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A look at the two main European pedagogies influencing global reform in education.

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  1. 1. European Pedagogies Influencing Global Educational ReformWithin Early Years Education ©Alan Evans 2012 1
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  4. 4. Classical Theories of Play Surplus Energy TheoryChildren have too much energy and play rids them ofexcess energy. (Von Schiller, 1954) 4
  5. 5. Relaxation and Recreation Theory of PlayPlay is necessary to regenerate energy used at work. G. Patrick (1916)School is structured so that periods of mental workalternate with periods of active play. 5
  6. 6. Practice or Pre-Exercise Theory of PlayPlaying Mummy or Daddy practicing skillsrequired for adult life. Play develops skillsnecessary for functioning as an adult. (Groos, 1901) 6
  7. 7. Recapitulation Theory of PlayEliminate ancient instincts by reliving evolutionary history ofthe human species. Children reenact the developmental stages ofthe human race in their play. Animal, savage, tribal member,etc. (G. Stanley Hall, 1916) 7
  8. 8. Modern Scholars On Play#1 - Freud • The child’s motivation is to seek pleasure and avoid pain. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. • The pleasure principle is the primary motivation to play. 8
  9. 9. Purpose of Play QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Play as ego mastery for emotional development • Play as social • Play as a lifelong phenomenon#2 - Erikson 9
  10. 10. #3 - Piaget QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this 10
  11. 11. #4 - Vygotsky • Purpose of play – Ego mastery – Rule bound • Play allows child to engage in wish fulfillment. • Play creates the zone of proximal development. Play leads to development and is the highest level of intellectual development prior to formal QuickTime™ and a instruction. decompressorare needed to see this picture. • “The child always behaves beyond his average age, above his daily behavior; in play it is as though he were a head taller than himself” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 102). • Play leads to development. 11
  12. 12. Zone of Proximal Development QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 12
  13. 13. #5 - BrofenbrennerMacrosystem QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Exosystem QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Microsytem 13
  14. 14. Waldorf, Montessori & Reggio are the three progressiveapproaches to early childhood education, which appear to begrowing in influence around the world, Edwards (2002).All three approaches represent an explicit idealism and turnaway from war and violence towards peace and reconstruction.They are built on coherent visions of how to improve humansociety by helping children realise their full potential asintelligent, creative whole persons. 14
  15. 15. In each approach children are viewed as active authors of their own development, stronglyinfluenced by natural, dynamic, self righting forces within themselves, opening the way towardsgrowth and learning. Teachers depend on carefully prepared aesthetically pleasing environmentsthat serve as a pedagogical tool and provide strong messages about the curriculum and respect forchildren.Teaching Styles•Steiner - Performance role leads, models whole group activities involving integration ofacademic, artistic with an explicit spirituality.•Montessori - Unobtrusive director observing children in self directed activity. Providing anatmosphere of productive calm for children to concentrate, recover allowing them to developconfidence and inner discipline to the point of non interventionIntegration of body and mind, emotions and spirit that is the basis of holistic peace education(accepting and relating harmoniously with all human beings and the natural environmentMalaguzzi - Artful balancing between engagement and attention. Resources and guides to thechildren. Careful listening, observation, documentation and reflection with other adults Workingin pairs and collaborating with other personnel. 15
  16. 16. #6 Waldorf - SteinerPost World War 1 Attacked by right wing Nazis and training centre burnt down PHILOSOPHY SEVEN MOODS TWELVE OUTLOOKS Idealism - Aries Rationalism - Taurus Mathematism - Gemini Materialism - Cancer Sensationalism - Leo Phenomenalism - Virgo Realism - Libra Dynamism - Scorpio Monadism - Sagittarius Spiritism - Capricorn Pneumatism - Aquarius Psychism - Pisces THREE TONES THEISM - INTUITIONISM - NATURALISM THEORY AND CURRICULUM Three cycles of seven year stages and spiral of knowledge. Imaginary play most important. Bodily exploration,Themes include: constructive and creative play and oral, never written language, story and song.•the human being as body soul and spirit Structure and sequence but no textbooks. Integrated,•the path of spiritual development multisensorial approach to learning and expression with emphasis on listening and memory.•spiritual influences on world-evolutionand history•reincarnation and karma 16
  17. 17. #7 Loris Malaguzzi Reggio Emilia Post War 1945 Liberation of Italy QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.PHILOSOPHY THEORY AND CURRICULUM•Powerful view of the child, full of intelligence, curiosity and wonder.•Education based on human and environmental relationships•Teachers follow the children’s interests•Teaching and learning are negotiated•Multi year child and adult relationships fostered•Environment offers complexity, beauty, well being and ease•Long terrn open ended projects•Documenting, tracing and revisiting children’s work•Active involvement from parents in the development and management of early childhood services•Contributions from parents towards the cost of their child’s education depending on their income level.•All children are catered for. Those with disabilities are considered to have special rights rather than special needs.•Teachers are viewed as enthusiastic learners and researchers and not as imparters of knowledge.•Each group of children has two teachers who remain with them throughout their time at school.•The role of the aterlierista - a practicing artist who supports the development of children’s learning, creativity andimagination is central to the Reggio approach. 17
  18. 18. #8 Dr. Maria Montessori Maria Montessori was a brilliant figure who was Italys first woman physician. Montessori reflected a late19th century vision of mental development and theoretical kin-ship with the great European progressive educational philosophers, such as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Seguin and Itard. She was convinced that childrens natural intelligence involved three aspects from the very start: • rational • Empirical - observation • spiritual 18
  19. 19. Sensorial Education - Multi Sensory Materials Montessori’s approach was far in advance of the general psychological understanding of her time. Montessori developed materials and a prepared environment for the intellectual training through sensory motor modalities for children aged three to six years of age. 19
  20. 20. Look At The Child Dr. Montessori discovered the child’s true nature by accident while observing young children in their free, self directed activity. Building on Seguin’s work and materials, Dr. Montessori found that young children came to acquire surprising new outward qualities of spontaneous self-discipline, love of order, and a perfect harmony with others. 20
  21. 21. I Do And I Understand According to Montessori the understanding of the sensory motor nature of the young child’s intelligence stemmed from acute observations of children. Up until then the idea of intelligence was based on verbal development and the manipulation of visual images and ideas. 21
  22. 22. LOOK AT THE CHILD Both Montessori and Piaget’s discoveries and insights into the mind of the child were achieved, not by what Piaget described as ‘adultmorphic’ thinking (seeing the child as a miniature adult), but by unbiased, astute, direct observations of the child. 22
  23. 23. Piaget and Montessori emphasized the necessity of active interaction between learner and the environment. Piaget and Montessori also emphasised the child’s relationship with peers as the principal means to overcoming egocentrism in 23
  24. 24. The Montessori method encourages accommodation to external reality rather than assimilation to the personalized motives and fantasies of the child (spontaneous play). Montessori and Piaget observed that certain conditions were necessary for optimal cognitive growth. Among these conditions is the creation of learning situations that involve particular kinds and qualities of 24
  25. 25. The child in the Montessori classroom is allowed to learn autonomously, which they receive from the teacher. It is a very special relationship based on the teacher’s trust in the child to reveal their true 25
  26. 26. Reggio Emilia Both Montessori education and the Reggio Emilia approach provide strong alternatives to traditional education and inspiration for progressive educational reform in the United States and around the world. Because they seem to share many common elements of philosophy and practice, people wonder, "But how are these approaches different, exactly? Reggio recognises children as social beings from birth, full of curiosity and imagination, and having the potential and desire to find connections and meaning in all they experience. It acknowledges their ability to reflect upon and contribute to their own learning through their many languages of expression and communication. Reggio recognises that all children have a right to be heard, to be respected, and to feel a sense of belonging to their family, school and community. This is seen as the foundation for becoming responsible citizens of the world. 26
  27. 27. Through their experience in the Reggio Emilia preschools, children learn to engage indialogues and debates with others in a nonviolent and constructive manner and developproblem-solving skills.Reggio practitioners see the child as being equipped with enormous potential who isthe subject of rights. For this reason privileged attention is given to the children,observation and documentation of learning processes, and exchanging ideas anddiscussion. 27
  28. 28. Children (and families) are also encouraged to express and discuss ideas in open democratic meetings and to form close, long- term relationships with others in the school. Since October 2003 early childhood services in the Municipality of Reggio Emilia have been run through a specific body called the Istituzione. This body has autonomy on educational, pedagogical and administrative issues, its own budget and its own Mayor-nominated staff.Objectives of the Istituzione include organising, managing and increasing activities necessary for the functioning and qualification of infant-toddler centres and preschools in the municipality of Reggio Emilia. The Instituzione is intended not simply as an organ of effective management but exists to safeguard and renew qualities and values in Reggio Emilia educational services. 28
  29. 29. Reggio Emilia is not a formal model like Montessori education, with defined methods, teacher certification standards, and accreditation processes. Instead, educators in Reggio Emilia speak of their evolving "experience" and see themselves as a provocation and reference point, a way of engaging in dialogue starting from a strong and rich vision of the childChild using light box Katz & Cesarone, (1994) New (2000). 29
  30. 30. Jean Piaget is considered to have been one of the worlds leading child psychologists. Piaget also spoke of sensory motor intelligence as the first period of intellectual development from age two to six years. Sensory motor intelligence rests mainly on actions (doing) on movements and perceptions without language but coordinated in a relatively stable 30
  31. 31. According to Penn (2005) Piaget turned the tables on an approach to early childhood, which aimed at filling up the child’s head with knowledge. Piaget argued that children had to find things out for themselves through experimentation and their own free 31
  32. 32. #9 The Plowden Report In 1967 the U.K. Government published a major review of primary and nursery education known as the Plowden Report. Richards (1984) suggests that the QuickTime™ and a principles underlying Plowden’s reports decompressorare needed to see this picture. were attacked by critics for being too ‘child centred’ and for neglecting the importance of teaching as a way of initiating the young into public forms of knowledge.Bridget Horatia Plowden 32
  33. 33. The members of the review board for the Plowden reportwere impressed with Piaget’s theories and suggested thatschooling should be radically changed from a teacher infront of the class to many different areas from where achild could draw on concrete experiences with play andlearning materials. 33
  34. 34. ‘Underlying all educational questions is the nature of the child himself …’ (p.1) “At the heart of the educational process is the child. No (educational) advances … have their desired effect unless they are in harmony with the nature of the child, unless they are fundamentally acceptable to him …’ (p7).Plowden (1967) 34
  35. 35. We may assert that all effective learning involves personalchange and the most effective kinds of learning seem to be thosein which the learner is the initiator of the change and involveshimself in active commerce with the learning materials e.g.autonomous experiential learning through play. 35
  36. 36. A requirement for cognitive growth is the psychological climate in which the child is free to spend at least some of his time exploring his world with complete autonomy. When we interfere with a child’s play, when we QuickTime™ and a influence his modes of behaviour, when we decompressor are needed to see this picture. impose our beliefs upon him, we may be performing a service but we may be unaware of the harm we are doing. Children in school and at home are frequently forced to assume a purely passive position in which he is required to register and later reproduce material that has been imposed upon him.Children fighting over swing 36
  37. 37. We tend to treat children according to the group they areplaced in by age, ability, socio economic background andmany other factors.‘It is as if the most important thing about them is their dateof manufacture’, Robinson, 2012 37
  38. 38. #10 Richard Gerver Leading academic thinkers Richard Gerver and Sir Ken Robinson are calling for reform in the education system. QuickTime™ and a Gerver (2012) believes that we are still basing our education decompressor are needed to see this picture. system on the old model of time and motion developed by Taylor (1911). Robinson believes we should encourage creativity and divergent thinking. Both are involved in reforming education around the world through human potential and creativity but here in the U.K. the call is for‘a return to a simple academic model of basic subjects taught in disciplinedenvironments where children are regarded a vessels to be filled with knowledge,’Gerver (2013).According to an Adobe Creativity study (2012) Companies are looking for more thangraduates who can do specific tasks so they want employees who can also thinkdifferently and innovate. To be successful, students need an education thatemphasizes creative thinking, communication, and teamwork. 38
  39. 39. HOT MANAGEMENT IN EARLY YEARS AND SCHOOLS • Children making their own radio show for the QuickTime™ and a school. Parents can log decompressor in via the Internet and are needed to see this picture. find out what is happening in the school 39
  41. 41. QuickTime™ and a decompressorare needed to see this picture. Bart Conner WALKING ON 41
  42. 42. #12 Dr. Steven Hughes QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Dr. Maria Montessori and Dr.Steven Hughes - ‘The hands are the chief teacher of the child.’ RECOMMEND VIEWING 42
  43. 43. Gardener’s (1966) research into individual differences in memory reveal that the individual differences in children can be constrained according to their early experiences especially in relation to memory and cognitive skills.• “It appeared that he might be receiving training in the kind of veridical sequential perception we have called sharpening-that is, the experiencing of new stimuli in their own right, independent of what has happened before.” This research led Gardner to conclude, “The evidence has been so impressive that we hesitate to accept, without qualification, any view of child development that does not include recognition of this degree of individuality.” 43
  44. 44. #13 Howard Gardener Multiple Intelligence Theory Intrapersonal QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Interpersonal Musical Spatial Kinesthetic Verbal/Linguistic Logical Mathematical 44
  45. 45. #14 Bruce Campbell QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.Bruce Campbell (1999) implemented Gardner’s theory in an educational setting byorganising his third grade classroom in Marysville, Washington, into seven learningcentres, each dedicated to one of the seven intelligences. The students spentapproximately two-thirds of each school day moving through the centres 15 to 20minutes at each centre.The curriculum was thematic, and the centres provided seven different ways for thestudents to learn the subject matter. Each day began with a brief lecture and discussionexplaining one aspect of the current theme. For example, during a unit on outer space,the morning’s lecture might focus on spiral galaxies.After the morning lecture, a timer was set and students in groups of three or fourstarted work at their centres, eventually rotating through all seven. 45
  46. 46. What kinds of learning activities take place at each centre?All students learn each day’s lesson in seven ways. They build models, dance, make collaborativedecisions, create songs, solve deductive reasoning problems, read, write, and illustrate all in one schoolday. Some more specific examples of activities at each centre follow:In the Personal Work Centre (Intrapersonal Intelligence), students explore the present area of studythrough research, reflection, or individual projects.In the Working Together Centre (Interpersonal Intelligence), they develop cooperative learning skillsas they solve problems, answer questions, create learning games, brainstorm ideas and discuss that day’stopic collaboratively.In the Music Centre (Musical Intelligence), students compose and sing songs about the subject matter,make their own instruments, and learn in rhythmical ways.In the Art Centre (Spatial Intelligence), they explore a subject area using diverse art media,manipulables, puzzles, charts, and pictures.In the Building Centre (Kinesthetic Intelligence), they build models, dramatize events, and dance, all inways that relate to the content of that day’s subject matter.In the Reading Centre (Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence), students read, write, and learn in manytraditional modes. They analyze and organize information in written form.In the Math & Science Centre (Logical/ Mathematical Intelligence), they work with math games,manipulatives, mathematical concepts, science experiments, deductive reasoning, and problem solving.and reasoning. 46
  47. 47. In conclusion, there are more similarities than differences between the Montessori and Reggioapproach. Both place the child firmly at the centre of the process and rely on observation of thechild to lead and inform the adult. The relationship between child and adult is the key to thesuccess or failure of both methods. There are undoubtedly practitioners following both methodswho may be paying lip service to the philosophyThe Plowden report was revolutionary and should have had a much stronger effect on nurseryand primary provision given that its statement of overall aims included what we now know asthe main premise of both Montessori and Reggio education, i.e.“At the heart of the educational process is the child. No (educational) advances … have theirdesired effect unless they are in harmony with the nature of the child, unless they arefundamentally acceptable to him …’ .Autonomy and individuality are also a key factors in the delivery of both educational methods.How that autonomy and individuality transpires differs from place to place and again isdependent on the adults within the environment. Gardner goes so far as to hesitate to accept anyview of child development that does not recognise the possibility of a high degree ofindividuality brought about through the skills that every individual uses to process, categorizeand make sense out of what we see, hear, taste, smell, and touch. The Montessori and Reggioprovision is all about just that if delivered true to the original philosophy. 47
  48. 48. A CHANGE IS GONNA COMECultural change is organic from the ground but people are desperately clinging on to theold or suggesting we reinstate and update the old.The future is with the alternativeRevolution does not require permissionIt does not start from the topIt is not politicians leading the wayThere is a global shift feeding off child and parental unrest.The effort of constraining talent is greater than the effort in releasing it.‘All mankind is divided into three classes: those that are immovable, those that are movable, andthose that move.’Benjamin Franklin Don’t waste too much time, move around them. Work with the movable and the movers 48
  49. 49. ReferencesAdobe, 2012., B. 1999. The Learning Revolution, Education innovations for global citizensEdwards, C. Gandini, L. & Forman, G. (Eds.). 1998. The hundred languages of children:Edwards, C. P. 2002, Katz & Cesarone, (1994) New (2000). Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori and Reggio Emilia.The Reggio Emillia approach-Advanced reflections (2nd ed.).Gardener, H. 1993., W. R. 1966, The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 67, No. 2 pp. 72-83.Gerver, R. 2013, S. 2010., H. 2005, Understanding Early Childhood, Issues and controversies, Open University Press.Peters, R. S. (Ed.) 1969, A Critique of Plowdens ‘Recognisable Philosophy of Education.’Richards, C. 1984, The Study Of Primary Education, The Falmer Press.Robinson, K 2012., F. W. 1911, The Principles of scientific management., P. 1974, Plowden’s ‘Facts’ About Children: A Child Centred-Critique. 49