview (FGI)There is one moderator/ interviewer and there is 6 to 10 persons in onegroup.An unstructured free flowing interview with a small group of people and any issue we can discuss with the help of FGI.Focus group allow people to discuss their true feelings, anxiety & frustrations and to express the depth of their conviction in theirown words.