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# E lectronics

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### E lectronics

1. 1. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITSElectrical CircuitsA complete path, or circuit, is needed before current path if too much current flows. Too muchvoltage can cause a current flow through current is called an overload, which couldresistances to perform work. damage conductors and working devices. A list of five things to look for in any circuit:There are several types of circuits, but all requirethe same basic components. A power source 1. Source of Voltage(battery or alternator) produces voltage, or 2. Protection Deviceelectrical potential. Conductors (wires, printedcircuit boards) provide a path for current flow. 3. LoadWorking devices, or loads (lamps, motors), 4. Controlchange the electrical energy into another form ofenergy to perform work. Control devices 5. Ground(switches, relays) turn the current flow on andoff. And, protection devices (fuses, circuit We will be identifying these items when we look atbreakers) interrupt the Automotive Circuits a little later in this book. Page 1 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.
2. 2. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITSTypes Of CircuitsThere are three basic types of circuits: series,parallel, and series-parallel. The type of circuitis determined by how the power source,conductors, loads, and control or protectivedevices are connected.SERIES CIRCUITA series circuit is the simplest circuit. Theconductors, control and protection devices, loads,and power source are connected with only onepath for current. The resistance of each devicecan be different. The same amount of current willflow through each. The voltage across each willbe different. If the path is broken, no currentflows.PARALLEL CIRCUITA parallel circuit has more than one path forcurrent flow. The same voltage is applied acrosseach branch. If the load resistance in each branchis the same, the current in each branch will be thesame. If the load resistance in each branch isdifferent, the current in each branch will bedifferent. If one branch is broken, current willcontinue flowing to the other branches.SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITA series-parallel circuit has some components inseries and others in parallel. The power sourceand control or protection devices are usually inseries; the loads are usually in parallel. The samecurrent flows in the series portion, differentcurrents in the parallel portion. The same voltage isapplied to parallel devices, different voltages toseries devices. If the series portion is broken,current stops flowing in the entire circuit. If aparallel branch is broken, current continuesflowing in the series portion and the remainingbranches. Page 2 © Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. All Rights Reserved.