Refer for more information http://www.copyright.com/Services/copyrightoncampus/basics/law.html
A phonorecord is defined by the United States Copyright Act of 1976 to be a material object which embodies sounds (other than those accompanying audio-visual recordings such as movies), for example cassette tapes, CDs or albums.  From the Copyright Act: “Phonorecords” are material objects in which sounds, other than those accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work, are fixed by any method now known or later developed, and from which the sounds can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. The term “phonorecords” includes the material object in which the sounds are first fixed.
Pantomime-Communication by means of gesture and facial expression: Some tourists make themselves understood abroad by pantomime.
No e storage- e.g. google books
Serial copying like serial killer
Serial copying like serial killer
Improvisational - 1. To invent, compose, or perform with little or no preparation. 2. To play or sing (music) extemporaneously, especially by inventing variations on a melody or creating new melodies in accordance with a set progression of chords. 3. To make or provide from available materials: improvised a dinner from what I found in the refrigerator.
Copyright? Copyright is a form of protection provided to authors of “original works of authorship” including Literary Dramatic Musical Artistic and other intellectual works
Indian Copyright Act TheCopyright Act, 1957 came into effect from January 1958. This Act has been amended five times since then, i.e., in 1983, 1984, 1992, 1994 and 1999, with the amendment of 1994 being the most substantial. Prior to the Act of 1957, the Law of Copyrights in the country was governed by the Copyright Act of 1914. This Act was essentially the extension of the British Copyright Act, 1911 to India.
Why copyrights? Copyright ensures certain minimum safeguards of the rights of authors over their creations, thereby protecting and rewarding creativity
How To Secure A Copyright•Copyright is securedautomatically when thework is created.•A work is "created" whenit is fixed in a copy orphonorecord for the firsttime.
challenges Advent of I-way is technological challenge to copyright owners to prevent unauthorized users. Ex-photocopying machines: Reproduction time Quality Delivery time Modification Combine with other works
The Exclusive Rights of Copyright Owners according to Section 106 of copyright act• To reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords;• To prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;• To distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease or lending;
cont…• To perform and display the copyrighted work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works;
Digital copyrights in onlinedatabases Terms and conditions can be categorized as: No downloading at all No e storage (only printing) No copies or distribution, even internally No copies or distribution to third parties Specific limitations on various types of use
Enforcing digital copyrights usingtechnology Controlling access to copyrighted works Controlling server access Completely Uncontrolled Partially Controlled Controlling document access Ex. Unique file format that can be read only by certain software encryption Controlling use of the work – ex. controlling the serial copying
Enforcing digital copyrights usingtechnology Authenticating the work – Use of digital signatures to place a seal on original work Implementing electronic contracts Useof software to implement licensing of rights and metering of use. It is a combination of access controls, digital signature and encryption technologies.
What Works Qualify for Protection•Copyright protects"original works ofauthorship" that are fixedin a tangible form ofexpression.•The fixation need not bedirectly perceptible so longas it may becommunicated with theaid of a machine or device.
Cont… Pictorial,graphic, andsculptural works; Motionpictures and otheraudiovisual works.;Soundrecordings;Architecturalworks.
Cont… These categories should be viewed broadly. For example, computer programs and most "compilations" may be registered as "literary works"; maps and architectural plans may be registered as "pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works."
What Is Not Protected by Copyright•Works that have not been fixed in atangible form of expression (for example,choreographic works that have not beennotated or recorded, or improvisationalspeeches or performances that have notbeen written or recorded)
Cont… Titles,names, short phrases, and slogans; familiar symbols or designs; mere variations of typographic ornamentation, lettering, or coloring; mere listings of ingredients or contents
•Ideas, procedures, methods, systems,processes, concepts, principles, discoveries,or devices, as distinguished from adescription, explanation, or illustration•Works consisting entirely of informationthat is common property and containing nooriginal authorship (for example: standardcalendars, height and weight charts, tapemeasures and rulers, and lists or tablestaken from public documents or othercommon sources)