overview of plc and dcs...
A general information about the common plcs used and how SCADA software is used for virtualising the entire plant equipments and sensors and control them within a single control room.
Throughout my endeavor to make this inplant training a success, many people have
always provided me copious support. I acknowledge from the bottom of my heart those
who were solicitous and benevolent enough to guide me throughout the period.
It is only befitting, that I thank first my department (Electronics & Instrumentation) for
giving me an opportunity to attend this training programme.
My sincere thanks Mr. VARDHARAJA (Personnel Officer) for giving me an opportunity to
work in Tamil Nadu Telecommunications Ltd.
I am indebted to my Company guide Mr. DANIEL for his guidance and support
throughout my training period. I would also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to
Mr.PAZHANIRAJA and for their constant encouragement and guidance throughout my
training and making it a tremendous success.
ABOUT THE COMPANY
PROLIFIC SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LIMITED
Prolific was founded in 1997 by technocrat promoters. Prolific’s vision is to provide
"Best quality - high end training on automation platforms and components (PLCs
/SCADA /DCS /Drives /Instrumentation /Electricals /Networking/ Mechanical Systems/
Mechatronics) to serve two noble purposes – 1) Cost effective job oriented training for
needy engineering graduates and 2) upgrading skill levels of working professional in
manufacturing industry". Prolific services manufacturing enterprises and individuals in
Asia, Middle east and Africa with its wide ranging knowledge based learning solutions in
Automation industry. Prolific’s strength stems from its well accepted expertise in
providing turnkey automation solutions.
Brief Background of prolific
Prolific is professionally run company established by technocrats with several years of
experience in the automation industry and embedded systems. Prolific is one of the
leading turnkey automation solution provider and the largest Indian advanced training
provider in the areas of automation systems and embedded systems. Prolific has fully
equipped facilities at OVER 25 KEY LOCATIONS IN ASIA. Prolific - India's largest
automation training company In order to cater to manufacturing industry's demand for
skilled technical manpower in high-end technologies, Prolific established the Training
Division that imparts advanced technology training, currently, in the areas of control
systems, instrumentation mechanical systems, electrical systems and embedded systems.
Prolific also provides customized training to corporate all over the world.
Prolific's corporate training clients include over 300 global blue-chip companies such as
Qatar Petroleum, SABIC, DUBAL, Aditya Birla Group, Tata Group, Vedanta Group,
Essar Group, P&G, Nestle, Bridgestone, Unilever group, Ordinance factories, Indian
Rayon, Indal, ITC, Reliance Industries, India Cements, Welspun Group, Jindal Power,
JSW, Saw Pipes, IPCL, HPCL and many more.
PLC IN INDUSTRIES
The original task of a PLC involved the interconnection of input signals according to a
specified program and, if "true", to switch the corresponding output.
Boolean algebra forms the mathematical basis for this operation, which recognises
precisely two defined statuses of one variable: "0"and "1―.
Accordingly, an output can only assume these two statuses. For instance, a connected
motor could therefore be either switched on or off, i.e. controlled.
This function has coined the name PLC: Programmable logic controller, i.e. the
input/output behaviour is similar to that of an electromagnetic relay or pneumatic
switching valve controller; the program is stored in an electronic memory.
However, the tasks of a PLC have rapidly multiplied: Timer and counter functions,
memory setting and resetting, mathematical computing operations all represent functions,
which can be executed by practically any of today’s PLCs.
SLC 500 PLC
The Allen-Bradley SLC 500 is a small chassis-based family of
programmable controllers, discrete, analog, and specialty I/O, and peripheral
devices. The SLC 500 family delivers power and flexibility with a wide
range of communication configurations, features, and memory options. The
RSLogix 500 ladder logic programming package provides flexible editors,
point-and-click I/O configuration, and a powerful database editor, as well as
diagnostic and troubleshooting tools to help you save project development
time and maximize productivity.
With up to 64K of configurable data/program memory available and over 60
types of I/O modules, as well as a choice of networking options, the SLC
system provides a powerful solution for stand-alone or distributed industrial
MICROLOGIX 1200 CONTROLLER
High functionality in a cost-effective package.
The MicroLogix 1200 packaged controllers
address the market trend for micro-PLCs
with a small footprint and high
More powerful and flexible than ever, this
family of small, cost-effective micro-
controllers can expand up to 136 I/O. With
the addition dc powered controllers that
provide a 20 kHz PTO (Pulse Train Output)
or PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) output
for inexpensive stepper or servo motor control, six new discrete and analog I/O
modules, and six new features with the Micrologix 1200 series C controllers, you
can use the MicroLogix 1200 family to solve more applications than ever before.
MicroLogix 1200R controllers offer a second comm. port for enhanced
So if you ’re looking for a small, feature-rich, flexible and cost-effective control
solution, the MicroLogix 1200 family of micro-controllers is your answer.
Features and Benefits
24-I/O and 40-I/O
High speed I/O: 20 kHz HSC,20 kHz PTO/PWM output
Expansion to 136 I/O for greater application flexibility
Six new discrete and analog expansion I/O modules to solve even more
Full ASCII (read/write)capability
Large non-volatile 6K memory
Several communication options to solve applications from peer-to-peer to device
level to SCADA/RTU
Real time clock and memory modules
Compatibility with MicroLogix and SLC 500 instruction set and RSLogix 500
Series C Enhancements
Floating Point Data – provides large numbers from -3.4028 x 1038 to +3.4028 x
1038 ±1.17549 x 10-38 for even more accurate data when using Compare, Math,
Move, File, and Communication instructions
Programmable Limit Switch (PLS) function – lets you configure the High Speed
Counter to operate as a programmable limit switch or rotary cam switch
Copy Word (CPW) instruction – copies words of data, in ascending order, from
a source location to a destination location. The data can be the same type or
different (i.e., Integer to Integer or Integer to Floating Point, etc.). Example: The
Copy Word instruction can be used in ladder logic to allow an operator interface
(like a Panel View) to adjust the controller's real time clock for day light savings
Real Time Clock Adjust (RTA) instruction – synchronizes the controller's Real
Time Clock with an external source (such as a timing beacon, etc.). The RTA
instruction will adjust the RTC to the nearest minute.
Gray Code (GCD) instruction – converts Gray code data to an integer value - no
need to write conversion routines in ladder, thus saving programming memory
Absolute Value (ABS) instruction – takes the absolute value of the source and
places it in the destination. The data range for this instruction is -2,147,483,648
to 2,147,483,647 or IEEE-754 floating point value. Important: These
enhancements are added to Series B or earlier controllers through a firmware
upgrade. This upgrade is not required, except to access the new features. To use
the new features, your controller’s firmware and software should be at the
following levels: MicroLogix 1200, Series C, Revision A, FRN 4 (download
firmware upgrade), RSLogix 500 version 5.00
MicroLogix 1200R controllers
The MicroLogix 1200R controller has all of the advanced
features of the Series C controller with the following additional
functionality and benefits.
A Programming / Human Machine Interface (HMI) port
in addition to the Channel 0 port: provides an
inexpensive means of providing an extra port that can be
used for programming using a personal computer with Rockwell Software
RSLogix 500 software, or connecting an operator interface device to your
Increased application flexibility
Reduced system cost: enables users to directly connect a local HMI, allowing
the other port to be used for networking, modem connection, programming and
Requires no configuration: DF1 Full Duplex port that has the same parameters
as Channel 0 when it is in its ―Default Comms‖ configuration
Respond Only: Messaging is not available; it communicates by responding to
communications initiated from the device attached to it
MICROLOGIX 1100 CONTROLLER
The MicroLogix 1100 combines all the features you
demand in a compact controller, with EtherNet/IP
messaging, online editing, a built-in LCD screen on
every controller and a powerful combination of I/O.
Key Features and Benefits
Built-in 10/100 Mbps EtherNet/IP port for peer-
to-peer messaging – offers users high speed connectivity between controllers, with
the ability to access, monitor and program from anywhere an Ethernet connection
Online editing functionality – modifications can be made to a program while it is
running, making fine tuning of an operating control system possible, including PID
loops. Not only does this reduce development time, but it aids in troubleshooting
Embedded Web server – allows a user to custom configure data from the controller
to be displayed as a web page
Isolated RS-232/RS-485 combo port – provides a host of different point-to-point
and network protocols
Embedded LCD screen – allows user to monitor data within the controller,
optionally modify that data, and interact with the control program. Displays status
of embedded digital I/O and controller functions, and acts as a pair of digital trim
pots to allow a user to tweak and tune a program
One 20kHz embedded high-speed counter (on
controllers with dc inputs)
Two 20kHz high-speed PTO/PWM (on controllers
with dc outputs)
Two embedded analog inputs (0 - 10 dc, 10 bit resolution)
A simple operator interface for messages and bit/integer input
4K words user program memory and 4K words user data memory
Up to 128K bytes for data logging and 64K bytes for recipe
For small applications, the embedded I/O in this controller may represent all of the
control required. There are 10 digital inputs, 6 digital outputs, and 2 analog inputs on
every controller, with the ability to add digital, analog, RTD, and thermocouple modules
to customize the controller for your application. On the versions of the controller with dc
inputs, there is a high speed counter, and on the dc output version, two PTO/PWM (pulse
train outputs and pulse width modulated) outputs, enabling the controller to support
simple motion capabilities.
The MicroLogix 1100 also supports expansion I/O. Up to four of the 1762-I/O modules
(also used by the MicroLogix 1200 controller) may be added to the embedded I/O,
providing application flexibility and support of up to 80 digital I/O.
MICROLOGIX 1000 CONTROLLER
Micro size.Big performance.
The MicroLogix 1000 micro-PLC can handle
a wide variety of big-time applications at 32
I/O or below, while using only a fraction of
the space of a full-size controller – at a
fraction of the price. Here's a few reasons
why you can choose them with confidence:
The MicroLogix 1000 line offers 14 models
(11 discrete models with 10-, 16-, and 32-point configurations and three analog models
with five analog and 20 discrete I/O points).
An RS-232 port provides the MicroLogix 1000 family with network connectivity through
the DH485 peer-to-peer network>. Using the DeviceNet Interface (DNI) brings the fast
response, low cost and reliability of open DeviceNet connectivity to all 14
MicroLogixmodels. SCADA/RTU and point-to-point communications capabilities are
available via the DF1 Half- and Full-Duplex protocols.
Flexible I/O technology
Broad input and output specifications provide a flexible control solution.
Input options: AC, DC and analog (current or voltage)
Output options: relay, TRIAC, MOSFET and analog (current or voltage)
Both AC and DC powered controllers are available
There are multiple input voltages and multiple output types: solid state for extended life
and speed, and relay for current-carrying. Multiple output commons maximize your
application’s flexibility, and analog solutions are also available.
The MicroLogix 1000 is ideal for tight applications where other alternatives won’t fit.
The 16 I/O DC-powered unit, for example, is one of the smallest micros around – only
120 x 80 x 40 mm (4.72 x 3.15 x 1.57 in.).
When the name of the game is speed, the MicroLogix 1000 is tough to beat. Execution
for a typical 500-instruction program is only 1.56 ms, with a throughput of a mere 1.85
MicroLogix has a large, 1K user memory capacity ... and makes the most of it.
Windows 95®, Windows NT or DOS-based software supports relay ladder logic
Instruction list programming via HHP (Hand Held Programmer) provides
advanced diagnostics and troubleshooting capabilities in the field
Powerful instructions include message (peer-to-peer communications), high-level
math, data handling, comparisons, LIFO, FIFO ... and more
Subroutine files enhance memory organization
Application program has more than 735 words
More than 250 data words available
Data elements include 512 bits, 40 timers, 32 counters, 16 control files, 105 integer
files, and 33 diagnostic states
Numerous language choices
Software and documentation are available in five languages. The HHP has six languages
Comprehensive instruction set
MicroLogix has the range of functionality you need to address diverse
applications, with 12 basic logic instructions, 43 applied control instructions, and
14 advanced application-specific instructions, including:
Superior high-speed counter ... advanced high-speed capabilities (up to 6.6 kHz)
minimize scan time no matter how complex the program
Drum sequencer ... condenses a large programming task into a single instruction,
conserving memory and simplifying programs
Excellent for simple repetitive processes like die changes, press and assembly
FIFO/LIFO data stack ... simplifies data storage and retrieval for assembly transfer
lines, inventory control, and system diagnostics
Selectable timed interrupt ... periodically interrupts program to execute a
Adjustable from 10 to 2550 ms in 10 ms increments for time averaging or
applications that require periodic lubrication
SCADA (SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA
Four kinds of SCADA components:
Sensors (either digital or analog) and control relays
Remote telemetry units (RTUs).
• small computerized units deployed in the field at specific sites.
• serve as local collection points for gathering reports from sensors and delivering
commands to control relays.
• central processor for the SCADA system
• provide a human interface to the system and automatically regulate the managed
system in response to sensor inputs.
connects the SCADA master unit to the RTUs in the field
SCADA systems are used to automate complex industrial processes where human control
is impractical — systems where there are more control factors, and more fast-moving
control factors, than human beings can comfortably manage.
• Electric power generation, transmission and distribution
• Water and sewage
• Buildings, facilities and environments
• Mass transit
• Traffic signals
WONDERWARE FACTORY SUITE – INTOUCH
Intouch is worlds leading supervisory control and data acquisition software.
The InTouch software package consist of Tags (Memory + I/O). The package
is available in 64, 256, 1000 and 64,000 Tags with the two options
1. Development + Runtime + Network (DRN)
2. Runtime + network (RN).
With DRN package you can develop as well as run the application but in case
of RN you cannot develop/modify the application. The application can be
developed by using DRN package and can be installed on RN package.
Application Development inInTouch Involves
1.Creating new application
2. Creating windows / MIMIC page
3. Tag definition
4. Drawing objects
5. Animation properties
6. Writing scripts
7. Real-time Trends
8. Historical Trends
9. Alarms and Events
To run InTouch for the first time:
1. Start the InTouch program (INTOUCH.EXE).The Welcome to InTouch Application
Manager dialog box will appear.
2. Click Next. A second Welcome to InTouch Application Manager dialog box will
appear displaying the default path for the starting directory. For example,
3. To specify a different directory, type the path to the directory in the input box, or
clickBrowse to locate the directory.
3. Click Finish.
InTouch Application Manager
You will use the InTouch Application Manager to create new applications, open existing
applications in either WindowMaker or WindowViewer, delete applications, and run the
InTouchDBDump and DBLoadTagname Dictionary utility programs.
The InTouch - Application Manager will appear and automatically search your
computer for any current InTouch applications. If an application(s) is found, an icon
with the application's name will appear in the dialog box. For example:
WindowMaker Program Elements
WindowMaker is the development environment for InTouch. The WindowMaker
graphical user interface adheres to Windows 95 and Windows NT GUI standards.
WindowMaker supports floating and docking toolbars, right-mouse click menus
throughout for quick access to frequently used commands and a customizable color
palette that provides 16.7 million color support. (The color support is limited only by
your video card capability.)
WindowMaker's Application Explorer provides you with a powerful, graphical method
for navigating and configuring your InTouch applications. It provides you with easy
access to WindowMaker's most commonly used commands and functions such as, all
windows commands, all configuration commands and all InTouchQuickScript editors.
Additionally, the Application Explorer will display all installed add-on programs such as
SQL Access Manager, SPC Pro and Recipe Manager and it provides you with a
customizable application launcher.
The WindowMaker GUI
WindowMaker supports the Windows 95 and Windows NT operation systems graphic
user interface (GUI) standards including, right-click mouse support, floating and
docking toolbars, pull down menus, context-sensitive help and so on.
The WindowMaker development environment is configurable. By default when you
initially open WindowMaker, most of the available elements are automatically displayed
including, all toolbars, the Application Explorer and the status bar. However, you can
show or hide any or all of these elements and, you can move the toolbars and the
Application Explorer to any location that you desire within the WindowMaker window.
You can also display the optional ruler and you can turn on and off the visible grid in
8 For more information on moving the toolbars see, "Working with the
The following illustrates the elements of the WindowMaker development environment:
The WindowMaker Toolbars
The tools on the WindowMaker toolbars are grouped by common functionality. For
example, the Arrange toolbar contains tools that you can use to quickly apply most of
the commands found on the Arrange menu.
If you rest the cursor on a tool, a tool tips box will appear displaying the name of the
tool. For example:
Working with the Floating/Docking Toolbars
The WindowMaker toolbars have "floating and docking" capability. Meaning you can
move any toolbar from its default "docked" position and dock it again on any edge of
theWindowMaker window or, in the toolbar area at the top of WindowMaker's window.
Docked toolbars can also be moved from their docked position at the edge of the
window and floated within the window. When a toolbar is floating, it will have a title
bar and you can change its size.
8 The Application Explorer can also be docked or floated anywhere in the window
and its size can also be changed when it is floating just like any other toolbar.
For more information on the Application Explorer, see "The Application Explorer."
To change a docked toolbar's location in the window:
Click the toolbar's "cool bars" or, on a blank area of the docked toolbar. Hold down the
left mouse button as you move the toolbar away from the edge of the window or, out of
the toolbar area, or any edge of the WindowMaker window. Move the toolbar to another
edge of the window or, to a new position in the toolbar area. If you move a horizontally
docked toolbar to the left or right edge of the WindowMaker window, it will
automatically change to its default vertical shape when in position for docking to that
edge. Likewise, if you move a vertical toolbar to the toolbar area at the top of the window
or, to the bottom edge of the window, it will change to its default horizontal shape when
in position for docking. Release the mouse. The toolbar will be docked in the new
location. When a toolbar is docked, you cannot change its size nor can you access its
Customizing Your Runtime Environment
Like WindowMaker, there are many properties that you can set to customize your
runtime environment (WindowViewer). For example, you can set the blinking speed for
blinking objects, the system inactivity timeout and warning values, the windows that are
automatically opened when WindowViewer is started from its icon or its menu
To interconnect an analog and a digital device in windowmaker