MM Bagali, Research, PhD, Literature


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MM Bagali, Research, PhD, Literature

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MM Bagali, Research, PhD, Literature

  1. 1. mm bagali Jain UniversityResearch is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought
  2. 2. How many visited library before Planning to do research
  3. 3. How many saw literature / article /papers /report beforecommencement
  4. 4. How many visited company / organization beforefinalizing to do research
  5. 5. How many met professors (to be your guide) beforefinalizing to do research
  6. 6. Preparation for Research work with 100% with 75% with 50% with 10% with nothing at all
  7. 7. Why all thisCan do or cant doCan do good work or cant do good workCan do a new work or cant do a new workCan really do a research work
  8. 8. Crafting Literature Review If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it
  9. 9. agendaWhy Literature ReviewHow to do itWhen to doICSSR
  10. 10. PhilosophyLiterature review should reach some conclusion oncurrent state of knowledge and suggest next step ininvestigation of the problem or question of interest
  11. 11. Further Research sectionWhats the relevance
  12. 12. Why??Identify extent and quality of work already carried outAvoid duplicationConceptually organized synthesis of resultsWho all are working / network
  13. 13. Why??Organized examination and presentation of the writingsResearch question and methodology can be better understoodBreadth and diversity of literature that relates to the research questionLiterature review is a context within which you locate your own work in relation to other researchers
  14. 14. Piece of workEvery piece is required, but not essential always
  15. 15. Utility of LS• Questionnaire• Comparison• Analysis (discussion)• Result analysis• Network• Justification
  16. 16. Self Questions• Deciding what to refer• Referring to others’ work• How it is connected• what this work is all about• Is it relevant• Is it valid• Is it appropriate• Is it standard• Is it worth
  17. 17. Two ways• Read other work, than construct your map• Have a map, and than see others work
  18. 18. Importance of Literature Search• Can I have focus / direction• Are my objectives relevant• Is my Research Question apt• Are my hypothesis ok• Can I prove from my work• Can I conclude• Generate New knowledge• Can I have a Research degree
  19. 19. Types of literaturePreprints Conference proceedingsInformally published reports (“grey literature”)Journal articlesReviews BooksEdited collections BooksMonographs/surveys/
  20. 20. • Theses Reports• Official publications• Research reports/ papers• Working papers• Theme papers
  21. 21. Broad areas Search Research PhD/ M.Phil Books papers Post Doctoral
  22. 22. Avoid– News papers– Draft proposals– Discussions– Debate– Popular Opinions
  23. 23. Online Search EBSCO NASSDOC University News
  24. 24. Micro Purpose of a literature review
  25. 25. 1. Helps map and define your research topic2. Presents a balanced view3. Justifies your research question4. Provides literature for you to compare
  26. 26. 1. Helps map and define research topichighlights scope & boundariesshows where the study fits into broad pictureshares proposed studyprovides evidence that your topic is building onto an established body of knowledge
  27. 27. 2. Presents a balanced viewarrange your notes in a logical orderidentify the major themeslook for relationshipstry to avoid long lists of sub-topics
  28. 28. 3. Justifies your research questionJustifies and makes a case for your research question, problem, issueProvides a framework for establishing importance of your studyArgues that not enough is yet known about the topic
  29. 29. 4. Literature to compareProvides literature for you to compare your thinkingWhat they are X what you areWhat they said X what you sayTheir contribution X your contribution
  30. 30. Develop an Outline for a Literature Review• Develop research question• Define key terms• State a research thesis, and• Identify a target list of 20 key resources
  31. 31. Presentation of Literature ReviewTitle, Author, Research Question, Key Terms, Findings,Methodology, and what was the gap
  32. 32. FormatFormat 1 Format 3 – Essay way – Tabular FormFormat 2 Format 4 – Review Main – Entire work points
  33. 33. Sources for Literature SearchOff-line
  34. 34. Abstract database of all the subjectsSubject Index
  35. 35. • Guide to Indian Literature• Ulrich Guide• Library search• Registers• Classified catalog cards• Bibliographic databases• Psychological Abstracts• Sociological Abstract• IIM-A/ B• Footnote chasing
  36. 36. Common error
  37. 37. • Too quick conclusion• Try same thing• Complete reading of paper• Format of presentation• Nothing for me to do• Copying
  38. 38. Skills
  39. 39. • Reading• Understanding• Critical Analysis• Logical connection• Leave out• Visiting libraries• Special Library
  40. 40. Key words on your topicExample: Empowerment • ??
  41. 41. Key words on your topicExample: Empowerment• OB• HR practices• HRM / SHRM• Leadership• Organizational Change• Restructuring / OD• Sociology of Culture• Change Management
  42. 42. Work on Accountability / Bureaucracy / Culture / Leadership/ Management Style and approach / Structure / liberty / Communication / Decision Making / Discipline/ Ethos / Industrial Democracy / Knowledge Sharing / Ownership Culture / Organizational Health / Power Distribution/ Responsibility Sharing / Transparency / Information sharing / Degree of trust & loyalty……….
  43. 43. ICSSR….. Research funding
  44. 44. • NASSDOC• Study Grants• Partial Assistance• Literature search…. Bibliography• Conference Alert• PhD thesis• Monographs• All Social Science journals
  45. 45. List of Machine Readable DatabasesOnline DatabasesEconLit (1969+)International Political Science Abstracts (1989+)Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) (1969+)PsycINFO (1872+)Sociological Abstracts (1952+)
  46. 46. II CD ROM Databases• AGRIS (1975-2000)All India Index to English books in print• Business Abstracts CD-ROM (1999-2003,2008)• Dissertation Abstracts on Disc : A Humanities and Social Sciences (with abstracts) (1987-2003)• ERIC (Educational Resources Information Centre) (with abstracts) (1966-2000)• International Bibliography of Social Science (1981-2002)• ISID Research Reference CD (without abstracts)• Journal Citation Report (2000, 2002)• PAIS International (Public Affairs Information Service)
  47. 47. • POPLINE (Population Online) (with abstracts) (2002)• PsycINFO (with abstracts) (2003 June)• Singapore National Bibliography (1998-2002)• Social Sciences Citation Index with Abstracts (1998-99, 2003)• Social Science Index (without abstract) (1983-2000)• Social Sciences Index / Full Text (1989-1999)• UNESCO CD-ROM (1997-2002)• Vans Electronic Library (2000-2001)• Wilson Social Science Abstracts Women Studies International (1972-2004)
  48. 48. Statistical Databases• Annual Survey of Industries, 1973-74 to 1997-98• Domestic Product of States of India, 1960-1961 to 2000-01• Economic Intelligence Service (2004-2005) (CMIE, India)• FAO STAT (Food and Agriculture Statistics) (2001)• Global Development Finance on CD-ROM• National Accounts Statistics of India 1950-51 to 2000-01• UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics (2002)• World Development Indicators on CD-ROM (1999, 2003)• Other Database……..Indian Business Insight Database (IBID)
  49. 49. Bibliography compilation charges :Rs. 25/- plus Rs.22.00 for the Registered Postage(Total Rs. 47.00 for 25 references)As on March, 2012
  50. 50. Library• ICSSR• AIMA• ILO• JNU• Parliament• HRD Ministry• NCERT• AIU• British• American
  51. 51. ReflectionsDo I have a specific thesis, problem, or research questionWhat type of literature review am I conducting?Am I looking at issues of theory, methodology, policy, quantitative research,qualitative research?What is the scope of my literature review? What types of publications am I using: journals, books, government documents, popular media?What discipline am I working in: economics, psychology, sociology, management?
  52. 52. • How good are my information seeking skills?• Found all the relevant material?• Did I exclude irrelevant material?• Is there a specific relationship between literature chosen to review and problem formulated?
  53. 53. Have I critically analyzed the literature I use?Do I just list and summarize authors and articles, or do I critically assess them?Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective?Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful?
  54. 54. Some tipsKeep up to date - start with recent and work backBe persistent, search across disciplinesResist temptation to rely on online contentRead intensively and extensively
  55. 55. End TipsDon’t worry if it looks messyBoundaries between this literature and that literature are not clearly demarcatedThere is no definitive set of choices about which literatures, or authors, to include in your literature reviewDo not start writing your literature review until you have developed a broad and deep understanding of your topic!You can’t know everything
  56. 56. Aware• Copyright• Patent• Cant dawn load• Cant change
  57. 57. Nice to be with you /