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  2. 2. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S GAUTENG CREATIVE MAPPING PROJECT prepared by ameru (wits university) and CAJ, 2008 IN COLLABORATION WITH The Gauteng Creative Mapping Project: mapping the creative industries in Gauteng: 2008 Enquiries and Information: Ms Dawn Robertson, Head of Department This report has been prepared by AMERU, Wits University CAJ: culture, arts and jobs This report is available from the Department of Sports, Arts, Culture and Recreation in alternative formats on request and on their website
  3. 3. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S FOREWORD BY MEC neliswe mbata-mtimkulu 2 FOREWORD BY phillip goodwin, british council 3 Glossary of Acronyms and Terms 4 Key Findings 5 1. executive summary 6 Introduction 6 Characteristics of the Gauteng Creative Industries 6 employment 6 economic impact 7 Key Obstacles and Needs 7 2. Gauteng’s Creative Mapping Methodology 8 1. Background 8 2. Measurement of Creative Industries and the origins of Mapping 8 British Council support to developing countries 9 Limitations of statistics: new evidence and analysis from DCMS 10 The impact of technology on the definition and measurement of the creative industries 11 Purpose of Mapping Studies 11 3. The Creative Mapping Process in Gauteng 11 Initiating the process 11 Planning and preparation 12 The Creative Industries Development Framework in Gauteng 12 Gauteng Technical Team 12 Raising Awareness 12 4. Gauteng’s Creative Mapping Methodology 13 Defining the scope 13 Defining the population 16 Sampling Frame 16 Methodological Instruments 19 Research Considerations 20 5. Recommendations 22 The data set 22 Regular mapping studies 22 Collecting general data relating to the creative industries 22 Collecting data to measure the growing creative economy of GautenG 22 3. Literature Review: Conceptual framework for the Creative Industries 23 Defining the creative industries internationally 23 Review of models and classification systems 23 DCMS (UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport, 1998, 2001) 23 Concentric circles (Throsby, 1998 & 2001) 23 Symbolic Text (Hesmondhalgh, 2002) 24 WIPO Copyright Model (World Intellectual Property Organisation, 2003) 24
  4. 4. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Creative Economy Model (UNCTAD, 2006, NESTA 2008) 25 The creative industries defined in South Africa 26 Economic analysis of the creative industries 27 Industrial organisation analysis 27 Economic impact analysis 27 Economy wide contribution 28 Value chain analysis 28 Urban and regional growth 30 The contribution of the creative industries to the economy – evidence from other countries 30 The economic contribution of the creative industries in South Africa 31 Drivers of the Creative Industries both internationally and in South Africa 34 South African Sector specific Studies 35 Audio-visual sector 35 Craft 38 Cultural tourism and heritage 41 Fashion Design Sector 42 Music 42 Multimedia 43 Performing Arts 43 Print media and publishing 43 Visual Arts 44 Cross cutting themes in creative industries research in SA 44 The Status of the Gauteng Creative Industries 45 1. The creative industries in Gauteng 45 1.1. The creative industry segments 45 1.2. Characteristics of the creative industries 45 1.3. Characteristics of Gauteng’s creative industries 46 2. The contribution of Gauteng’s Creative industries 48 3. Employment, wages and skills 51 Employment 51 Unionisation 52 Employment: full time, part time and freelancers 52 Racial, gender and age composition of employees 53 Wages 55 Education levels 56 4. Markets and exports 58 5. Technology 59 Fixed line phones and mobile phones 59 Computers 60 Sector-specific hardware and software 61 6. Government funding and private sector financing 62 C O N T E N T S
  5. 5. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C O N T E N T S 7. OBSTACLES 63 8. PERCEIVED NEEDS 65 9. CONCLUSION 68 REFERENCES 69 Websites 75 General 75 Sector Specific 76 Sector Study Data Sources 77 Appendix 1: Firm Level Survey: Long Questionnaire 78 Appendix 2: Telephonic Questionnaire 91 Appendix 3: Creative industry constituents 93 Appendix 4: Vocational Qualifications Registered by the MAPPP-SETA 94 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Employment by Sector in the Creative Industries 7 Figure 2: Framework for developing cross cutting policy, Frontier Economics (2007) 11 Figure 3: Concentric Circles (Throsby) 23 Figure 4: The creative industries - a stylised typology 24 Figure 5: Composition of the Creative Economy 26 Figure 6: Value chain analysis 29 Figure 7: Generic Cultural Value Network 30 Figure 8: The number of people employed in Specialist, Embedded and Support roles within the Australian Creative Workforce (2006) 31 Figure 9: Creative Industries in Gauteng by number of firms in each sector 46 Figure 10: Interdependencies in the Creative Industry Sectors 47 Figure 11: Primary and Secondary Income Sources for the Creative Industries 47 Figure 12: Turnover, assets and wages (second scale) per employee 48 Figure 13: Employment in the Tertiary Sector 49 Figure 14: Proportion of Employment, Turnover and Value-Added by Sector 49 Figure 15: Mean capital intensity by sector 2005 & 2006 50 Figure 16: Breakdown of costs by major category of expense 50 Figure 17: Employment by Sector 51 Figure 18: Employment of Women in the Tertiary Sector 53 Figure 19: Youth Employment in the Tertiary Sector 53 Figure 20: Comparison of Employment Equity in the Labour Market: GAUTENG vs. Creative Industries 54 Figure 21: Comparison of Employment Equity in the Labour Market: Gauteng Tertiary Sector and the Creative Industries 54 Figure 22: Highest Level of Education by Sector in Gauteng 56
  6. 6. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Figure 23: Education levels by sector of the workforce 56 Figure 24: Comparison of Management and Workforce Qualifications 57 Figure 25: National ranking of sectors 57 Figure 26: Export activities by sector 58 Figure 27: Breakdown of export markets 58 Figure 28: Fixed line phone in the creative industries 59 Figure 29: Importance of mobile phones 60 Figure 30: The Importance of computers 60 Figure 31: The importance of the internet 60 Figure 32: The importance of sector specific hardware 61 Figure 33: The importance of sector-specific software 61 Figure 34: NAC Funding by Discipline 2006 62 Figure 35: Primary and Secondary Obstacles 63 Figure 36: Obstacles by Business Size: Costs 64 Figure 37: Obstacles by Business Size: Market Access 64 Figure 38: Obstacles by Business Size: Government 65 Figure 39: Obstacles by Business Size: Access 65 Figure 40: Needs by firm size 66 Figure 41: Market Development Needs 66 Figure 42: Business Development Needs 66 Figure 43: Access to Capital Needs 66 Tables Table 1: Perceived needs reported by companies and organisations 7 Table 2: Findings from DCMS (Frontier Economics) 10 Table 3: Sample by type of interview and sector 17 Table 4: Sampling by firm size 17 Table 5: Sub sector detail 17 Table 6: Creative Industries Models and Associated Sectors 25 Table 7: Timeline of Key Cultural Industry Research in South Africa 32 Table 8: DTI Film and TV sector Interventions 37 Table 9: Customised Craft Sector Plan interventions 40 Table 10: The Total Contribution of the Creative Sectors to the Gauteng Economy 48 Table 11: Mean Replacement Value of Assets by Sector 51 Table 12: Unionisation in creative workplaces 52 Table 13: Employment Summary 52 Table 14: Racial and Gender Breakdown of Employment by Sector 55 Table 15: Mean wage level per sector 55 Table 16: Most important export markets by sector 59 Table 17: Sources of Funding 62 Table 18: Creative Industry needs 66 C O N T E N T S
  7. 7. F O R E W O R D B Y M E C N E L I S W E M B ATA - M T I M K U L U Gauteng Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation Mapping studies have become a common tool for understanding and advocating the contribution of the creative industries in countries such as Colombia, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia. Conducted at a national and regional level, these studies have been influential in creating an evidence base for policy and programming in governments across the world. In 2006, South Africa initiated its first creative mapping studies as collaborative effort between the Department of Arts and Culture (DAC), the British Council and the provincial governments of the Western Cape and Gauteng. The Gauteng Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation is proud to present this report, at a time when we as government have committed to relooking at the way we do things to ensure the creation of decent work and the growth of an inclusive economy. This commitment to renewal requires of us to ensure that we research and undertake feasibility studies to ensure that our programmes and interventions truly meet the needs and aspirations of our people. This report presents a high level overview of the process, findings and implications of the Gauteng Creative Mapping Project (GCMP) implemented by the Gauteng Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation (SARC). The broad objectives of the study were to: • Validate the focus by government on the creative industries in terms of its contribution to GDP, employment and small business promotion • Inform policy decisions. • Influence the strategic direction of programmes and projects. • Provide evidence-based information for advocacy purposes. • Provide a baseline from which to measure growth in the creative industries on a more disaggregated basis. We are thankful and acknowledge the partnership that we have established with the British Council which has resulted in various collaborative projects including the commissioning of this report. We are committed to this partnership and we are excited and eager on future collaborative programmes. We invite all stakeholders from policy makers in government, planning and monitoring directorates, department and agencies involved in the creative economy, the various sectors of the creative industries to engage and use this report to grow and stimulate jobs, productivity, and creative content that will incrementally impact on not only the creative economy but the rest of the Gauteng Economy.
  8. 8. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S
  9. 9. FOREWORD BY PHILLIP GOODWIN FOR THE BRITISH COUNCIL Programme Leader Creative and Knowledge Economy, British Council The creative economy is becoming ever more important as a new generator of jobs, wealth and culture. The UN estimates cultural and creative trade to represent 3.4% of total world trade and is growing at a rate of 8.7%. According to UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) ‘the creative industries are emerging as a strategic choice for reinvigorating economic growth, employment and social cohesion”. Interestingly, even in the current global downturn, the creative sector remains the fastest growing within the UK economy, a position which it has held for over a decade. The development of the creative economy is seen as critical to the UK’s on-going economic prosperity and cultural development. The UK is a world leader in the development of the creative economy and is seeking to develop this position through a number of policy initiatives built around the concept of ‘Creative Britain’ as a global creative hub. This is an economic agenda but it also has a deep cultural and social purpose which accords closely with the British Council’s cultural relations purpose which is to build trust and understanding through the exchange of knowledge and ideas across the world. Underpinning this is our passionate belief in the value of embracing difference in order to generate new ideas, new ways of thinking and new actions that enrich the lives of individuals and the societies in which they live. British Council, through its work in the creative and knowledge economy aims to develop an even stronger set of relations across cultures firmly rooted in the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. We recognise that national and regional governments are increasingly seeing the importance of the creative economy but that public policy in skills, infrastructure, network development and education are constantly struggling to keep up. British Council is developing a framework in which to interact with partners and stakeholders in the global creative economy that centres on four themes: innovation in policy, the development of entrepreneurial skills, networks of creative entrepreneurs and creative education. UNCTAD has said that “the world map of the creative industries reveals a yawning gap between North and South”. Africa requires partnerships that will allow it to harness and give access, opportunity and sustainability to their creative sectors. We hope to continue developing collaborations like this one with the Gauteng Province for the mapping of its creative industries. Not only has it enabled an increasingly influential group of policy makers, entrepreneurs, academics and creative people to come together and develop new insights into the opportunities provided by the creative economy but it has also built closer and mutually beneficial ties between South Africa and the UK. We are proud to be a partner in an initiative that is helping turn knowledge into innovation and enterprise. Phillip Goodwin Programme Leader Creative and Knowledge Economy 3
  10. 10. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S G L O S S A R Y O F A C R O N Y M S A N D T E R M S AMERU African Micro-Economic Research Umbrella at the University of the Witwatersrand which prepared these reports. CAJ Creativity Avriljoffe (CAJ) cc known also as CAJ: culture, arts and jobs which prepared these reports. DCMS UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport DTI Department of Trade and Industry GDP The total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year, equal to total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports, minus the value of imports. GDPR The GDP of a specific region or province. GCMP Gauteng Creative Mapping Project Mean The mean is the mathematical average of a set of numbers. The average is calculated by adding up two or more scores and dividing the total by the number of scores. Multiplier A multiplier attempts to quantify the additional effects of an economic activity beyond those that are immediately measurable or directly attributable to that activity. Output Output in economics is the total value of all of the goods and services produced in an entity’s economy. Public Good In economics a public good means that consumption of the good by one individual does not reduce the amount of the good available for consumption by others; and no one can be effectively excluded from using that good.1 Ratio A ratio is a way of concisely showing the relationship between two quantities usually expressed as (x:y) Royalties A royalty is a payment made to the developer (inventor) of a product or service based on the amount of product/service sales. Ratio Creativity Avriljoffe (CAJ) cc known also as CAJ: culture, arts and jobs which prepared these reports. SACR Gauteng Department of Sports, Arts, Culture and Recreation Tertiary Sector The tertiary sector is that portion of an economy devoted to service activities (e.g. transportation, retail and wholesale operations, insurance) Turnover All sales Value-added Value-added is calculated in this report as output (turnover) minus inputs (all costs except labour and capital). 1 G L O S S A R Y
  11. 11. total economic impact The total direct and indirect contribution of the 11,320 firms and organisations comprising the creative economy is R33,3 billion per annum in turnover, creating employment for over 182,000 people. The audio-visual and the music sectors produce the most revenue per person employed. In terms of the number of firms and organisations active in the sector, the design (25%), craft (21%), audio-visual (11%), music (11%) and visual arts (10%) sectors are the largest. Just over half (54%) are members of industry and professional associations or lobby groups. Income from the sectors comprising the creative industries is primarily derived from direct sales and services. Grants from government and funding agencies contribute 7% of primary income and 9% of secondary income and as such, the creative industries in Gauteng are not as dependent on government grants as generally thought although there are distinct sectoral variations in this regard. The markets for the creative industries in Gauteng are principally the general public and tourists (59%) and other firms (38%) with government representing only 2% of the total market base. All the sectors comprising the creative industries show reasonably high levels of export activity focused primarily on the large consumer markets of the European Union, the United States and Canada. Over a quarter (27%) export to the African continent. Largest employing segment By far the largest employer in the sector, with over 16,000 employees is the cultural tourism and heritage sector, followed by the design (8,616), the audio-visual (8,505) and craft (8,070) sectors. On average, a full-time worker can expect a wage of R8,678; a part-time worker a wage of R3,981 and a freelance a wage of R7,229. There are distinct sectoral variations with regard to wage levels however. Wages are highest in the print media and publishing sector and lowest in the fashion sector Workforce Of all the people employed, 57% are black South Africans and 53% are women. Forty-seven percent (47%) of all employers are young people under the age of 35 and 15% of firms report that they employ at least one person with a disability. The bulk of workers are employed full-time, however significant numbers, in specific sectors such as audio-visual are employed on contract i.e. as freelancers. Over 87% of workplaces report that the majority of employees are not unionised. Qualifications The creative industries workforce is reasonably well educated, with 36% of the workforce reporting to have a tertiary level qualification such as a diploma or degree. Ten percent (10%) of firms and organisations report that vocational education and training is the highest level of education of their workforce and 27% report secondary schooling (Grade 10 – 12) as the highest level. It is important to note 25% indicate that the level of education is not applicable to their workforce at all, an indication that not all sectors have high educational entry requirements. In particular, the visual arts, craft and music sectors provide significant opportunities for school leavers, however the majority of creative industry sectors require some kind of further education and training. The most qualified workforces are found in the cultural tourism and heritage sectors, music, print media and publishing, audio-visual, multimedia, and design sectors. Legal entities Most of the organisations and enterprises that participated in the survey are formally registered. The majority of enterprises (44%) are registered as Closed Corporations, 18% are Limited Companies and 14% are sole traders. A significant portion (11%), are non-profit enterprises registered as trusts, Section 21 Companies or as non-profits predominantly in the craft, visual arts, performing arts and cultural tourism and heritage sectors. In terms of organisational stability, 44% have been trading for 10 years or longer. Significantly, 34% are less than 4 years old, an indication of the rapid growth of enterprises particularly in the sector. k ey findings 5
  12. 12. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S introduction The Gauteng Creative Mapping Project (GCMP) was implemented by the Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation (SACR) in order to quantify the contribution of the creative industries to the Gauteng economy. A secondary aim was to gather information on perceived needs and obstacles to ensure the alignment of policy and programmes to the needs of the sector. The mapping project comprises in-depth and firm-level surveys across the following sectors comprising the creative industries: • Visual arts • Performing arts • Cultural tourism and heritage • Multimedia • Music • Craft • Audio-visual • Print media and publishing • Design • Fashion Characteristics of the Gauteng Creative Industries The GCMP estimates, based on industry databases, directories and key informants, that there are over 11,000 firms and organisations active in the creative economy in the Gauteng province The largest sectors in terms of numbers of entities (both commercial and non-profit) are design (25%), craft (21%), audio-visual (11%), music (11%) and visual arts (10%). The majority of organisations are owned by white South Africans and over 35% of all businesses and organisations are owned by people under 35 years of age. Most organisations are formally registered, the bulk (44%) as Closed Corporations, 18% as limited companies, 14% as sole traders and 11% as non-profit organisations. Slightly less than 70% of all organisations are owned by 1 or 2 people. Only 54% of enterprises report that they are members of professional and/or industry associations and 86% report that the majority of their workforce is not unionised. Slightly more than a quarter (27%) operate from home-based studios or workshops, 46% from rented premises and 23% from premises that they own. While over 40% have been in business for over 10 years, a third of all companies have only been in operation for 4 years or less. Income from direct sales or services comprises the bulk of income streams; grant funding from government or funding agencies comprises 7% of all income. The markets for the creative industries in Gauteng are principally the general public and tourists (59%) and other firms (38%). Government represents only 2% of the total market base. In general, all the sectors comprising the creative industries show reasonably high levels of export activity with the most active sectors being audio-visual (61%), multimedia (55%) and music (54%). Operational and staffing costs represent the highest proportions of expenditure in creative industry organisations and enterprises. Technology is critical to many of the enterprises and organisations. All sectors rely heavily on fixed line telephony but there are distinct variations in other aspects. In design, print media and publishing, audio-visual, multimedia and music, sector-specific hardware and software are important. The craft and fashion sectors however appear to have little use for computer technology. Employment The businesses and organisations operating in the Gauteng creative industries create employment for over 63,000 people. In terms of direct employment, the creative industries account for 1,9% of employment in the province, slightly more than agriculture and forestry (1,8%) and slightly less than mining (2,5%). The cultural tourism and heritage, design, audio-visual, craft and print media and publishing and print media sectors are the largest employers in the creative industries. executive summary E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y
  13. 13. Figure 1: Employment by Sector in the Creative Industries The average full-time employment per firm is 13,1 people; part-time employment is 2,3 and for freelancers it is 8,1. Of all the people employed, 57% are black South Africans, 53% are women and 47% are youth. The fashion, cultural tourism and heritage and performing arts sectors have the largest proportion of black workers; multimedia, design and print media and publishing the fewest. With regard to gender matters, multimedia, music, visual arts and design sectors show the lowest proportions of women employed Wages are highest in the print media and publishing sector and employees in the craft and the fashion sectors earn on average the lowest of all the sectors (less than R4,000 per month). On average across the creative industries, a full-time worker can expect a wage of R8,678; a part-time worker a wage of R3,981 and a freelance a wage of R7,229 Economic Impact The total direct and indirect contribution of the 11,320 firms and organisations comprising the creative economy is R33,3 billion per annum in turnover, creating employment for over 182,000 people. The creative industries in Gauteng contribute R11,6 billion rand in direct output and R6,2 billion in value-added to the economy. The creative industries in the province contribute about 1% of the value-added by the tertiary sector and 0.7% for the provincial economy as a whole. The workforce is well educated, with 27% reporting secondary schooling (Grade 10 – 12) as the highest level of education and 36% of the workforce reporting to have a tertiary level qualification such as a diploma or degree. The visual arts, craft and music sectors provide significant opportunities for school leavers; however the majority of creative industry sectors require some kind of further education and training. Key Obstacles and Needs Costs were the most frequently mentioned obstacle, while market related issues, such as the practices of competitors and a skilled workforce, were mentioned by 39% of firms, followed by government related issues, such as SARS compliance and labour regulation, by 33% of firms. The perceived needs of the companies and organisations were closely related to the obstacles described above. More than half the companies interviewed said they needed help with marketing their product. The table below provides an overview of needs: Table 1: Perceived needs reported by companies and organisations NEED % Help with marketing 51 Help obtaining external commercial funding 29 Help obtaining external government funding 29 Staff training 26 Help with international expansion 24 Help with strategy and business planning 17 Increased web presence (marketing, distribution) 18 Help with developing new ideas for cash generation 14 7
  14. 14. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S 1. Background This chapter details the origins of mapping as well as the methodology followed by the Gauteng Creative Mapping Project (GMCP). It also identifies some central methodological problems and the main constraints to producing mapping studies as well as the solutions adopted by the Gauteng Creative Mapping Project. The technical team guiding this research believed that it is important to make the research process and assumptions transparent so that future mapping processes both in Gauteng and around the country can benefit from the experience and learning acquired in the course of this mapping exercise. Both this chapter and the literature review allow the reader to understand both the presentation of data and the interpretation offered by the GCMP. 2. Measurement of Creative Industries and the origins of Mapping Considering that UNESCO released a framework for cultural statistics more than twenty years ago, in 1987, it is perhaps surprising that there is still no agreement on a methodology for measuring the creative industries. UNESCO’s framework was the first formal international classification of cultural statistics and the organisation now collects a number of cultural statistics globally. In addition to the collection of statistics across countries, data are also collected by individual countries. For example, in Australia statistics are collected through the addition of pertinent questions to existing surveys. There are also a number of other specifically tailored surveys on business and government organisations as well as surveys of individuals to determine the number of people attending cultural activities and in cultural related work. Statistics Canada gathers data through the Culture Statistics Program and is less concerned about its integration into the wider statistical system. It also measures participation in cultural activities and has a detailed Culture Labour Force Survey. Finland, France and Italy are other developed countries where the government statistical agency is the primary collector of statistics concerned with the creative sector. In the Philippines, a country which faces many similar challenges in the creative sector to South Africa such as the informality and micro nature of creative enterprises and the fact that many creative workers have full time jobs in other industries, cultural statistics can also be extracted from those collected from the national statistical agency. Statistical data for the Philippines is collected at the 4 digit SIC code level, which allows for the disaggregation of a number of cultural related activities (CAJ, 2003). This approach – using statistics that are collected by the national statistical agency as part of its ‘ordinary’ surveying – has been used very successfully in a number of other countries to identify trends in and the size of the creative sector. The United Kingdom and Singapore are two countries where the relevant government department, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) in the UK and the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Singapore, extracts information from the data collected from businesses and published at the 4 or 5 digit SIC level. The benefits of this approach are that cultural statistics can then be updated as soon as the official statistics are released. As such, in both these countries there now are a number of publications, spanning a multi-year period that provides a detailed insight into the creative sector. Good official statistics that ‘prove’ the contribution of creative sectors to the overall economy, have in many cases resulted in processes seeking to investigate the contribution at a regional or local level. The United Kingdom was the first country to pioneer the concept of creative industries and the term mapping refers to the characteristics of the sector with the publication of “The Economic Importance of the Arts in Great Britain” in the late 1980s (Myerscough, 1988). The subsequent document “Mapping the Creative Industries, 1998” produced by the DCMS through a Creative Industries Task Force that was established in 1997, was the first systematic attempt to both define and measure the economic contribution of the creative industries and assess their opportunities and challenges. Mapping essentially provides the economic data which shows the current value of the creative economy. It also can show the economic potential of the sector and where the sector needs support to grow and realise its potential. The 1998 report was updated again in 2001. Prior to that, the creative sector was not seen as a significant sector or important to the UK’s economy, but ten years on, the UK is a world leader in identifying creativity as a driver for job creation and economic growth. The Government’s Creative Industries Task Force defines the creative industries as: “those activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property”2 . These include: advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, print media and publishing, software, television and radio, heritage and tourism services. In early 1999 DCMS set up a Regional Issues Working Group which produced an important study highlighting both the strength of the metropolitan regions as well as the considerable contribution of the creative industries to towns and smaller cities in the country as a whole (DCMS, 2000b). Numerous studies have since been conducted at the regional, sub-regional and local levels including regions such as Yorkshire and towns such as Bristol, Leeds and Manchester focusing on the special needs of the creative industries outside of the UK capital such as regional development strategies, linking creative businesses with wider networks of communication and exchange, improving business development agencies’ appreciation and understanding of the creative industries and investor knowledge of creative industry opportunities. GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY 2 See M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  15. 15. Creative mapping has also become a valuable tool in a wide variety of other countries both in the developed and developing world. Canada, the United States, Singapore, Hong Kong, New Zealand and Australia are all developed countries that have engaged in creative mapping exercises. In the developing world, Colombia was one of the pioneers of creative mapping with its 2002 study of the creative industries in Bogotá. The development of a handbook “Guide to Producing Regional Mappings of the Creative Industries” (Ministry of Culture, Colombia, 2007), provides invaluable guidelines for the creative mapping process and was one of the models used for the GCMP. The provincial process was also heavily influenced by the UK process of mapping the creative industries which has been central to their experience. Since 2002, DCMS has produced Creative Industries Economic Estimates every year using comprehensive survey data collected by the Office for National Statistics (ONS). This has enabled them to provide regular updates and consistent data on the activity of the creative industries. The UK Creative Mapping documents include figures for • Gross Value-added • Number of businesses • Exports • Total creative employment (employment in creative industry firms and creative occupations outside the creative industries) for most sectors The result of the attention placed on the creative industries by the UK government can be seen in the latest government strategy, Creative Britain: New Talents for the New Economy which summarises their achievements as follows: “Britain is a creative country and our creative industries are increasingly vital to the UK. Two million people are employed in creative jobs and the sector contributes £60bn a year – 7.3% – to the British economy. Over the past decade, the creative sector has grown at twice the rate of the economy as a whole and is well placed for continued growth as demand for creative content – particularly in English – grows” (DCMS, 2008). This government strategy was preceded by a mammoth research effort by the Creative Economy Programme (CEP) in 2007. A series of research projects were commissioned from independent consultants, research bodies and DMCS themselves, all of which are published on the CEP website3 . As the CEP website states: “The CEP’s objective in commissioning these research projects was to furnish policy makers with a more complex understanding of the characteristics and structure of the creative industries and trends they have experienced. Together they represent a large advance in DCMS and research partners’ understanding of the creative industries” (DCMS 2007). Four key questions framed this research: • What is the direct contribution of the Creative Industries to the UK economy? • Does the UK have a comparative advantage in the Creative Industries and how might this be eroded by other countries? • Do the creative industries make an indirect contribution to the UK economy? • Do the creative industries face barriers to growth and improved productivity and what is the Government’s role in overcoming these? The CEP believes the work has “gone some way to improving our understanding. It has given us a greater insight into the characteristics and structure of the creative industries and trends they have experienced. The intention with the project on spillovers in particular was to give analytical rigour to a topic which has not been explored in the literature before. Together they represent a large advance in DCMS and research partners’ understanding of the creative industries” (DCMS, 2007). British Council support to developing countries In 2001 the British Council embarked on developing a new programme – Developing Creative Economies – to share the UK’s experience and understanding of the creative industries and creative economy with developing countries, especially those where piracy is an issue. The British Council chose to use Creative Mapping as a way to assist other countries to recognise the importance of this sector. Speaking of the mapping documents produced by DCMS in 1998 and 2001 the organisation states: “The need then was to raise awareness of the industries, the contribution they made to the economy and the issues they faced. Now the impact of creativity in regeneration and social inclusion is widely acknowledged. Every region of the UK has identified the creative economy as a priority area for economic growth. And the special needs of these industries are reflected in policy development at national, regional and sub-regional level. They are a real success story. The Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) helps the creative industries thrive by raising their profile and supporting their development. It believes that the most successful economies and societies in the twenty first century will be creative ones. The British Council works with the DCMS to promote the vision of the UK as the world’s creative hub; and to share expertise and experience with other countries worldwide” (British Council, undated). 3 The evidence and analysis unit of the DCMS can be accessed on mt/archives/ blog-36/ evidence%20 summary.doc 9
  16. 16. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S This support extends to providing expertise and documentation from mapping studies elsewhere although it leaves each country to interpret and define the creative industries themselves. Mapping studies supported by the British Council have been conducted in a range of countries from Asia to South America. The mapping study in South Africa was able to draw substantially on the experiences of the mapping in Colombia largely due to the Mapping toolkit (Ministry of Culture, Colombia, 2007). Limitations of statistics: new evidence and analysis from DCMS Although the DCMS approach has gained international recognition for measuring the contribution of the creative industries, the data is not without its limitations. Producing annual estimates of the size of the creative industries in the UK economy using data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) allows for the estimation of the contribution to UK employment, Gross Value-added (GVA) and exports. The key challenge is the inability of official statistics to keep pace with the rapid changes and consequent classification problems that occur in the creative industries. Other challenges relate to the scope of particular sectors, such as design where statistics cannot identify all the constituent parts of that industry. A further limitation is that official statistics fail to capture the full extent of activity as they do not accurately reflect the structure of the industries. As such, Staying Ahead, a report produced by The Work Foundation argues that the figures should be seen as estimates rather than definitive valuations. Their study references alternative data sources for particular sectors (The Work Foundation, 2007). In recent research commissioned by the DCMS, Frontier Economics was able to use a data set from ONS previously not available4 to develop a more detailed supply chain approach to analyse the statistics5 . New insights about the structure of the sectors and the types of firms driving growth emerged and some of the key findings are documented in the findings below: Table 2: Findings from DCMS (Frontier Economics) The report argued that while individually the creative industry sectors (music, performing arts, dance, fashion etc) might not be of strategic importance to the UK, there was no doubt that collectively the creative industries are very important. Therefore Frontier Economics developed a framework for cross-cutting policy making suggesting three sub groups which drew on the analysis of the individual sectors in terms of structure, key trends and issues. The figure below illustrates this framework: FINDING DETAIL Large firms are important for the creative industries The largest 200 firms account for 50% of turnover Growth in the creative industries is driven by start-up companies Start up companies accounted for 48% of growth from 1995-2005 – most of this in year 1. Creative Industry companies appear to grow slowly in the years after they start up Creative firms have survival rates that are similar to other sectors. Three year survival rates for firms within the creative industries is similar to the average across all industrial sectors but there are variations between sectors Large international creative industry firms are important in the UK International firms may locate in the UK because of its supply of high quality graduates, specialist “creative skills”, unique infrastructure and because the UK is an attractive place for executives to live and visit Creative industries perform well on a number of productivity measures compared to other UK sectors The creative industries are more likely to be innovative than the other sectors identified in the project6 and they employ highly skilled workers and have a higher proportion of self employed people that then economy as a whole GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY 4 Responding to concerns that official statistics are not wholly representative of the whole creative industries sector, and that ONS surveys cover businesses that are registered for VAT and therefore exclude those small businesses below the VAT threshold, DCMS and ONS began a process of updating the proportions usually applied to the relevant SIC and Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) codes by using detailed survey data. These changes are now reflected in the Creative Industries Economic Estimates Bulletin. The proportions will be reviewed every 3-5 years (DCMS, 2006a). 5 The Evidence and Analysis Report by Frontier Economics is available on the CEP website: 6 It should be noted that the data can be disaggregated to different levels and when the broad sectors are broken down certain sub-sectors may have a higher rate of innovation activity than the creative industries aggregate. M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  17. 17. Figure 2: Framework for developing cross cutting policy, Frontier Economics (2007) The impact of technology on the definition and measurement of the creative industries Technological change in the creative industries, particularly the development of digital media, disrupts not only conventional value chain analysis and conventional copyright regulation by bringing consumers closer to creators7 , but it also raises significant questions for sectoral boundaries, definitions and measurement. While the sectors identified in the DCMS mapping documents retain a strong identity for measurement, economic value and organisation, there is a view that future exercises to gather data on the creative economy may see sectoral boundaries changing due to incessant technology change (The Work Foundation, 2007). Purpose of Mapping Studies Colombia’s mapping experience in partnership with the British Council produced a guide to designing, conducting and analysing mapping projects. This guide, now translated into English, provides an outline of mapping studies in the UK and Columbia, stages in the production of mapping as well as technical considerations in the mapping process. The GMCP used this guide as a reference although the final process is quite different to that of Colombia. The lack of official statistics has meant that the mapping has needed to rely almost solely on primary data collected through firm level questionnaires with contextualisation and interpretation provided by the technical advisors to the project, CAJ. The document, Guide to Producing Regional Mappings provides useful elaboration on the purpose of mapping studies as follows: • To diagnose a giving situation by identifying its constituent elements, the relations between them and the results of such interaction. • To describe and interpret the data to contribute to solutions to the problems revealed by the diagnosis. • To give greater visibility to the sector through the identification of the value of culture and creation both as cultural expression as well as its contribution to the economy or region. • To provide information that allows national and regional agents to identify key aspects about the dynamics of creative industries. • To provide the necessary facts that improves decision-making in the design of policies to strengthen these industries. • To stimulate the organisation of individuals and companies of the creative and cultural sectors so that they are perceived as a collective whole that facilitates their recognition, positioning and empowerment as an economically important sector. • To identify the targets of the study which are the institutions that are able to support the growth of the sector, the role-players within the creative sector as well as the stakeholders in the creative community. • The process of mapping could, through the building of alliances and clusters of industries, stimulate organisation (Ministry of Culture, Colombia, 2007:6). 3. The Creative Mapping Process in Gauteng Initiating the process The British Council South Africa decided to expand the new programme launched in the UK in 2001 – Developing Creative Economies – to South Africa in 2005 with the aim of developing the understanding of, information about, and interest in the Creative Economies. In 2005 the British Council 7 The impact of technology on cultural value chains is explored in more detail in the literature review chapter, in particular the research by Connectus Consulting Inc. (2007) 1 1
  18. 18. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S commissioned Creativity Avriljoffe (CAJ) to undertake a review of the creative sector research in South Africa (CAJ, 2005). In the same year, the British Council UK began discussions with the Department of Arts and Culture (DAC) about conducting a mapping study on the creative economy in South Africa. The elements of an agreement between the BC and the DAC were laid during the Nurturing the Creative Economy (NCE4) meetings in West Sussex in November 2005. By July 2006, with the support of the Developing Creative Economies Programme in South Africa, DAC had developed a clear plan of action for the South Africa Cultural Mapping Programme detailing the governance and administration of the project from co-ordinator, champions group, management group, creative network, technical expertise group to the participating universities in each of the 3 provinces (Western Cape, Gauteng, Kwa-Zulu Natal). A seminar programme for civil servants from all spheres of government as well as an awareness raising programme about the creative economy was part of the planned activities associated with the mapping research. The timeline stretched from October 2006, starting with the visit of the British Council UK and their consultants, a launch of the Creative Mapping in South Africa and the mappings in each of the three provinces during 2007 to the publications of final mapping reports in March 2008. Planning and preparation The DAC appointed the University of the Witwatersrand’s African Micro-Economic Research Umbrella (AMERU), under the leadership of Dr Neil Rankin to conduct the creative mapping in Gauteng. The DAC had allocated funds to conduct a horizontal mapping of a few of the creative industries (such as music) in Gauteng. The Department of Sport, Arts, Culture and Recreation (SACR) in Gauteng however felt that a horizontal mapping of all the creative industries should be conducted to add value to its Creative Industries Development Framework (CIDF) which was released in 2005. To support the scope enlargement and as a major partner in the Creative Mapping project, SACR committed substantial additional funds to the project. In addition, the British Council appointed Burns Owens Partnership (BOP) to support the work of the British Council South Africa in overseeing this creative mapping project. The Creative Industries Development Framework in Gauteng An important consideration for the Gauteng Mapping Project has been to align the mapping project in Gauteng with the Creative Industries Development Framework which guides the work of the Department of Sports, Arts, Culture and Recreation (SACR). The aim of this framework which was released in October 2005 is to: • Develop creative industries to maximize their contribution to the economy, community development and urban regeneration. • Provide a coordinating framework for investment and implementation in the province. • Align creative industries activities with the Gauteng Growth and Development Strategy. The role of the Creative Mapping in Gauteng is to support the CIDF and provide a more nuanced understanding of the sectors that it intends to develop and support. In addition, it was hoped that the process of the mapping would also ensure the involvement of government stakeholders across the board to facilitate the involvement of local governments and other Gauteng government departments in the implementation of the CIDF. Gauteng Technical Team A technical team was established to oversee the research comprising members of the British Council Johannesburg office, SACR officials, the department’s specialist consulting company CAJ, the National Film and Video Foundation (NFVF), the DAC8 and the Directorate of Culture in the City of Johannesburg. This team met monthly in the offices of the British Council with the research team to provide support to the research process and assess progress. Raising Awareness A two-day workshop was held in Johannesburg under the auspices of the British Council with their partners, the DAC, the NAC, the NFVF and SACR, to launch the Creative Mapping Project. The first day was an open day with presentations from the DAC, the SACR department and about creative mapping from the British Council and their consultants, BOP. The second day comprised a more technical discussion between the research team, experts from BOP and members of the technical team about the process of mapping. The workshop report highlighted the inputs from Felipe Buitrago (British Council) and David Holland (BOP) and the current thinking on Creative Mappings which are wholly dependent on the nature of the information requirements of the area under survey and the needs of the end users of the information. GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY 8 The DAC intended to contract the National Arts Council to both receive the funds for the mapping study and act as overall project manager to the Mapping project nationally. However this contract did not materialse. M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  19. 19. They highlighted that while mapping has effectively been used in the United Kingdom for many years to provide information about the creative industries and also to direct programmes; it was also found to be a useful tool in less developed countries such as Colombia to initiate creative industry development programmes. As a guide to the Gauteng mapping project they explained the role of the technical expertise of the team from the British Council (and their consultants, BOP) which took the form of a specific “template” that must be applied. The expertise was there “to inform the operational and technical aspects of the project in terms of scope, scale and methodology”. A range of critical factors were highlighted from the two benchmarks, the UK and Colombia, ranging from the definition of creative industries; the range of sectors included in the definition; to the incorporation of commercial and non-commercial aspects of creative industries. In the UK for instance, the creative industries are defined as having their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent; a potential for wealth and job creation; and the potential for the generation and exploitation of Intellectual Property. In this way, the UK creative industries comprised thirteen sectors including advertising, architecture, the arts and antiques market, craft, design, designer fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, performing arts, print media and publishing, software, television and radio. Current knowledge about the UK creative industries is evidence of the range of information available from Mapping Studies: they constitute 8% of UK GDP which is approximately £83,5 billion and have an annual sustained growth rate of 6% (1997 – 2004) which equates to £5 billion. The industry has been found to be highly diverse, incorporating 120 000 businesses in the UK with less than 30-40 employees and employing 1,9 million people in skilled jobs while at a local level, 12% of London economy is creative and 1 out 5 jobs is in creative industries Most importantly for the Gauteng government is that the UK experience allowed for a shift from advocacy-based to evidence-based policy making that has been greatly facilitated by the information provided by the mapping system. While a national approach was adopted first, the current focus is on regional and local mapping. Mapping therefore is a tool for policy making and policy decisions regarding investment, infrastructure, education and training. It is not a panacea that can solve all matters or a strategy. Rather the evidence collected through mapping can be used to: • “Promote recognition and visibility. • Raise awareness. • Present information as a tool for decision making. • Create a common language for talking about and describing the creative industries. • Present a joint front for making the argument of creative industries development and support for the creative industries. • Strengthen negotiation positions by presenting evidence as to the contribution of the industries” (SACR, 2007). 4. Gauteng’s Creative Mapping Methodology Given the lack of available statistics about the creative sectors the research approach was to conduct firm level studies of a sample of creative enterprises across the sectors of the creative industries. The following elements were important in the development of the methodology. Defining the scope In developing the conceptual framework, eleven sub-sectors were defined for Gauteng, with their respective principal activities and related activities. These definitions were based partially on existing use of sector parameters in the arts and culture sector in South Africa and partially drawn from international experience in defining these sectors. Sub-sector detail 1. Audio-visual For the purpose of this study, the audio-visual, media and film sector includes the following activities: • The generation of creative content for film, TV and radio (commissioning and scriptwriting) • Production for film and TV (all activities involved in creating a movie, TV show, commercial or interactive programme from a script) • Film and video distribution 1 3
  20. 20. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S • Screening of film and broadcasting of TV and radio content • Audience consumption and retail • Media-related activities (trading of broadcasting time, organising logistics between corporate clients and producers and broadcasters) • Specialised education and training (e.g. film schools) • Support services (e.g. specialised equipment facilities and sales and archive facilities) The following related activities are excluded from the parameters of this sector: • Advertising • Photography (classified under Visual Arts for the purposes of the Mapping) • Animation (classified under the Multimedia sector) 2. Craft There are several people who are involved in the craft sector’s different value chain stages. The sector includes activities of weavers, goldsmiths, sculptors, potters, leather crafters, jewellers and bead makers. These people are involved in the origination, design, production and distribution of the products. The products made can be categorized into: traditional art, designer goods, craft art, functional wares and souvenirs (DACST, 1988b; Elk, 2004). 3. Cultural tourism and heritage The activities of the cultural tourism and heritage sector include the following main activities: design of tangible cultural heritage, art (such as rock art), crafts, archaeological heritage, built Heritage (Architectural), aural and musical heritage, audio-visual heritage, textiles and clothing, natural heritage, natural reserves, fauna and flora, service of reservations and conservation of tangible natural and cultural heritage and museum, exhibitions and cultural centres. The related activities include: libraries and archives, manufacture of products, administration of locations and places, advertising, publications, printing of books and pamphlets, tourism, transportation, lodging, restaurants, craft sales, sale of heritage at auctions, galleries and stores. 4. Design The areas of design that the Mapping of the Creative industries in Gauteng focuses on are industrial design, graphic design and interior design. Definitions of these activities are presented and discussed briefly below. • Industrial design Industrial design forms the inception stage of the creation of new tools, machinery, equipment and products for manufacturing and services. It is “a creative activity with the aim of determining the formal qualities of objects produced by industry” (Ministry of Colombia, 2002). This includes all forms of functional design (e.g. furniture and home wares). The Department of Science and Technology puts forward a more detailed definition. “Industrial design (ID) is the creation and development of concepts and specifications to improve existing products or develop new products or services. It is the design of products from teaspoons, computers, automobiles and toothbrushes to the design of a corporate identity. ID deals with consumer products as well as industrial products and services. The industrial design process begins with the need for change, improvement or new product has been identified and ends with the fully designed product, process or model” (Ratsatsi, 2005). • Graphic design Graphic design involves the creation of “audio-visual media, logos, stationery, printed material, layouts and covers, posters, packaging, diagrams and maps, signs” (Ministry of Colombia, 2002). • Interior design According to the Wikipedia , interior design “is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, through the manipulation of spatial volume GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  21. 21. as well as surface treatment” (undated). This activity is often seen as a sub-category of architecture and was included as part of the Architecture sector in the Bogotá mapping. In the case of the Creative Industries Mapping of Gauteng, architecture falls outside of the scope of the study, but the activities related to interior design are included in the design sector. The following related activities are excluded from the parameters of this sector: • Fashion design (classified under the Fashion sector for the purposes of the Mapping) • Interface design is the “design development, documentation and implementation of software tools” (Wikipedia, undated). In this study, interface design is included in the multimedia sector. 5. Fashion design The fashion design activities included in the research are: Haute Couture, Prêt-a-Porter, lines, fashion product design consultancy, fashion research, manufacture of fashion collections and design of clothing patterns. The research excludes the Cut, Make and Trim (CMT) industry. Model agencies have also been excluded as only a small fraction of the people in their portfolio is involved with fashion. 6. Multimedia The multimedia sector includes the activities of computer technology companies, animation companies, and multi-media experts. The sector, as defined in this mapping study is mainly dominated by animation companies. 7. Music The music industry comprises the following: • Creators: These composers and songwriters compose lyrics and melodies. Musicians, who lend their voices to these lyrics and melodies, are also considered creators. • Publishers: These companies publish musical works as composed by songwriters and lyricists. • Record Companies: Record companies are responsible for the sound recording of artists and ensuring the manufacture, promotion and distribution of phonographs. • Manufacture: This entails the reproduction of phonograms from masters. • Broadcast, Retail and Entertainment Sectors: These constitute the three sectors through which the product of the music industry reaches the market (DACST d, 1998). • Education and Training: Play a crucial role in the training of musicians and professions in the music sector. • Funding and support: Both government and non-government institutions assist in the development of the sector. 8. Performing arts The activities of the performing arts sector include the following: dance, orchestra, music, opera, musical theatre, theatre, comedy, circus performance, magic shows, poetry and storytelling. A number of these activities have not been previously included in this sector. For example we included comedy, especially stand-up comedy, since it is a growing form of entertainment in South Africa. 9. Print media and publishing The structure for the print media and publishing sector is slightly different than the other sub-sectors as official data was obtained from StatsSA. The sector can be divided into two: Print Media, which includes newspapers and magazines; and publishing, which is primarily focused on book publishing but is developing to include multi-media and online publishing. There is also a distribution and retail component of the sector that includes new and second-hand bookshops, online distributors and specialised distribution companies. 10. Visual arts The visual arts sector includes the activities of visual arts practitioners like painters, watercolorists, wild-life artists, ceramists, printmakers, sculptors, installation artists, performing artists, concept/art photographers, some documentary photographers, some designers, and some craftspeople. The sector also includes businesses that provide technical assistance, curators, gallerists, designers, publishers, editors, conservators, art critics and journalists. 1 5
  22. 22. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S Defining the population Given the paucity of official data on the creative sectors the decision was taken to collect a bespoke dataset that would form the basis of calculations of the size of the sector. Furthermore, the creation of a dataset of this nature allows for the option of repeating the exercise in following years, with a standardised questionnaire and methodology so as to create a longitudinal dataset9 . Most of the databases of organisations operating within the various sub-sectors stated above were obtained through cooperation with SACR and CAJ. The research team also obtained lists of organisations by contacting various associations, newspapers, sector specific publications and via an extensive internet search. In addition, the AMERU team further obtained contacts from the selected companies during the face-to-face interviews. Using a firm-level survey to estimate the overall contribution of the creative sector to the economy depends on the collection of accurate unit level data and a comprehensive sampling frame. A sampling frame is usually an exhaustive listing of all the firms and organisations in the population, and the sample is drawn from this frame. No such list exists for companies and organisations in the Gauteng creative sector. One thrust of the research was the establishment of a database of this nature. The compilation of this database was done through four primary avenues. 1. Through industry bodies, sector associations and other representative bodies. Although many industry bodies supplied lists of members this was not the case for all the bodies. 2. Through contacts obtained in the interviews. Those interviewed were asked whether they could provide the contact details of other individuals or organisations involved in the creative sectors. These were then added to the database and in some cases subsequently interviewed. 3. Through searching listings of companies, individuals, performances and venues in publications such as newspapers, sector specific publications and magazines. Extensive internet searches were also carried out. 4. Through discussion with the technical committee. The lack of a comprehensive population list of creative sector organisations is a limitation in this research. It is unlikely that the databases compiled for this project are exhaustive. Furthermore, they are likely to undercount those individuals or organisations that are informal, small, part-time and do not belong to a representative body. The impact of this on total output and value-added figures will be smaller than the impact on employment figures. This is because in most industries the bulk of the contribution to output and value-added is made by large firms. This is in contrast to employment where smaller firms are often a significant contributor to employment. Despite the lack of databases, it was possible to compile substantial lists of organisations in each sub-sector which served two purposes: • First, they enabled an estimate to be made of the aggregate size of the population of each sub-sector. • Second, they provided the sample frame from which it was possible to select, at random, sufficient names to make up a statistically valid sample for that population. Given that the population lists are sufficiently large and comprehensive, and given that the samples have been properly drawn, the GCMP is justified in assuming that the characteristics of those artists not included in the lists will be broadly similar to those on the lists. The data derived from the survey can be used, according to appropriate statistical procedures, for valid inference to the population of each sub- sector. Sampling Frame For the purpose of this research a stratified random sampling procedure was used. Stratification is the process of grouping members of the population into relatively homogeneous sub-groups before sampling. A simple random sample is likely to select a large proportion of smaller firms, since these form the bulk of the population. A random sample, dominated by small firms, would thus be likely to underestimate the total economic contribution. Since larger firms are likely to contribute a relatively larger proportion in terms of output and value-added than smaller firms, a stratified sampling procedure that over-samples these firms is appropriate. The sampling frames were thus divided between smaller and larger firms and separate random samples drawn from each group. This process improves the representivity of the sample by reducing sampling error and improves the accuracy of estimation. In order to cover as many organisations within the sector as possible, two types of questionnaires were administered. The first was an in-depth face-to-face interview. These interviews took approximately 40 minutes and asked detailed questions on ownership, finances, employment, funding, problems and technology. The second type of questionnaire was administered by telephone. This questionnaire contained a subset of questions from GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY 9 A longitudinal or panel dataset tracks the same firms over time. This allows for actual firm performance to be better understood. It also captures firm survival. It allows for analysis of issues such as firm growth and survival rates. M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  23. 23. the long questionnaire. The focus of this questionnaire was on employment, turnover, costs and funding. In total 190 in-depth and 538 telephonic interviews were undertaken. The survey was also supplemented by interviews with important role players within each sector. The breakdown of interviews by sector is given below as well as the employment breakdown (full-time, part-time and freelancers). Table 3: Sample by type of interview and sector The table below (Table 4) provides for a breakdown of the sample by size of firm which allowed for a focus on micro (1-4), very small (5-19) and small (20-49) enterprises as indicated in the table below: Table 4: Sampling by firm size Table 5: Sub sector detail Telephonic interviews In-depth interviews Total Sector N % of sector N % of sector N % of overall Audio-visual 60 68% 28 32% 88 12% Cultural tourism/ heritage 63 84% 12 16% 75 10% Craft 88 77% 27 23% 115 16% Design 48 71% 20 29% 68 9% Fashion 52 83% 11 17% 63 9% Multimedia 44 80% 11 20% 55 8% Music 49 64% 27 36% 76 10% Performing arts 49 64% 27 36% 76 10% Print media and publishing 36 73% 13 27% 49 7% Visual arts 50 78% 14 22% 64 9% Total 539 74% 190 26% 729 100% Firm size 1-4 5-19 20-49 50+ TOTAL Type of interview N % of sector N % of sector N % of sector N % of sector N % of overall Telephonic 326 61% 163 30% 33 6% 14 3% 536 74% In-depth 107 57% 50 26% 23 12% 9 5% 189 28% TOTAL 433 60% 213 29% 56 8% 23 3% 725 100% SECTOR SAMPLE SIZE (INTERVIEWS) POPULATION SIZE SIZE OF FIRMS EMPLOYMENT Visual Arts Face to face: 14 Telephonic: 50 Estimated at 1,100 based on stakeholder discussions & the VANSA database. It is estimated that 1,000 firms have a median turnover of R150,000 p.a. and that 100 firms have a median turnover of R2,500,000. The total employment figure is estimated at 2,400 people based on median employee number of 2 people for firms with turnover under R1 million and 4 for firms with turnover greater than R1 million. Performing Arts Face to face: 27 Telephonic: 49 Based on the PANSA database the population is estimated at 289 entities as follows: Private Theatres: 6 State Theatres:15 University theatres:6 Other members: 262 Median turnover is estimated as follows: Private Theatres: R2 million State Theatres: R14 million University theatres: R1 million Other members: R123,500 Employment estimations are based on the following median number of employees: Private Theatres: 25 State Theatres: 54 University theatres: 32 Other members: 4 1 7
  24. 24. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S Table 5: Sub sector detail (continued) GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY SECTOR SAMPLE SIZE (INTERVIEWS) POPULATION SIZE SIZE OF FIRMS EMPLOYMENT Cultural Tourism & Heritage Face to face: 12 Telephonic: 63 The population estimate of 942 entities is based on the SAHRA inventory list, the DAC tour guide database and the Museums Online Directory as follows: SAHRA List: 192 Museums: 26 Tour Guides: 724 The turnover figure for the sector is estimated using the following medians per category: SAHRA List: R450,000 Museums: R450,000 Tour Guides: R45,000 The total employment figure was calculated using a median number of 17 employees per entity category. Multimedia Face to face: 11 Telephonic: 44 The population estimate of 600 is based on the Animation SA database and discussions with stakeholders as follows: Micro-businesses: 500 Medium businesses: 100 The turnover calculation is based on a median turnover of R120,000 for micro enterprises and R1,5 million for medium enterprises. The employment figure is based on a median employment of 1 employee in micro businesses and 4 employees in medium businesses. Music Face to face: 27 Telephonic: 49 The population estimate of 1,204 is based on the large companies, CWUSA membership and the 2006 Music Industry Directory: as follows: Large companies: 4 Artists: 700 Other organisations: 500 Estimated turnover was based on the following median estimates: Large companies: R143,5 million Artists: R12,000 Other organisations: R,05 million Employment was calculated using the following median employee numbers: Large companies: 46 Other organisations: 11. With regard to artists no median was calculated and the total figure of 700 from the CWUSA membership was utilised. Craft Face to face: 27 Telephonic: 88 The population is estimated 2390 entities. Turnover has been estimated by calculating the median turnover of companies as follows: Turnover less than R1million: R1,7 million. Turnover larger than one million: R36,000 Total employment was calculated based on median employment as follows: Turnover less than R1million: 3 Turnover larger than one million: 6 Audio-visual Face to face: 28 Telephonic: 60 The population size of 1,215 entities was calculated using the Gauteng Film Commission database as follows: Casting & crew: 226 Equipment etc: 225 Post-production: 169 Pre-production & R&D: 51 Production : 268 Support services : 276 Total turnover for the sector was estimated using a median turnover of R2 million for the population. The large broadcasters, M-Net, eTV and the SABC have been excluded from this calculation. Total employment for the sector was estimated using a median of 7 employees per entity. Once again the large broadcasters have been excluded from this calculation. Print Media & Publishing Face to face: 13 Telephonic: 36 The total population was calculated by extracting from StatsSA as they have category for print media and publishing PASA freelancers etc: 138 PASA members: 65 Distributors: 5 Print media National statistical datasets, the Stats SA AFS 2006 and LSS of 2001, have been utilized to estimate turnover. SIC 326c is estimated at R28,418 million with Gauteng representing 50% of this and publishing comprising 33% of the aggregate turnover. Gross Value Add is estimated at 43% of turnover. The 2006 PASA report was utilized to estimate aggregate turnover nationally and to verify the calculation above. The LSS dataset was utilized to provide an employment to turnover ratio which provides an estimate of total employment. M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  25. 25. Table 5: Sub sector detail (continued) Methodological Instruments Collecting unit-level data that may be used to create a longitudinal dataset has numerous benefits. The use of a specifically designed questionnaire enables the collection of data on output, inputs and employment which are central to the creative mapping exercise. It also makes possible the addition of sector-specific questions that can be used to add further insights into the sector and to create indicators that can be updated over time and which track the dynamics of the sector. Longitudinal datasets that follow units of observation over time have a number of valuable aspects. A key benefit of these types of datasets is being able to separate within-firm growth and growth in the number of firms. Aggregate growth in the sector can be driven by either the entry of new firms or the growth of existing firms, or a combination of these effects. These effects have separate and distinct policy implications. Longitudinal datasets also enable research into the relationships between organisational characteristics and outcomes at the organisation level. For example, it may be that organisations that employ certain skill groups or have certain other characteristics are growing faster than other types of organisations. Without longitudinal data identifying these relationships is difficult. The firm-level survey methodology used in this research is similar to the approach taken by statistical agencies when estimating the size of a sector or sub-sector. Firm-level surveys were used in the Bogotá creative mapping (2002) to supplement other sources of data. Firm Level Questionnaire The collection of economic information was arranged into the following sections: • General information: to identify the businesses in the sector according to location, age, legal status, ownership, activity and type of organisation. • Sector development: to identify the needs and potential barriers to the development of the sector. • Employment: to identify the status, number, gender, race, age and qualifications of the employees. • Finances: to identify the businesses in the sector from the qualitative standpoint, including turnover, cost, income sources and debt. • Markets: to identify local and international clients. SECTOR SAMPLE SIZE (INTERVIEWS) POPULATION SIZE SIZE OF FIRMS EMPLOYMENT Design Face to face: 20 Telephonic: 48 The total population was calculatedusingtheWorldDesign Report (2007) which indicates that there are 2,872 entities in the sector. In consultation with experts Gauteng was estimated to host 65% of the total national population which was further adjusted by 10% to counteract over inflated national estimates. For the purposes of this study, government agencies and professional bodies have been excluded as have multimedia designers who are included in a separate category. Total turnover was calculated using a median of R486,366 for the entire population. Total employment was calculated using a median of 3 employees per entity. Fashion Design Face to face: 11 Telephonic: 52 The total population was calculated using a report commissioned by the City of Johannesburg on the Fashion District (JDA, 2004) and discussions with stakeholders. The population was divided as follows: High end designers: 100 Low end designers: 500 Total turnover for the sector was calculated by using median turnovers as follows: High end designers: R1,450 million Low end designers: R95,000 Total employment was calculated using a median number of employee as follows: High end designers: 12 Low end designers: 3 1 9
  26. 26. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S • Funding: to identify the sources and application success rate of funding. See Appendix 1 and 2 for the complete Firm Level Questionnaire and Telephonic Questionnaire respectively. Primary Data Collection The research for this project was conducted between September to December 2007 using a 40 minute face-to-face questionnaire and a 10 minute telephone questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed predominantly as a trends/ tracking survey so that various aspects of the sector could be monitored over time. The questionnaire was also designed to allow for comparisons to be made across sectors and between countries. The overlap between these surveys allows that the dataset collected for this project to be used in future to make comparisons with these other data sources. As such, the following models were utilised: 1. The questionnaire provided in the Colombian Ministry of Culture (2007) publication “Guide to Producing Regional Mappings of the Creative Industries”. 2. A number of questionnaires used by BOP in their regional mapping work in the United Kingdom. 3. The Investment Climate Assessment Surveys undertaken by the World Bank. These surveys are administered to manufacturing, construction, retail and service firms in 178 countries worldwide, and use a comparable survey instrument10 . The full scale field work was preceded by a pilot study to determine the appropriateness of the research instruments. The Pilot The questionnaire was piloted with 6 businesses from various sub-sectors to check that the language used was suitable and that the questions were relevant. The sub-sectors were chosen since they had the most comprehensive population lists at the time of the pilot study as follows: • The performing arts sector (3 businesses). • The music sector (2 businesses). • The fashion sector (1 business). A random draw of organisations was selected from these sub-sectors and the organisations that were used for the pilot study were selected based on their willingness to participate and their location within the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area. Furthermore, the pilot interviews attempted to interview a variety of different sized firms to ensure that the instrument would be appropriate to all firm sizes. Those organisations that were drawn but not interviewed in the pilot study were interviewed in the main survey. In general, the pilot was successful, indicating that the instrument was appropriate to the sector and that it would succeed in obtaining the required information. A number of minor amendments such as phrasing of questions, clarifying nature of legal status and interview technique were made based on the experience obtained during the pilot. This primary data collection raised a number of critical issues which are discussed below. Research Considerations a) Sampling freelancers and sub-contractors The mapping study included the large group of freelancers and sub-contractors to some extent as can be seen from the sample. However, in the absence of a comprehensive database of this workforce there is a risk that the study under-estimates the size of this group. This large and flexible workforce is difficult to track and quantify given the weak organisational base of the sector, although in some sectors this is being addressed. Not all representative organisations have managed to develop a comprehensive database of its constituents or have the personnel to maintain this database. As Joffe and Newton (2008:8) have argued: “Future methodologies will have to ensure that this workforce is appropriately quantified within the mapping framework. The current methodology relies purely on reporting from contracting agencies and enterprises, which is not a completely reliable source for this data”. GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY 10 See for an overview of these surveys. M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  27. 27. b) Estimate of employment and value-added The mapping study needed to make two difficult and potentially controversial decisions. The first relates to the estimation of employment from the survey. Here a median value of employment was sought for the sample and this was multiplied by the estimated population. However there are two immediate difficulties which highlight the controversy: • The degree to which the sample provides an accurate median and the levels of accuracy in respondent information regarding employment including full-time, part-time, contractors and freelancers. • The appropriateness of methods to estimate the population size in the absence of official statistics, industry level surveys or any comprehensive database of the sector. The second decision was the use of multipliers and the determination of value-added. A multiplier quantifies the additional economic contribution beyond the direct contribution of an industry. This is because the creative industries, as with other industries, buys inputs from other industries and wages earned in the creative industries are spent outside the creative industries. In the report, value-added is calculated as output (turnover) minus inputs (all costs except labour and capital). In some cases this data was available while in others it was estimated from the average of other firms in the sector. As Joffe and Newton (2008:8) argue: “The expectation of mapping studies in South Africa, however, is that appropriate multipliers will be an outcome of the process. Within a single dataset, it is clear that this will not be possible, however future studies will need to either develop these or find alternative means for quantifying the up- and downstream value of investment in the creative industries”. In estimating the indirect contribution and thus the total contribution, a multiplier of 1.86 for output and 0.9 for value-added have been chosen has been used11 . c) Defining the sectors Key sectors operating in the creative industries which needed to be sampled for this mapping study included • The public sector (public cultural institutions such as museums (heritage), galleries (Visual arts), and public service broadcasting organisations (audio-visual). • The for-profit private sector (a wide range of commercial operations in all fields of cultural production and distribution). • Non-profit sector (such as theatre and dance companies, festivals, orchestras) some of which may receive government financial assistance12 . • NGO Sector (advocacy, organisations, actors and musicians unions, trade organisations). The technical committee was concerned as to the best way to treat purely government funded agencies, partly government funded agencies as opposed to purely commercial and non-commercial enterprises. As Joffe and Newton (2008:8) explain: “like many countries, all spheres of the South African government are significant investors in the creative industries. The challenge with including this information into mapping studies is the problem of duplicate accounting, and also an accurate reflection of the economic base given that government investment is not necessarily premised on returns”. The Creative Industries Mapping of Gauteng excludes government departments, regulatory bodies and professional and sector (or industry) associations. Of course, in many cases these were approached for information, sector databases and comment, but were excluded from the survey and hence the calculations of sector turnover, value-added, employment and other variables. This practice is applied uniformly across the sectors. Non-profit organisations and government-owned entities that participate directly in the activities of the sector (in contrast to fulfilling only facilitation and support functions) are included in the survey. These are entities such as theatres, non-governmental organisations and museums, to name a few. d) Confidentiality and financial information For most organisations, the guarantee of confidentiality was sufficiently compelling to provide financial information. Given the sensitivity of some of the information (including revenues and costs), however some organisations refused to provide this type of information. This means that the calculations of total output and value-added for the sector are based on a sub-sample of firms that provided this information. The estimates of these amounts are thus likely to be less accurate than estimates that could be obtained if all firms provided this information or if a larger sample was used. 11 As discussed in the comparative report, estimates for a Gauteng output multiplier vary between 1.7 and 2.6 (van Seventer, 1999). The higher multiplier is for models that assume that the Gauteng economy is closed i.e. money generated in Gauteng remains in the province. This assumption is likely to false, and the actual multiplier is likely to be closer to the open model estimate of 1.7. In addition, the Literature Review of this Gauteng Creative Mapping Project has a discussion about the value of multipliers and the work of the CCI based at the Queensland University of Technology in Australia called The Creative Trident which assesses the presence of creative employment in the broader economy (Australia Research Council Linkage Project, 2008). 12 See The Creative Economy Report (United Nations, 2008:71-72) for a discussion of public or quasi-pubic cultural institutions 2 1
  28. 28. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S 5. Recommendations The data set This report has drawn together lists of businesses from a number of sources on the creative industries; however, there are still areas where data is particularly sparse and outdated. A key activity for the SACR would be to consolidate the existing databases and work with the representative bodies in each sector to validate the databases. Once this has been done, a new area of activity for the Creative Industries Directorate would be to ensure that these databases are updated and maintained over time. This may include requiring registration and updating from key players in each sector across the value chain, e.g.: • Creative industry businesses • Artists and creatives • Not-for-profit businesses and organisations • Representative bodies Regular mapping studies Since this mapping study is the first, there would be enormous benefit from tracking the data over time. In the first phase, the Department may wish to consider mapping every two years, building up to annual studies in the medium to long term. Collecting general data relating to the creative industries In the meantime the Department may wish to work with other research initiatives in the Gauteng government and the various municipalities to ensure that all primary data collection initiatives include, where possible, data for the creative sector and the broader creative economy. Increasingly, this information would be useful to many different industries and the Gauteng global city region initiative may wish to establish a Gauteng-based cross-industry research group to analyse this information. This could include • educational data • infrastructure audits and asset registers • economic data (GDP, employment, exports, investment) • broadband coverage and costs • unemployment and work seeking data • skills shortages and training opportunities and interventions • planning data (agglomerations and space requirements) • youth and women participation rates • district level specificities • crime Collecting data to measure the growing creative economy of Gauteng The creative economy will become an increasingly important characteristic of the Gauteng global city region and data will need to be collected to show the existence of the beneficial spillovers from the creative sector to other parts of the economy. These range from the general spillovers such as network spillovers and knowledge spillovers (the benefits of leading players to firms located nearby to new ideas and processes) to the specific benefit of the artistic and creative community through artistic spillovers, training spillovers and product spillovers (such as the innovation of artists work, training provided to the creative constituency and artist’s products)13 . The presence of creatives in all other sectors of the economy can also be calculated as has been done through the Creative Trident approach developed in Australia14 . GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY 13 The literature review outlines these ideas of the positive externalities deriving from the creative industries as a whole. 14 See for instance, Higgs, Cunningham and Bahkshi, 2008 M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y
  29. 29. Literature Review: Conceptual framework for the Creative Industries Defining the creative industries internationally There are a number of diverse and differing definitions of the creative industries. UNESCO defines them as “those industries that combine the creation, production and commercialization of products which are intangible and cultural in nature. These contents are typically protected by copyright and they can take the form of goods or services” (UNESCO, undated). The UK government’s definition is “those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property” (DCMS, undated). Both these definitions emphasise the intellectual property or copyright aspect of the creative industries, the creative or cultural origin of the goods or services and the commercialisation or wealth and job creation of the creative industries. Many studies choose to define the creative industries as those that have creativity as a focus of their activities. This includes not only the generation of creative content, services or products but also the value-chain associated with this. This was the approach followed by the DACST Cultural Industries Growth Strategy (CIGS) report, the Bogotá creative mapping (2002) and also implemented in the official statistical reports in Singapore (2003), UK (2001, 2006). The concepts relating to the creative sector as well as their definitions have changed over time. Landry summarises this chronology succinctly: “Back in the late 1980’s when most of the constituent ideas were developed the key terms discussed were: culture, the arts, cultural planning, cultural resources, the cultural industries. Creativity as a broad based attribute only came into common, as distinct from specialist, currency, in the mid-1990’s. For example Australia’s ‘Creative Nation’ instigated in 1992 by Paul Keating spelt out the country’s cultural policy. In the UK by contrast it was the publication of Ken Robinson’s national commission on creativity, education and the economy for the UK Government ‘All our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education’ that put creativity onto the political agenda. Later some of the phraseology changed. The cultural industries became the creative industries and the creative economy and the notion of the creative class then emerged in 2002. The publication of Richard Florida’s book ‘The Rise of the Creative Class’ gave the ‘movement’ a dramatic lift with the danger of hyping the concept out of favour” (2005: 5-6). The next section reviews the conceptual models and classification systems used to understand the creative industries. Review of models and classification systems DCMS (UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport, 1998, 2001) Creative industries are defined by the UK government as those requiring creativity, skill and talent with the potential for wealth and job creation through the exploitation of their intellectual property. In this definition, 13 sectors close to the UNESCO definition of the cultural sectors are included as shown in the table below (Table 6). Concentric circles (Throsby, 1998 & 2001) This model is based on the proposition that the cultural value of cultural goods is the distinguishing characteristic of the creative industries. In this model, creative ideas originate in the core creative arts in the form of sound, text and image and these ideas and influences diffuse outwards through a series of layers or ‘concentric circles’. As one moves outwards from the centre the proportion of commercial content to cultural content rises. Figure 3: Concentric Circles (Throsby) Source: Throsby (2007: 5) 2 3
  30. 30. G A U T E N G M A P P I N G R E P O R T l A N A N A L Y S I S O F G A U T E N G ’ S C R E A T I V E I N D U S T R I E S In a recent report prepared for the UK’s DCMS, The Work Foundation developed a stylised typology of this model of the creative industries as represented in the diagramme below (see Figure 4 below) borrowed from the EU’s ‘The Economy of Culture’ (EU, 2006) and originally from Professor David Throsby as illustrated in figure 3. The creative industries are mapped as a series of concentric circles radiating out from the ‘bulls-eye’ of core expressive value creation. This is the home of the artists – musicians, lyricist, dancer, choreographer, composer, writer, painter, sculptor, scriptwriter, and designer. Professor David Throsby introduced the term expressive values to enlarge cultural meaning and understanding by encompassing every dimension in the realm of ideas including aesthetic value, spiritual value, social value, historical value, symbolic value and authenticity value of cultural goods and services too (Throsby, 2001). The stylised typology of the creative industries introduces the relationship between the core creative fields, cultural industries, the creative industries and the rest of the economy into the diagramme as well as the notion of expressive value and outputs unlike the original concentric circles model. Figure 4: The creative industries - a stylised typology Source: The Work Foundation, 2007 Symbolic Text (Hesmondhalgh, 2002) This model arises out of the critical-cultural-studies tradition in Europe and the UK and focuses attention on popular culture rather than the ‘high’ or ‘serious’ arts typically the concern of social and political establishments. The industrial production, dissemination and consumption of symbolic texts are conveyed to consumers by means of various media such as film, broadcasting and the press. In The Cultural Industries, Hesmondhalgh explores whether shifts in cultural production has led to more or less diversity and quality in cultural texts through a political economy approach to emphasis the central relationship between symbolic artefacts and the financing and organisation of their production (2002: 264). Hesmondhalgh and Pratt argue that the boundary between symbolic, cultural production and other ‘non-cultural’ kinds of production as “porous, provisional and relative, and to think about these boundaries in terms of the relationship between the utilitarian functions and non-utilitarian (artistic/aesthetic/entertainment) functions of symbolic goods” (Hesmondhalgh and Pratt, 2005: 6). WIPO Copyright Model (World Intellectual Property Organisation, 2003) In this model, all industries involved in the creation, manufacture, production, broadcast and distribution and consumption of copyrighted works are included. Industries that produce the intellectual property – the embodiment of the creativity that is needed to produce the goods and services of the creative industries – are distinct from those that are needed to convey the goods and services to the consumer. Four groups of copyright-based industries are outlined with the detail in the table below: • Core: These industries are wholly engaged in the activities listed above • Interdependent: Refers to products that are jointly consumed with the products of the core group of industries or deal with facilitation equipment • Partial: These industries only have a part of the production output or process linked to copyright-protected material (design, architecture, furniture) with a significant part of the value-added produced not attributed to copyright components • Non-dedicated support industries: These industries rely only remotely on copyright material but remain relevant as copyright generates part of their business such as internet and transportation. GAUTENG’S CREATIVE MAPPING METHODOLOGY M A P P I N G M E T H O D O L O G Y