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OVERVIEW OF PLC AND SCADA

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overview of plc and dcs...
A general information about the common plcs used and how SCADA software is used for virtualising the entire plant equipments and sensors and control them within a single control room.

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OVERVIEW OF PLC AND SCADA

  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Throughout my endeavor to make this inplant training a success, many people have always provided me copious support. I acknowledge from the bottom of my heart those who were solicitous and benevolent enough to guide me throughout the period. It is only befitting, that I thank first my department (Electronics & Instrumentation) for giving me an opportunity to attend this training programme. My sincere thanks Mr. VARDHARAJA (Personnel Officer) for giving me an opportunity to work in Tamil Nadu Telecommunications Ltd. I am indebted to my Company guide Mr. DANIEL for his guidance and support throughout my training period. I would also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr.PAZHANIRAJA and for their constant encouragement and guidance throughout my training and making it a tremendous success.
  2. 2. ABOUT THE COMPANY PROLIFIC SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LIMITED Prolific Vision Prolific was founded in 1997 by technocrat promoters. Prolific’s vision is to provide "Best quality - high end training on automation platforms and components (PLCs /SCADA /DCS /Drives /Instrumentation /Electricals /Networking/ Mechanical Systems/ Mechatronics) to serve two noble purposes – 1) Cost effective job oriented training for needy engineering graduates and 2) upgrading skill levels of working professional in manufacturing industry". Prolific services manufacturing enterprises and individuals in Asia, Middle east and Africa with its wide ranging knowledge based learning solutions in Automation industry. Prolific’s strength stems from its well accepted expertise in providing turnkey automation solutions. Brief Background of prolific Prolific is professionally run company established by technocrats with several years of experience in the automation industry and embedded systems. Prolific is one of the leading turnkey automation solution provider and the largest Indian advanced training provider in the areas of automation systems and embedded systems. Prolific has fully equipped facilities at OVER 25 KEY LOCATIONS IN ASIA. Prolific - India's largest automation training company In order to cater to manufacturing industry's demand for skilled technical manpower in high-end technologies, Prolific established the Training Division that imparts advanced technology training, currently, in the areas of control systems, instrumentation mechanical systems, electrical systems and embedded systems. Prolific also provides customized training to corporate all over the world. Prolific's corporate training clients include over 300 global blue-chip companies such as Qatar Petroleum, SABIC, DUBAL, Aditya Birla Group, Tata Group, Vedanta Group, Essar Group, P&G, Nestle, Bridgestone, Unilever group, Ordinance factories, Indian Rayon, Indal, ITC, Reliance Industries, India Cements, Welspun Group, Jindal Power, JSW, Saw Pipes, IPCL, HPCL and many more.
  3. 3. PLC IN INDUSTRIES INTRODUCTION The original task of a PLC involved the interconnection of input signals according to a specified program and, if "true", to switch the corresponding output. Boolean algebra forms the mathematical basis for this operation, which recognises precisely two defined statuses of one variable: "0"and "1―. Accordingly, an output can only assume these two statuses. For instance, a connected motor could therefore be either switched on or off, i.e. controlled. This function has coined the name PLC: Programmable logic controller, i.e. the input/output behaviour is similar to that of an electromagnetic relay or pneumatic switching valve controller; the program is stored in an electronic memory. However, the tasks of a PLC have rapidly multiplied: Timer and counter functions, memory setting and resetting, mathematical computing operations all represent functions, which can be executed by practically any of today’s PLCs.
  4. 4. BASIC BLOCKS OF PLC PLC ARCHITECTURE
  5. 5. MEMORY MAPPING
  6. 6. PROGRAM SCAN DATA FLOW OVERVIEW
  7. 7. PLC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES ALLEN-BRADLEY SLC-500 CONTROLLER ADDRESSING
  8. 8. ENTERING THE LADDER DIAGRAM RS LOGIX MAIN SCREEN
  9. 9. MODES OF OPERATION VARIATIONS OF THE RUN MODE
  10. 10. SLC 500 PLC The Allen-Bradley SLC 500 is a small chassis-based family of programmable controllers, discrete, analog, and specialty I/O, and peripheral devices. The SLC 500 family delivers power and flexibility with a wide range of communication configurations, features, and memory options. The RSLogix 500 ladder logic programming package provides flexible editors, point-and-click I/O configuration, and a powerful database editor, as well as diagnostic and troubleshooting tools to help you save project development time and maximize productivity. With up to 64K of configurable data/program memory available and over 60 types of I/O modules, as well as a choice of networking options, the SLC system provides a powerful solution for stand-alone or distributed industrial control.
  11. 11. MICROLOGIX 1200 CONTROLLER High functionality in a cost-effective package. The MicroLogix 1200 packaged controllers address the market trend for micro-PLCs with a small footprint and high functionality. More powerful and flexible than ever, this family of small, cost-effective micro- controllers can expand up to 136 I/O. With the addition dc powered controllers that provide a 20 kHz PTO (Pulse Train Output) or PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) output for inexpensive stepper or servo motor control, six new discrete and analog I/O modules, and six new features with the Micrologix 1200 series C controllers, you can use the MicroLogix 1200 family to solve more applications than ever before. MicroLogix 1200R controllers offer a second comm. port for enhanced communications functionality. So if you ’re looking for a small, feature-rich, flexible and cost-effective control solution, the MicroLogix 1200 family of micro-controllers is your answer. Features and Benefits 24-I/O and 40-I/O High speed I/O: 20 kHz HSC,20 kHz PTO/PWM output Expansion to 136 I/O for greater application flexibility Six new discrete and analog expansion I/O modules to solve even more applications Full ASCII (read/write)capability Large non-volatile 6K memory Several communication options to solve applications from peer-to-peer to device level to SCADA/RTU Real time clock and memory modules Compatibility with MicroLogix and SLC 500 instruction set and RSLogix 500 software
  12. 12. Series C Enhancements Floating Point Data – provides large numbers from -3.4028 x 1038 to +3.4028 x 1038 ±1.17549 x 10-38 for even more accurate data when using Compare, Math, Move, File, and Communication instructions Programmable Limit Switch (PLS) function – lets you configure the High Speed Counter to operate as a programmable limit switch or rotary cam switch Copy Word (CPW) instruction – copies words of data, in ascending order, from a source location to a destination location. The data can be the same type or different (i.e., Integer to Integer or Integer to Floating Point, etc.). Example: The Copy Word instruction can be used in ladder logic to allow an operator interface (like a Panel View) to adjust the controller's real time clock for day light savings time. Real Time Clock Adjust (RTA) instruction – synchronizes the controller's Real Time Clock with an external source (such as a timing beacon, etc.). The RTA instruction will adjust the RTC to the nearest minute. Gray Code (GCD) instruction – converts Gray code data to an integer value - no need to write conversion routines in ladder, thus saving programming memory Absolute Value (ABS) instruction – takes the absolute value of the source and places it in the destination. The data range for this instruction is -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 or IEEE-754 floating point value. Important: These enhancements are added to Series B or earlier controllers through a firmware upgrade. This upgrade is not required, except to access the new features. To use the new features, your controller’s firmware and software should be at the following levels: MicroLogix 1200, Series C, Revision A, FRN 4 (download firmware upgrade), RSLogix 500 version 5.00 MicroLogix 1200R controllers The MicroLogix 1200R controller has all of the advanced features of the Series C controller with the following additional functionality and benefits. A Programming / Human Machine Interface (HMI) port in addition to the Channel 0 port: provides an inexpensive means of providing an extra port that can be used for programming using a personal computer with Rockwell Software RSLogix 500 software, or connecting an operator interface device to your controller. Increased application flexibility Reduced system cost: enables users to directly connect a local HMI, allowing
  13. 13. the other port to be used for networking, modem connection, programming and other devices Requires no configuration: DF1 Full Duplex port that has the same parameters as Channel 0 when it is in its ―Default Comms‖ configuration Respond Only: Messaging is not available; it communicates by responding to communications initiated from the device attached to it MICROLOGIX 1100 CONTROLLER The MicroLogix 1100 combines all the features you demand in a compact controller, with EtherNet/IP messaging, online editing, a built-in LCD screen on every controller and a powerful combination of I/O. Key Features and Benefits Built-in 10/100 Mbps EtherNet/IP port for peer- to-peer messaging – offers users high speed connectivity between controllers, with the ability to access, monitor and program from anywhere an Ethernet connection is available Online editing functionality – modifications can be made to a program while it is running, making fine tuning of an operating control system possible, including PID loops. Not only does this reduce development time, but it aids in troubleshooting Embedded Web server – allows a user to custom configure data from the controller to be displayed as a web page Isolated RS-232/RS-485 combo port – provides a host of different point-to-point and network protocols Embedded LCD screen – allows user to monitor data within the controller, optionally modify that data, and interact with the control program. Displays status of embedded digital I/O and controller functions, and acts as a pair of digital trim pots to allow a user to tweak and tune a program Additional Features One 20kHz embedded high-speed counter (on controllers with dc inputs) Two 20kHz high-speed PTO/PWM (on controllers with dc outputs) Two embedded analog inputs (0 - 10 dc, 10 bit resolution) A simple operator interface for messages and bit/integer input
  14. 14. 4K words user program memory and 4K words user data memory Up to 128K bytes for data logging and 64K bytes for recipe For small applications, the embedded I/O in this controller may represent all of the control required. There are 10 digital inputs, 6 digital outputs, and 2 analog inputs on every controller, with the ability to add digital, analog, RTD, and thermocouple modules to customize the controller for your application. On the versions of the controller with dc inputs, there is a high speed counter, and on the dc output version, two PTO/PWM (pulse train outputs and pulse width modulated) outputs, enabling the controller to support simple motion capabilities. The MicroLogix 1100 also supports expansion I/O. Up to four of the 1762-I/O modules (also used by the MicroLogix 1200 controller) may be added to the embedded I/O, providing application flexibility and support of up to 80 digital I/O. MICROLOGIX 1000 CONTROLLER Micro size.Big performance. The MicroLogix 1000 micro-PLC can handle a wide variety of big-time applications at 32 I/O or below, while using only a fraction of the space of a full-size controller – at a fraction of the price. Here's a few reasons why you can choose them with confidence: Choices The MicroLogix 1000 line offers 14 models (11 discrete models with 10-, 16-, and 32-point configurations and three analog models with five analog and 20 discrete I/O points). Advanced networking An RS-232 port provides the MicroLogix 1000 family with network connectivity through the DH485 peer-to-peer network>. Using the DeviceNet Interface (DNI) brings the fast response, low cost and reliability of open DeviceNet connectivity to all 14
  15. 15. MicroLogixmodels. SCADA/RTU and point-to-point communications capabilities are available via the DF1 Half- and Full-Duplex protocols. Flexible I/O technology Broad input and output specifications provide a flexible control solution. Input options: AC, DC and analog (current or voltage) Output options: relay, TRIAC, MOSFET and analog (current or voltage) Both AC and DC powered controllers are available There are multiple input voltages and multiple output types: solid state for extended life and speed, and relay for current-carrying. Multiple output commons maximize your application’s flexibility, and analog solutions are also available. Micro-scopic size The MicroLogix 1000 is ideal for tight applications where other alternatives won’t fit. The 16 I/O DC-powered unit, for example, is one of the smallest micros around – only 120 x 80 x 40 mm (4.72 x 3.15 x 1.57 in.). Blazing speed When the name of the game is speed, the MicroLogix 1000 is tough to beat. Execution for a typical 500-instruction program is only 1.56 ms, with a throughput of a mere 1.85 ms. High-capacity programming MicroLogix has a large, 1K user memory capacity ... and makes the most of it. Windows 95®, Windows NT or DOS-based software supports relay ladder logic Instruction list programming via HHP (Hand Held Programmer) provides advanced diagnostics and troubleshooting capabilities in the field Powerful instructions include message (peer-to-peer communications), high-level math, data handling, comparisons, LIFO, FIFO ... and more Subroutine files enhance memory organization Application program has more than 735 words More than 250 data words available Data elements include 512 bits, 40 timers, 32 counters, 16 control files, 105 integer files, and 33 diagnostic states
  16. 16. Numerous language choices Software and documentation are available in five languages. The HHP has six languages built in. Comprehensive instruction set MicroLogix has the range of functionality you need to address diverse applications, with 12 basic logic instructions, 43 applied control instructions, and 14 advanced application-specific instructions, including: Superior high-speed counter ... advanced high-speed capabilities (up to 6.6 kHz) minimize scan time no matter how complex the program Drum sequencer ... condenses a large programming task into a single instruction, conserving memory and simplifying programs Excellent for simple repetitive processes like die changes, press and assembly operations FIFO/LIFO data stack ... simplifies data storage and retrieval for assembly transfer lines, inventory control, and system diagnostics Selectable timed interrupt ... periodically interrupts program to execute a subroutine Adjustable from 10 to 2550 ms in 10 ms increments for time averaging or applications that require periodic lubrication “ ‘
  17. 17. SCADA (SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA AQUISITION)
  18. 18. Four kinds of SCADA components: Sensors (either digital or analog) and control relays Remote telemetry units (RTUs). • small computerized units deployed in the field at specific sites. • serve as local collection points for gathering reports from sensors and delivering commands to control relays. SCADAmaster units. • central processor for the SCADA system • provide a human interface to the system and automatically regulate the managed system in response to sensor inputs. Communications network connects the SCADA master unit to the RTUs in the field Applications SCADA systems are used to automate complex industrial processes where human control is impractical — systems where there are more control factors, and more fast-moving control factors, than human beings can comfortably manage. • Electric power generation, transmission and distribution • Water and sewage • Buildings, facilities and environments • Manufacturing • Mass transit • Traffic signals
  19. 19. WONDERWARE FACTORY SUITE – INTOUCH Intouch is worlds leading supervisory control and data acquisition software. The InTouch software package consist of Tags (Memory + I/O). The package is available in 64, 256, 1000 and 64,000 Tags with the two options 1. Development + Runtime + Network (DRN) 2. Runtime + network (RN). With DRN package you can develop as well as run the application but in case of RN you cannot develop/modify the application. The application can be developed by using DRN package and can be installed on RN package. Application Development inInTouch Involves 1.Creating new application 2. Creating windows / MIMIC page 3. Tag definition 4. Drawing objects 5. Animation properties 6. Writing scripts 7. Real-time Trends 8. Historical Trends 9. Alarms and Events To run InTouch for the first time: 1. Start the InTouch program (INTOUCH.EXE).The Welcome to InTouch Application Manager dialog box will appear. 2. Click Next. A second Welcome to InTouch Application Manager dialog box will appear displaying the default path for the starting directory. For example,
  20. 20. C:programfilesfactorysuiteintouch. 3. To specify a different directory, type the path to the directory in the input box, or clickBrowse to locate the directory. 3. Click Finish. InTouch Application Manager You will use the InTouch Application Manager to create new applications, open existing applications in either WindowMaker or WindowViewer, delete applications, and run the InTouchDBDump and DBLoadTagname Dictionary utility programs. The InTouch - Application Manager will appear and automatically search your computer for any current InTouch applications. If an application(s) is found, an icon with the application's name will appear in the dialog box. For example: WindowMaker Program Elements WindowMaker is the development environment for InTouch. The WindowMaker graphical user interface adheres to Windows 95 and Windows NT GUI standards. WindowMaker supports floating and docking toolbars, right-mouse click menus throughout for quick access to frequently used commands and a customizable color palette that provides 16.7 million color support. (The color support is limited only by your video card capability.) WindowMaker's Application Explorer provides you with a powerful, graphical method for navigating and configuring your InTouch applications. It provides you with easy access to WindowMaker's most commonly used commands and functions such as, all windows commands, all configuration commands and all InTouchQuickScript editors. Additionally, the Application Explorer will display all installed add-on programs such as SQL Access Manager, SPC Pro and Recipe Manager and it provides you with a customizable application launcher.
  21. 21. The WindowMaker GUI WindowMaker supports the Windows 95 and Windows NT operation systems graphic user interface (GUI) standards including, right-click mouse support, floating and docking toolbars, pull down menus, context-sensitive help and so on. The WindowMaker development environment is configurable. By default when you initially open WindowMaker, most of the available elements are automatically displayed including, all toolbars, the Application Explorer and the status bar. However, you can show or hide any or all of these elements and, you can move the toolbars and the Application Explorer to any location that you desire within the WindowMaker window. You can also display the optional ruler and you can turn on and off the visible grid in your windows. 8 For more information on moving the toolbars see, "Working with the Floating/Docking Toolbars." The following illustrates the elements of the WindowMaker development environment: The WindowMaker Toolbars The tools on the WindowMaker toolbars are grouped by common functionality. For example, the Arrange toolbar contains tools that you can use to quickly apply most of the commands found on the Arrange menu. If you rest the cursor on a tool, a tool tips box will appear displaying the name of the tool. For example:
  22. 22. Working with the Floating/Docking Toolbars The WindowMaker toolbars have "floating and docking" capability. Meaning you can move any toolbar from its default "docked" position and dock it again on any edge of theWindowMaker window or, in the toolbar area at the top of WindowMaker's window. Docked toolbars can also be moved from their docked position at the edge of the window and floated within the window. When a toolbar is floating, it will have a title bar and you can change its size. 8 The Application Explorer can also be docked or floated anywhere in the window and its size can also be changed when it is floating just like any other toolbar. For more information on the Application Explorer, see "The Application Explorer." To change a docked toolbar's location in the window: Click the toolbar's "cool bars" or, on a blank area of the docked toolbar. Hold down the left mouse button as you move the toolbar away from the edge of the window or, out of the toolbar area, or any edge of the WindowMaker window. Move the toolbar to another edge of the window or, to a new position in the toolbar area. If you move a horizontally docked toolbar to the left or right edge of the WindowMaker window, it will automatically change to its default vertical shape when in position for docking to that edge. Likewise, if you move a vertical toolbar to the toolbar area at the top of the window or, to the bottom edge of the window, it will change to its default horizontal shape when in position for docking. Release the mouse. The toolbar will be docked in the new location. When a toolbar is docked, you cannot change its size nor can you access its right-click menu. General toolbar Customizing Your Runtime Environment Like WindowMaker, there are many properties that you can set to customize your runtime environment (WindowViewer). For example, you can set the blinking speed for blinking objects, the system inactivity timeout and warning values, the windows that are automatically opened when WindowViewer is started from its icon or its menu
  23. 23. command. SCRIPTS To interconnect an analog and a digital device in windowmaker

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