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Development of unfired bricks using industrial waste

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A research project aimed at production of an unfired, non-structural, binder brick with 100% waste material, using fly ash, pond ash, coal cinder, & paper sludge along with lime and gypsum system to alleviate resources like coal, diesel, preservation of top soil, prevention of harmful emissions simultaneously managing the industrial waste.
Project Guide: Dr Shashank Bishnoi, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Delhi

Published in: Engineering
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Development of unfired bricks using industrial waste

  1. 1. M.TECH THESIS PRESENTATION (2014-2016) “DEVELOPMENT OF UNFIRED BRICKS USING INDUSTRIAL WASTE” Presented by Sandeep Jain (2014CET2226) Supervised by Dr Shashank Bishnoi Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Date: 01/07/2016
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE  Introduction: Present Scenario & The Need  Literature Review  Research Objectives & Methodology  Raw Material Characterization  Experimental Work  Experimental Result & Discussions  Conclusions  Future Perspectives “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  References
  3. 3. Introduction: Present Scenario & The Need “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION: PRESENT SCENARIO-PROBLEM TREE Unsustainable Production Process Effect on Building Industry & economy, Higher End-Consumer Prices Environmental Damage, Carbon Emission, Global Warming Loss of Agricultural Top-Soil Scarcity of Landfill Sites Poor Socio-Economic Conditions High Energy Consumption through Intensive Firing High Resource Consumption Obsolete Technologies, Unorganised Sector Environmental Pollution Increase in Industrial Waste Effects Problem Causes “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 01/44
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION: PRESENT SCENARIO-OBJECTIVE TREE Development of Unfired Brick Using Industrial Waste Low cost to End-User As a Green Building Component Protection of Top-Soil Improved Methodology in Recycling Industrial By-Products Low Energy Consumption in Process (Unfired) Saving of Natural Resources Technological Advancement, Organised Sector Environmental Awareness through Recycling Utilization of Industrial Waste Effects Objective Causes “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 02/44
  6. 6. Literature Review “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Fly Ash Bricks (Fired and Unfired) Fatih and Ümit (2001)  Experimented to accommodate fly ash to replace clay from building brick  Up to 60% clay replacement  Compressive Strength increases with firing temperature Kayali (2005)  Conceived the idea of producing high performance fired bricks with 100% fly ash  FlashBricks reported improved mechanical strengths and durability Rai et al. (2013)  Prepared and characterised the lime activated unfired bricks named as FaL-G using fly ash  SEM-EDXA results showed the initial formation of CASH phase with free silica  Reported formation of CSH & CAH with increased curing time, responsible for strength development (Pozzolanic Reaction)  Availability of water for reaction affects strength development (25% optimal)  Crushing strength could further be improved by increasing moulding pressure. 03/44
  8. 8. LITERATURE REVIEW “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Optimization of Process Parameters Chaulia and Das (2008)  Optimized the process parameters for fly ash brick manufacturing like water to binder ratio, fly ash, coarse sand and stone dust by Taguchi method with an objective function to maximize the compressive strength  Compressive strength is a vital parameter to judge the stability and durability  Optimum level of process parameter found to be water to binder ratio of 0.4, fly ash of 39%, coarse sand of 24% and stone dust of 30% giving an optimized compressive strength of 166.22 kg.cm-2 with a tolerance of ±10.97 kg.cm-2. 04/44
  9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Utilization of Various Industrial Waste in Bricks Weng et al. (2003)  Explored the possible utilization of dewatered and oven dried sludge as brick materials  Satisfactory addition of as much as 20% sludge at 960°C  Optimum addition of 10% sludge with 24% moisture content in a moulded mix and firing temperature of 880°C to 960°C Rajput et al. (2012)  Produced the WasteCrete bricks by reuse of cotton (1-5%) and recycled paper mill waste (89-85%) with cement (10%).  Lightweight, & High Water absorption, tiny air pockets attributed to paper waste  Proposed double stage press operation to preserve surface smoothness on drying Bilgin et al. (2012)  Experimented and analysed the possible utilization of waste marble powder in bricks  Tried 0 to 80% replacement of clay with marble powder  Optimum use of 10% with no sacrifice of technical properties  >10% increases porosity, water absorption and decreases mechanical properties. 05/44
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Utilization of Various Industrial Waste in Bricks Vidhya et al. (2013)  Utilization of pond ash and fly ash in bricks using lime as an activator, sand to reduce laminar cracks in bricks, and gypsum to accelerate the hardening process  Compressive strength increases with increase in lime content  20% cost reduction Shakir et al. (2013)  Use of billet scale a by-product of the steel industry in brick production with fly ash, quarry dust and OPC as a binder  Proposed a non-conventional method of brick production using a novel flowable method without pressing and firing  Fly ash and quarry dust acted as a pozzolanic material with SiO2 and Al2O3 reacting with Ca(OH)2 from hydration of cement to form CSH and CASH Banu et al. (2013)  Experimented the fly ash-sand-lime system with gypsum addition to produce unfired light weight structural bricks  Optimum mixture design as 55% fly ash, 30% sand, and 15% lime with 14% gypsum 06/44
  11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Utilization of Various Industrial Waste in Bricks Sumathi and Mohan (2014)  Investigated to obtain the optimum mix using fly ash with the addition of lime, gypsum and quarry dust using to achieve maximum compressive strength  Portrayed the fact that lime reacts with fly ash at normal temperature and forms calcium silicate hydrate Hwang and Huynh (2015)  Unfired building bricks (UBB) with unground rice husk ash (URHA), FA & cement  Application of densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA), forming pressure 35MPa Naganathan et al. (2015)  Investigated the performance of bricks made by using fly ash and bottom ash  Bricks were cast using a self-compacting mixture of fly ash, bottom ash, and cement eliminating both firing and pressing  The peak value of strength was attained for the mix with bottom ash to fly ash ratio of 1:1.25 and with bottom ash to cement ratio of 0.45  Investigation showed increased fire resistance to the tune of 30% & durability 07/44
  12. 12. Research Objectives & Methodology “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  13. 13. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES & METHODOLOGY  To investigate maximum utilization of local industrial waste (fly ash, pond ash, coal cinder, quarry dust, marble dust and paper sludge) for the development of non-structural, unfired, binder bricks through extensive laboratory work.  To optimize the compressive strength of bricks while optimizing binder content, weight density, water absorption, and maximizing industrial waste utilization.  To identify variables affecting the various properties of brick. OBJECTIVES  Identification and Collection of Raw Materials  Material Characterization  Basis for Design of Blends  Casting of Brick Specimen  Curing  Testing various Properties of Bricks Phase 1: Initial Experimental Programme Phase 2: Detailed Experimental Programme Phase 3: Analytical Work  Analyse Test Results and Trends  Identify Factors Affecting and their Effect. METHODOLOGY “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 08/44
  14. 14. TESTING WORK PLAN Raw Materials Characterization Specific Gravity Loss on Ignition Water Absorption Blaine Fineness XRD Isothermal Calorimetry Lime Reactivity Raw Materials Identification & Collection Fly Ash Pond Ash Coal Cinder Paper Sludge Stone Dust Marble Dust Quicklime Gypsum Deepnagar TPS, Bhusawal (M.H.) Nepanagar Paper Mill, Burhanpur (M.P.) Burhanpur, (M.P.) Kishanghar, (Rajasthan) Jodhpur, (Rajasthan) New Delhi Tests on Specimens Compressive Strength Water Absorption Density Efflorescence UPV “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 09/44
  15. 15. Raw Material Characterization “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  16. 16. As per, IS: 1727-1967, IS: 1122-1974 Raw Material Fly Ash Pond Ash Coal Cinder Paper Sludge Stone Dust Marble Dust Quicklime Gypsum Specific Gravity 2.18 2.03 1.53 1.23 2.85 2.88 2.29 2.46 LOI @1000°C 2% 1.60% 17% 58% 0.5% 2.34% 0.76% 1.79% Water Absorption (%) - 2.48% 9.11% 70.80% 0.97% - - - Blaine's Fineness (m2/kg) 334.4 182.1 271.8 - - 379.4 376.4 332.9 RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION (a). Stone Dust (b). Pond Ash (c). Coal Cinder (d). Paper Sludge B. IMAGE ANALYSIS A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES As per, IS: 1727-1967, IS: 1122-1974 “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 10/44
  17. 17. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Fly Ash:  Quartz  Mulite  Calcium Aluminate Oxide  Hematite X-ray Diffractometer “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 11/44
  18. 18. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Pond Ash:  Quartz  Mullite  Sulfur Fluoride “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 12/44
  19. 19. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Coal Cinder:  Corundum  Calcite  Quartz  Hematite  Silicon  Carbon “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 13/44
  20. 20. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Paper Sludge:  Calcium Carbonate  Quartz  Kaolinite  Calcite “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 14/44
  21. 21. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Stone Dust:  Quartz  Kaolinite  Feldspar “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 15/44
  22. 22. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Marble Dust:  Dolomite  Calcite  Quartz “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 16/44
  23. 23. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Quicklime:  Calcium Hydroxide  Quartz  Calcite “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 17/44
  24. 24. RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) Gypsum:  Gypsum  Dolomite  Quartz “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 18/44
  25. 25. Raw Material Fly Ash Pond Ash Coal Cinder Paper Sludge Lime Reactivity (kg/cm2) 2.62 1.77 2.92 1.87 RAW MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION E. CALORIMETRY: D. LIME REACTIVITY 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0:00 4:48 9:36 14:24 19:12 0:00 CummulativeEnergy(J/g) Time (hours) Fly Ash Pond Ash Coal Cinder Paper Sludge FA+PA (1:1) 24:00 “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 19/44 As per, IS: 1727-1967, IS: 5512-1983
  26. 26. Experimental Work “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  27. 27. EXPERIMENTAL WORK Series Mix ID Fly ash Stone dust Pond ash Quick lime Gypsum Water A PA-0% (BM) 50% 50% 0% 9% 3% 14% PA-12.5% 50% 37.5% 12.5% PA-25% 50% 25% 25% PA-37.5% 50% 12.5% 37.5% PA-50% (RM) 50% 0% 50% A. CASTING OF TEST SPECIMENS Series Mix ID Fly ash Stone dust Pond ash Quick lime Gypsum Water B PA-50% (RM) 50% 0% 50% 9% 3% 14% PA-62.5% 37.5% 0% 62.5% PA-75% 25% 0% 75% PA-87.5% 12.5% 0% 87.5% PA-100% 0% 0% 100% 2. REPLACEMENT OF FLY ASH FROM REFERENCE MIX (RM) WITH POND ASH 1. REPLACEMENT OF STONE DUST FROM BASE MIX (BM) WITH POND ASH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Shape of the Brick Specimen: Cubical Size of the Brick Specimen: 5×5×5 cm Forming Pressure: 15 MPa Applied with the help of CTM 20/44
  28. 28. EXPERIMENTAL WORK Series Mix ID Fly ash Pond Ash Coal Cinder Quick lime Gypsum Water C PA-50% (RM) 50% 50% 0% 9% 3% 14% CC-12.5% 37.5% 50% 12.5% CC-25% 25% 50% 25% CC-37.5% 12.5% 50% 37.5% CC-50% 0% 50% 50% 3. REPLACEMENT OF FLY ASH FROM REFERENCE MIX (RM) WITH COAL CINDER Series Mix ID Fly ash Pond Ash Paper Sludge Quick lime Gypsum Water D PA-50% (RM) 50% 50% 0% 9% 3% 14% PS-10% 50% 50% 10% PS-20% 50% 50% 20% PS-30% 50% 50% 30% 4. ADDITION OF PAPER SLUDGE TO THE REFERENCE MIX (RM) 5. ADDITION OF MARBLE DUST TO THE REFERENCE MIX (RM) Series Mix ID Fly ash Pond Ash Marble Dust Quick lime Gypsum Water E PA-50% (RM) 50% 50% 0% 9% 3% 14% MD-10% 50% 50% 10% MD-20% 50% 50% 20% MD-30% 50% 50% 30% “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 21/44
  29. 29. EXPERIMENTAL WORK CASTING & CURING OF TEST SPECIMENS “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” Curing: By Wrapping the Specimen inside the gunny bag and Sprinkling Water Temperature: 27°C Casting of More than 900 Brick Specimen for 19 Blends 22/44
  30. 30. Experimental Result & Discussions “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  31. 31. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION A. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Base Mix (BM) PA-12.5% PA-25% PA-37.5% PA-50% Compressivestrength(MPa) Series A 3 Days 7 Days 14 Days 28 Days 56 Days  50% reduction of compressive strength at the age of 56 days for the complete replacement of stone dust from the base mix results in  Initial porosity of the system increased from 3.29% to 14.26%.  Substantial increase in the compressive strength from 28 days to 56 days. Compressive strength (MPa) for replacement of Stone Dust with Pond Ash in base mix 23/44 IS 3495(Part 1)-1992
  32. 32. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION A. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Compressive strength reduces by 50% and 45%, respectively.  Increase in initial porosity from 14.26% to 35.07% (Series B) & and from 14.26% to 29.26% (Series C). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Compressivestrength(MPa) Series B-Replacement of fly ash with pond ash 3 Days 7 Days 14 Days 28 Days 56 Days Series C-Replacement of fly ash with coal cinder Compressive strength (MPa) for replacement of Fly Ash from reference mix with Pond Ash and Coal Cinder at different curing age 24/44
  33. 33. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION A. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Higher reduction in strength in case of pond ash compared to coal cinder  Possible to utilize Coal cinder instead of fly ash in bricks Comparison of compressive strength (MPa) for replacement of fly ash with pond ash and coal cinder at the age of 56 days 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 0%20%40%60%80%100% Compressivestrength(MPa) Percentage of Fly Ash (% ) Series B Series C 25/44
  34. 34. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION A. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Drastic reduction of compressive strength in series D blends with the addition of paper sludge  Significant increase in compressive strength compared to the reference mix with the highest compressive strength of 13.014 MPa, with a 10% marble dust.  For marble dust, initial porosity of the blends reduced from 14.26% to 5.91%. Compressive strength (MPa) for addition of Paper Sludge and Marble Dust to the reference mix at different curing age 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Compressivestrength(MPa) Series D-Addition of paper sludge 3 Days 7 Days 14 Days 28 Days 54 Days Series E-Addition of marble dust 26/44
  35. 35.  For series C, steep reduction with every next blend  UPV reduced by 40% as compared to the reference mix 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3 7 14 28 56 Ultrasonicpulsevelocity (km/s) Curing Age (Days) Base Mix (BM) PA-12.5% PA-25% PA-37.5% PA-50% (RM) EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION B. ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY (UPV) “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste” 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3 7 14 28 56 Ultrasonicpulsevelocity (km/s) Curing Age (Days) PA-50% (RM) PA-62.5% PA-75% PA-87.5% PA-100% Series B 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 7 14 28 56 Ultrasonicpulsevelocity (km/s) Curing Age (Days) PA-50% (RM) CC-12.5% CC-25% CC-37.5% CC-50% Series A Series C  UPV increases with an increase in the curing age.  Decrease in the UPV for replacement of stone dust with pond ash.  For series B, 16% reduction in the UPV from 2.20 to 1.86 km/s 27/44
  36. 36. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION B. ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY (UPV) “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  For addition of Paper Sludge, UPV is drastically reduced compared to the reference mix.  Lowest UPV value of 0.58 km/s has been reported for the 30% addition of paper sludge at the age of 56 days.  With addition of Marble Dust, improvement in UPV.  Highest value of UPV (2.75 km/s) at the age of 28 days is reported for the mix with 10% addition of marble dust. 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3 7 14 28 UltrasonicPulseVelocity (km/s) Curing Age (Days) PA-50% (RM) MD-10% MD-20% MD-30% 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 3 7 14 28 56 Ultrasonicpulsevelocity (km/s) Curing Age (Days) PA-50% (RM) PS-10% PS-20% PS-30% Series D Series E 28/44
  37. 37. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION B1. RELATIONSHIP B/W UPV AND BULK DENSITY “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Bulk density of bricks has a direct correlation with the UPV.  Higher the UPV, higher will be the density of bricks. Relationship between UPV (km/s) and Bulk Density (g/cc) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.8276 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Bulkdensity(g/cc) Ultrasonic pulse velocity (km/s) 2.52 2.13 1.66 0.69 2.59 Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 29/44
  38. 38. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION B2. RELATIONSHIP B/W UPV AND WATER ABSORPTION “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Water absorption and UPV are inversely correlated.  Higher the UPV, lower shall be the water absorption of bricks.. Relationship between UPV (km/s) and Water Absorption (%) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.8086 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Waterabsorption(%) Ultrasonic pulse velocity (km/s) 2.52 2.06 1.66 0.85 2.75 Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 30/44
  39. 39. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION C1. CORRELATION B/W UPV AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Compressive strength is linearly correlated with the ultrasonic pulse velocity.  Higher the compressive strength, higher the UPV. R² = 0.7104 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Compressivestrength(MPa) Ultrasonic pulse velocity (km/s) 2.52 2.15 1.50 0.85 2.75 Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E Relationship between UPV (km/s) and Compressive Strength (MPa) at the age of 28 days 31/44
  40. 40. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION C2. CORRELATION B/W WATER ABSORPTION AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Compressive strength is inversely proportional to the water absorption.  As the compressive strength of the matrix decreases, the percentage water absorption increases. Correlation between Water Absorption (%) & Compressive Strength (MPa) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.7521 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Compressivestrength(MPa) Water absorption (%) 20% 22% 20% 25% 14% Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 32/44
  41. 41. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION C3. CORRELATION B/W BULK DENSITY AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Bulk density of the bricks is directly correlated with the compressive strength of the bricks.  Higher the density of the brick, higher is the compressive strength. Correlation between Bulk Density (g/cc) & Compressive Strength (MPa) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.7676 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 Compressivestrength(MPa) Bulk density (g/cc) 1.69 1.12 1.25 1.17 1.53 Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 33/44
  42. 42. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION D1. EFFECT OF INITIAL POROSITY ON COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Compressive strength and UPV are directly correlated with initial porosity in the bricks specimens  For Series A, From 3.29% for base mix to 14.26% for reference mix.  For series B and series C blends increased from 14.26% to 35.07% and 29.26%, respectively.  for the addition of paper sludge increases the porosity from 14.26% to 29.26% on 10% addition. Relationship between Initial Porosity (%) & Compressive Strength (MPa) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.7850 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Compressivestrength(MPa) Initial porosity (%) 3% 26% 17% 30% 6% Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E For Series D, Initial Porosity improves by 58% for 10% MD. 34/44
  43. 43. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION D2. EFFECT OF INITIAL POROSITY ON UPV “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Higher the Initial Porosity, lower will be the UPV. Relationship between Initial Porosity (%) & UPV (km/s) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.6507 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Ultrasonicpulsevelocity(km/s) Initial porosity (%) 3% 26% 29% 36% 2% Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 35/44
  44. 44. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION D3. EFFECT OF INITIAL POROSITY ON WATER ABSORPTION “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  As the initial porosity of bricks increases, water absorption also increases.  Water absorption of brick is directly proportional with its initial porosity. Relationship between Initial Porosity (%) &Water Absorption (%) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.8085 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Waterabsorption(%) Initial porosity (%) 3% 26% 17% 30% 6% Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 36/44
  45. 45. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION D4. EFFECT OF INITIAL POROSITY ON BULK DENSITY “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  The bulk density of the brick is inversely proportional with initial porosity.  As the initial porosity increased bulk density decreases. Relationship between Initial Porosity (%) &Water Absorption (%) at the age of 28 days R² = 0.852 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Bulkdensity(g/cc) Initial porosity (%) 3% 26% 17% 30% 6% Series A Series B Series C Series D Series E 37/44
  46. 46. Conclusions “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  47. 47. CONCLUSIONS “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Series A  Compressive strength and UPV decreases.  Compressive strength of ‘fly ash-pond ash-lime-gypsum’ system reduces by 50%.  Increase of 28.5% water absorption in the RM compared to the BM.  21% lighter Bricks compared to the base mix.  pond ash is light weight and increases the initial porosity of the system from 3.29% to 14.26%, and has a porous structure and finer particle size compared to stone dust, which is a heavy coarser material and improves packing of the matrix through interlocking.  Series B & C  Compressive strength and UPV decreases.  ‘Coal cinder-pond ash-lime-gypsum’ system has lower compressive strength reduction compared to ‘pond ash-lime-gypsum’. (Higher reactivity coal cinder compared to pond ash.)  Increase of 36% and 20% water absorption compared to RM.  16% and 18% lighter Bricks compared to the RM.  Although coal cinder itself has a higher water absorption but it reduces the overall water absorption capacity of the matrix due to its finer particle size. Thus, in terms of water absorption coal cinder performs better as a replacement of fly ash. 38/44
  48. 48. CONCLUSIONS “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Series D  Addition of paper sludge has a negative effect on the compressive strength, UPV, and water absorption.  For 10% addition, it decreases the compressive strength and UPV by 13% and 59% respectively and increases the water absorption by 29%.  Drastic reduction in the density of the bricks.  This is attributed to the flaky and porous structure of the paper sludge and its tendency to form lumps in the mix which in turn is responsible for the very high initial porosity.  Series E  Compressive strength and UPV increases.  Highest compressive strength of 13.014 MPa and UPV of 2.75 km/s at 28 days for 10% addition to RM.  Improves the water absorption (15.4%) by 22% compared to RM (19.8%).  This remarkable improvement in the compressive strength can be accredited to the finer particle size of marble dust, which reduces the initial porosity of the blend from 14.26% to 5.91% by improving the packing of constituent materials.  Addition of marble dust increases the density of the bricks. With 10% addition, the density of the reference mix increased by 14%. (heavy mass of the marble dust) 39/44
  49. 49. CONCLUSIONS “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  Substantial increase in the compressive strength from 28 days to 56 days of curing age.  UPV increases with increase in the curing age of brick specimen for all the blends.  Compressive strength of bricks is linearly correlated with the ultrasonic pulse velocity.  Compressive strength of bricks is inversely correlated to the water absorption.  Bulk density of brick specimens is directly related to the specific gravity of the constituent raw materials and their packing in the matrix.  Bulk density of the bricks is directly correlated with the compressive strength of the bricks.  Initial porosity of the blend is one of the governing factor which controls the compressive strength, UPV and water absorption of the bricks. As the initial porosity increases, compressive strength and UPV decreases and water absorption increases.  Based on the result and analysis of this study, it is possible to correlate and predict the approximate compressive strength of bricks, based on the initial porosity of the matrix. 40/44
  50. 50. Future perspectives “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
  51. 51. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”  XRD and XRF analysis of the samples to study detailed phase formation behaviour.  Identification of other variables like initial porosity and their effect on properties of bricks in order to develop a Mix-Design methodology for commercially producing bricks.  Optimization of other process parameters like curing condition, temperature, forming pressure etc. by further carrying out experimental work.  Study and testing the durability properties of bricks developed in this study.  Study the thermal conductivity properties of bricks developed.  Synthesis of full-scale samples to conduct the in-situ test.  Study the economic feasibility and life-cycle assessment of brick produced, for commercial production. 41/44
  52. 52. References “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”
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  56. 56. Thank You! “Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”“Development of Unfired Bricks Using Industrial Waste”

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