DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRA LOWHEAD SIMPLE REACTION WATER TURBINE Student: Abhijit Date Supervisor: Prof. Aliakbar Akbarzadeh
Motivation for research • Growing energy demand • Growing CO2 emission (global warming) • World Hydropower potential survey published in Hydropower & Dams World Atlas 2001 & 2005 World Hydropower scenario (HDW Atlas 2005) – Technically exploitable potential 16000 TWh/year – Economically exploitable potential 8800 TWh/year – Present hydro power generation 2840 TWh/year – World electricity production 18580 TWh/yearTWh – Trillion Watt Hour
Hydropower is strategically important worldwideActual generation in 2005 Technically exploitable potential− North America 675 TWh/yr – North America 3000 TWh/yr− South America 596 TWh/yr – South America 3010 TWh/yr− Europe 705 TWh/yr – Europe 2714 TWh/yr− Asia 717 TWh/yr – Asia 5259 TWh/yr− Australia 15 TWh/yr – Australia 100 TWh/yr− New Zealand 23 TWh/yr – New Zealand 37 TWh/yr
Aim of this research project is to develop a low cost water turbine for producing electricity from ultra low head water sources.Objectives:– To investigate the simple reaction water turbine to improve its performance– To develop a simple design which would allow use of common and easily available material
Ultra Low head potentials (small rivers, streams, creeks, canals) are worth exploring which will not have any adverse effect on the surrounding environment.– Low-head energy sources have a low specific energy, which requires large and expensive machines which can handle large volumetric flow rate.– Conventional hydro turbines such as Kaplan, Francis and Pelton are expensive for micro-hydro installations and are not economically suitable for ultra low head micro-hydro applications.– A simple hydro-machine which can be locally manufactured and installed (i.e. simple design) with very low cost is needed.
Turbine selection tableGroups of impulse and reaction turbines (Resource: Micro-hydro Design Manual, by Adam Harvey) Head (meter of water head) Turbine Type High (>100m) Medium Low Ultra low (20m to 100m) (5m to 20m) ( < 5m) Pelton Crossflow Multi-Jet Pelton Pelton Turgo (Banki) Impulse Crossflow Turgo Crossflow (Low efficiency and (Banki) medium cost) (Banki) Francis Kaplan Kaplan Reaction (High efficiency and Kaplan Propeller High cost)Pelton Rotor Turgo Rotor Francis Rotor Kaplan Rotor Crossflow Rotor
Simple reaction water turbine also known asGarden Sprinkler Hero’s turbine or Barkers mill is the most simplest reaction turbine. Simple reaction water turbine and a garden water sprinkler works on same reaction principle. The drawbacks of Barkers mill design are: – Power is lost due to air drag. – Power is also lost due to high fluid velocity in the arms. Barkers Water Mill
The “split reaction water turbine” design developed from thisresearch has been influenced by design of the Savonius wind turbine Savonius wind turbine