M M Bagali, PhD, HR, HRM, Research, Management, India, Empowerment Strategies, SHRM, Projects, OD, OB, Doctorate, …….
1Workers Empowerment: A Study of Polyhydron Private Limited, BelgaumA Synopsis of the thesis submittedto the Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka Statefor the award of PhD Degree inManagement StudiesByM M Bagali,♣Research Student,Management StudiesKousali Institute of Management Studies (KIMS),Karnatak University, DharwadKarnataka StateGuideDr. A H Chachadi, PhDProfessor of Management,Research Guide (PhD program),Kousali Institute of Management Studies (KIMS),Karnatak University, DharwadKarnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka State(A Five Star NACC Accredited)Submitted in 2003 – Awarded in 2008-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------♣Presently: M M Bagali, PhD, Dean-MBA programme, Professor of SHRM, New HorizonCollege of Engineering / Marathalli / Outer Ring Road, Bangalore 560 087 / Karnataka State /email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org
2Workers Empowerment: A Study of Polyhydron Private Limited, BelgaumM M Bagali,Research Student, Management Studies,Kousali Institute of Management Studies (KIMS),Karnatak University, DharwadPresentlyM M Bagali, PhDDean-MBA programmeProfessor of SHRM,New Horizon College of Engineering / Marathalli / Outer Ring RoadBangalore 560 087 / Karnataka State / www.newhorizonindia.edu,IntroductionWe are presently living at a time where we all experience complex challenges. Infact, the worldaround us is undergoing rapid changes. Leadership crises of some sort are evident in almost allorganizations and business. We do also hear of the fallout of such ineffective structures. In the faceof all these events, the time has come for us to think over and renew the relationships that wepractice within our own organizations. The business of tomorrow would be entirely different fromwhat it is today. The workplace has also become more challenging, and the workforces areexperiencing more opportunities. These changes make it imperative for business organizations toadopt newer ways to cope with present crisis and lead towards corporate success. One suchmechanism could be making appropriate investments in developing the human resource potentials.This, however, is not an easy process. A paradigm shift will be required.The researchers in the field of Human Resources Management are increasingly facing a dilemmain suggesting the best strategy to handle day-to-day issues and newer requirements of theworkforce. They also are confronted with the dilemma of which strategy organizations shouldadopt in order to develop their human resources. Research on strategies adopted in managinghuman resources has shown that much change has happened over the years. One has seen newconcepts evolving during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Some notable ones among them areemployee involvement and participation; self managed teams, delegation of decision-making, etc.Many of the old theories on human behavior have been rewritten and new models developed tocope with the rapid changes brought in as a result of liberalization.The business in the Third World economies is experiencing the winds of change for the first time.It is pertinent that in the light of all these rapid and new developments, organisations need toapproach human resource systematically. Indeed, in pursuit of continued excellence and the urge tostay at the top makes organizations adopt various innovative strategies. It is necessary that thesestrategies match international standards. Not only it is necessary that the production systems, thefinancial systems, etc.., be guided by systematic management, but equal emphasis needs to be
3placed on managing the people and managing HR systems, as these would play a major role inmaking business organisations excel on global front. Human resource development andmanagement is of utmost importance for almost all organizations particularly if they are seriousenough to stay ahead of others. One does see some business organizations placing an increasingimportance on human resource management. We also observe the development of innovativestyles, approaches and models in this regard. An innovative company often follows certainoutstanding and path breaking practices. Many of these evolve as a result of their conviction tochange the fundamentals. It is necessary that fundamental changes come through the practice andadoption of ethos, particularly those with some degree of global acceptance. References to theJapanese management styles are often cited. These Japanese organizations are remembered for theunique way they manage and develop organizations and the way human resources utilize theglobal standards in management practices. The standard global practices include: open lines ofcommunication; high value to human; transparent organization culture; scope for creative world;leadership at all levels; an equal code of conduct; leadership at all level; and an open and fairappraisal system. Interestingly, these components deal with the concept of empowerment as well.Empowerment: A New Human Resource ToolManagement experts all across the globe have placed a lot of stress on the need for empoweringthe workforce in organizations. Literature on these new found strategies of empowerment alsoabound and research on this theme has brought out the various dimensions of empowerment. Somesee it as something that has to do with investing power and vesting full authority with almost everyemployee in an organization. Some argue that empowerment enables employees to do what needsto be done rather than do what they are told to do. Some understand empowerment as the means totransfer power to the lowest appropriate level in order to create an opportunity for maximuminitiative, responsibility and commitment. The proponents argue that this shall help people atappropriate levels make the right decisions for the right reasons. The third dimension look atemployee empowerment as sharing responsibility and power equally at all levels in theorganization, thereby helping people to develop and innovate, take initiative and make independentdecisions to satisfy their needs and wants, while reaching the desired goals and objectives. In thewords of Argyris (1998) ‘Empowerment involves a creative act that frees a person, a group, anorganization, and even a total system to behave in new ways’.The fourth dimension views empowerment as a process of enhancing the feelings of self-efficacyamong organization members through the identification of conditions that foster powerlessness.Providing information through formal organizational practices and informal techniques is a meansof removing this powerlessness. Proponents like Gates (1995) conceptualize empowerment as aprocess resulting in the autonomy of individual employee, as well as increases accountabilitytowards their job performance. Gates argues that such processes will provide a sense of ownershipand fulfillment while achieving shared organizational goals among the employees. Empowermentis seen as both a holistic approach as well as an advanced approach towards human resourcesdevelopment and management. Every employee is involved at various stages of organizationaldevelopment, which makes him or her responsible and accountable for their actions. It is seen as away of handling employees delicately by sharing equally the resources, materials, information, etc.Earlier definitions like Ken Murrells (1977) say that, empowerment “is an act of building,developing and increasing one’s power”. He identifies two major categories of empowerment: (a)self empowerment, i.e. the ability to empower oneself, and (b) inter-active empowerment, i.e. the
4process of creating power with others. As Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1977), Professor at HarvardBusiness School, and a pioneer in the area of organisational empowerment and related work,defines, the concept empowerment as “giving power to people who operate at an advantage in theorganisation success”. She conceives of a continuum from powerless to empowered andencourages organisations to help people move towards the empowered end. She was the one whopropagated the concept of empowerment from sociological perceptive and later in the Industrialcontext. The origin of empowerment work can be traced from Kanter’s work.Zimmerman (1990) defines empowerment as something “which comprises individual cognitionsand perceptions that constitute feelings of behavioral and psychological investment in work”.Thomas and Velthouse (1990) see the term empowerment “as the value of a work, goal orpurpose judged in relation to an individual’s own ideas and standards”. Hogg (1993) defines theconcept empowerment “ as the quality, which makes the difference between doing a jobadequately (as it might be done if it were delegated) and doing it intelligently, creatively and withcommitment, which goes together with accountability -- a difference often refused to asdiscretionary effort”.Empowerment as a strategy has been successfully practiced in the west. Its role still needs to beviewed in Indian context. There are explanations put forward as to why the process has not takenroot in India. The culture, thinking, maturity level, attitudes and management-employeerelationships, the composition of workforce, etc., are factors that have delayed the acceptance ofthis strategy. The industrial society is dominated by labour unions. The attitude and pattern ofthinking both of the management as well as of the employee’s acts as a limiting factor that hasprevented the mainstreaming of employee empowerment in organization. The need of the hour isto adapt new ways of development and management of human resources. In some Indian firms,some effort has been initiated. Human resources in such firms are increasingly being seen as anasset and not a liability. However, much more needs to be done by the management in adapting tonew ways of developing human resources and a shift in the mind set would be required.Empowerment of employees at workplace is being realized as a possible means for sustainedgrowth. A study conducted by Hewitt Associates Research (1998) has proved that empoweredemployees can change the very face of the organisation, particularly in running business duringturbulent times. It is particularly important that one develop an understanding on empowerment.Some of the issues that are prominent are: a) what could be the possible angles and dimensions ofempowerment? b) How could one mainstream empowerment? and c) Can empowerment createsfar-reaching gains resulting in a high performance workforce and a winning organization? It ishere that a demystification of the real meaning of empowerment becomes a necessity and a studyin this direction.Review of the Work:From time to time, attempt has been made to understand the practices of human resourcedevelopment and management in organisation and various studies been undertaken. An attempt hasbeen made here to know the end results of various studies in Indian and Overseas context in thefield of empowerment and related areas. In Indian setting, not many studies are reported in thisarea. Recent studies by Pati (1997); Sengupta and Shaikh (1997); Venkatachalam (1998); Dwivedi(1998); Mohapatra (1998); Tripathy (1999) are reported and reviewed in Indian context. Pati(1997) undertook the study in the area of employee empowerment and opined that anyorganisation based on employee empowerment should give employees freedom to exploit their full
5potential. Another study was undertaken by Sengupta and Sheikh (1997) in the area ofempowering employees through sharing all the organisational information with the employees. Anobservation has been done by Venkatachalam (1998) in the area of empowerment. He says thattraditional means of managerial control of people in an organisation is increasingly becomingobsolete in today’s industrial world, and a need has arisen to improve upon organisation control.The study conducted by Dwivedi (1998) presents varied theoretical perspectives on empowermentand reinforce with current empowerment practices in Indian work settings. Mohapatra (1998)throws light in the area of empowerment as the basis for sound organisational policy. He says that,people are the most valued resources of the organisation and the organisation must unequivocallycommit itself to the belief that people make it grow and prosper and their potential is unlimited. Astudy undertaken by Tripathi (1999) in highlighting empowerment as a key to successful humanresource management in the organisation. He says that empowerment is all about encouraging andallowing individual’s to take personal responsibility for improving the way they do their jobs andcontribute to organisation goals.Studies have been conducted overseas in the area of empowerment, how to develop and manageHR, thus focusing in very many areas and presented by researchers and management gurus in theform of Research work,write-ups, articles, research reports and cases. Scientist and Researcherslike Barnes and Kaftans (1970 and 1985), Grain and Klein (1993), Beer and Specter (1993), Stack(1983), Quarrey (1987), Myron Eichen (1989), Edward Lawler III (1991), Marjorie Reynolds(1991), Michael Quarrey (1992), Cyndy Payne (1993),Matt Ward(1994), Michele Hunt(1996),Marty O’Neill (1999) have dealt with the study of empowerment and related areas in creatingworld-class organisation and an winning work force.A study by Barnes and Kaftans (1970) involved an empirical enquiry in the design and creation of acompany with no formally defined hierarchical structure and how it promotes the practice ofempowering employees and encourages them to perform high. Barnes and Kaftans (1985) conducted astudy in Sun Hydroids Corporation, USA, in the area of employee empowerment and the waysthrough which it should be undertaken. Myron Eichen (1989) reports his observation at Brook-treeCorp, in the area of employee empowerment and emphasized the need to foster and encouragecreativity, open lines of communication for good employee-employer relation in companies and howemployee ownership in a capital intensive company should be practiced as a form of employeeempowerment. Edward Lawler III (1991) Director, Centre for Effective Organisations, University ofSouthern California, has undertaken extensive studies in the area of empowerment and how instilling asense of ownership among employees leads to maximum output at work place. Matt Ward (1994)reports his observation at The Wyatt Company. He shares his experience of how through creating anownership culture through employee participation, one can practice empowerment and manage HR.Michele Hunt (1996) reports his observation undertaken at Herman Miller organisation. He says thatconcepts such as participation, quality and ownership are fundamental while empowering employeesat work place. The study undertaken by Bo Burlingham (1999), with the objective of knowing howone can empower their employees through the practice of open-book management and ownershipculture. He concludes that open book is a journey.The Present Study:While it would be perfect logic to try to predict the future, we know one thing for certain abouttodays business environment that the best, brightest, most innovative and entrepreneurial people wanta piece of action - many wont even consider joining a company unless they receive stock of their own.
6Fortunately or may be unfortunately for some, this is the type of employee we all desperately need inorder to survive.Demystifying employee empowerment not only tells WHY it is important for the companies topractice, but, it also tells the rate of success organisation will have in future. The answer to mostorganisations in present century is to let free the employees and give power to decide the destiny ofthe organisation. This is what employees also need. The present work is an apt step in thisdirection of showing the right path to systematize the practice of employee empowerment. Thestudy makes an attempt to demystify the systems, practices and strategies for employeeempowerment.This study has examined a variety of angles and images and has tried to understand the fallouts ofsuch practices. The dimensions which the study tested included accountability; bureaucraticapproach; career planning; building committed workforce; communication system; degree offreedom; shared ethics; management ethos; feedback system; degree of freedom; climate ofhonesty; industrial democracy; knowledge sharing; leadership approach; management styles;organizational health; ownership culture; participative approach; climate of politics; powerdistribution; mode of recognition; work relationships; respect to individuals; responsibility sharing;shared values; etc. Empowerment was found to be a phenomenon, which is not independent. Theresearch saw various shades of organizational ethos and practices that leads to empowerment. Inthe process of empowerment, sharing of power and taking responsibility was seen as the primaryareas. However, other dimensions were also found to make significant contributions, which thepresent study tried at macro level.Objectives:The investigation is an empirical research work to understand how a model company can becreated with innovative workplace programme and policies. It was also intended to understand theimpact of such innovative practices on empowerment and how such processes could change theface of organisation and help it remain at the top of business. An effort was made to understand allthat contributed to empowerment--the systems, practices, policy or the leadership. An effort wasalso made to see how these management practices impacted upon empowered employee behavior.Hypotheses:The study tries to test the following hypothesis:Ha1 Individual and organisational achievements can be gained through the sense of belonging;Ha2 A sense of Organisational life through climate shapes behavior and moulds positive attitudetowards organisational growth and development leading to employee empowerment;Ha3 Access to information about the mission, value, goals and objectives of an organisation ispositively related to empowerment;Ha4 If an organisation aspires for fundamental changes, it must change the fundamentals; andHa5 Empowerment at workplace makes leaders redundant.
7Scope of the work:There is a big gap between performing organisation and other. The reasons could be several, butan empowered work culture is what makes significant difference. The present study tries to focusat these levels and is it the policy, people or workplace practices that makes an empoweredorganisation and work force is what is been probed at length. The focus of study restricts toPolyhydron Private Limited-PPL, an engineering based organisation established in the year1981, situated at the industrial area of Belgaum district, in Karnataka State, India. All theemployees including the CEO/MD form the respondent group.Research Design:The focus of study is to understand why and what makes top performing companies different andwhat are the innovative and unique strategies adopted in creating a global standard organisation. Itwas therefore, decided to use explorative and descriptive design, which befits into the pattern ofinvestigation. The study also looked at the timeline described for the change process that the firmwent through (if that is what occurred), or was the firm set-up to be empowered from thebeginning. It was also to understand what things changed early, what things changed later and howwell did they triangulate? The current practices of developing and managing human resources wereexplored and a description of all these practices was analyzed through appropriate questionnaireand schedule, including verbatim recording of the responses, per se.Method of Study:a) Geographical AreaKarnataka State in India is an industrially developed State, with a wide range of organisations.Belgaum District was the selected geographical area for the present study.
8b) OrganisationPolyhydron Private Limited-PPL was established way back in 1981 by SBH (Suresh Hundre,CEO & MD) with other fellow colleagues under the Hyloc banner. PPL was one of the unitsunder the banner and SBH thought of Polyhydron unit with ideas he felt were on lines with histhinking and took up the responsibility of running the organisation. The wide range of productsat PPL spans over more than 40-50 types and an average of 700 models. The customers are fromvaried places and the turnover on an average is between 8-10 crores. PPL organisation is part ofpresent study enquiry.c) Sampling Population:The sample included for the present study is put forth:Data Collection:An exhaustive empowerment questionnaire was put to test. Several empowering angleswere probed and a total of nearly 125 odd areas were identified, which were apt, valid and relevanton five point scale, viz: Strongly agree; Agree; can’t say; Disagree; and strongly disagree. Suchareas put to test includes understanding the system of accountability within the organisation,communication process adopted, decision making process, delegation and shared responsibility,feed-back system adopted, methods for information sharing, leadership development at all spheres,organisational transparency, management and organisational ethos, power distribution, degree oftrust & loyalty, employee participation and the like were put to test.The present enquiry is a scientific investigation into practical working of empowerment systemat PPL and hence the data collection is undertaken at multiple stages. We used three distinctmethodologies in the study: a) Pre-pilot observation; b) Pre-pilot study; and c) Final observation.
9data collectionPre PilotObservationObserved theSystemQuestionnaireAdministeredCase-by-CasediscussionDiscussionwith CEOPooling all theresponsesThe format of Data collection from Employeesa) Pre-pilot observationThe study began with pre-pilot observation through a survey over a period of 8-10 months. Weobserved and identified the management practices that were thought to influence business success-broad areas such as: communication, leadership, transparency, values, decision-making,participation, management style, knowledge sharing, ownership culture and the like. Initial microlevel discussion with employees was held from time to time.b) Pre-pilot studyA pilot study with specific practices was undertaken with few enquiry areas identified and put totest. This pilot study allowed us to verify and extend the larger survey findings. Pilot study alsopaved way for further exploration of new areas and few areas of in-significance were ignored.c) Final observationAt final stage, while collecting actual data, an exhaustive questionnaire / schedule wasadministered focusing all valid areas of empowerment and the extent of such organisationalpractices in growth of the company and creating an winning organisation, per se. The collectionand examining of data was done in three stages on case-by-case basis, with a sense of purpose &direction at all three stages of data collection.Stage 1: Questionnaires and schedules were drawn up after identifying therelevant empowerment angles and put to test on a five-point scale , viz: Stronglyagree; Agree; Can’t Say ;Disagree ;Strongly disagree
10Stage 2: In the second stage, formal and informal observation and discussions atworkplace based on the responses expressed regarding the practices in vogue wasundertaken. In fact, at this stage, each participating respondent was met personallyand was asked, through personal discussion regarding his opinions and feelings onempowering system and why such a feeling has been expressed. It was more offact finding and knowing the feelings through formal & informal visits from timeto time for each respondent.Stage 3: Based on these observations, final discussion was held particularly onthe responses elicited using the questionnaire method and the observation anddiscussions made. This was the last stage and all care was taken to see to it thatthe opinions expressed, the observations done and what actually are the practicesundertaken were pooled for final test and discussed at length. At each stage ofdata collection, frequent discussions with the CEO were undertaken.CEO Data Collection:Observed thesystemDiscussionwith CEOSystem/PracticesinterfaceCase by casediscussionBack toCEOPooling allresponses inpresence ofallThe format of Data collection from CEO / MDThe collection of information from CEO was done separately. A series of pre-discussionsinformally paved way in setting the enquiry areas for getting the desired responses from CEO.The main focus of discussion and collection of information from CEO was to know from topman’s angle, the way work environment has to be created and the difficulties one usually (CEO)faces in creating such an empowered workforce system in the organisation. Organisationalmeetings and discussions were also attended, informal work place gatherings were observed andall the ways and means of such practice and systems in relation to CEO & organisation ethoswere keenly observed.
11Mode of Data Collection:Personal discussions, interviews with each respondents, group discussions and several meetingswith the concerned employees personally at various places like work-place (temple of ethics),recreational hall (temple of health), yoga center (temple of peace), R and D section, rest roomswas extensively undertaken. The study injected case-by-case method for collecting the requiredinformation. It was, at one instance, the employee, the manager and the CEO put together, wereallowed to express opinions on the system in presence of each other. A holistic approach is whatmakes empowerment work and hence this was the final pathway followed for final datacollection.Angles of Enquiry:Very many empowerment angles were identified and factors such as understanding the system ofaccountability within the organisation, communication process adopted, decision makingprocess, delegation and shared responsibility, feed-back system adopted, methods forinformation sharing, leadership development at all spheres, management and organisational ethospracticed, power distribution, degree of trust and loyalty, employee participation etc were put totest. As many as fifty core areas with nearly 125 enquires were put for examining at length. Thefocus of enquiry was on the workplace empowerment practices. Similar areas were also focusedat the level of CEO.Sources of data collection:In the present study, both primary and secondary data are utilized. Primary data was collectedthrough administering the questionnaire / schedule and also participant observation. Meetingswere attended, took part in discussions and visited the actual workplace with the concernedrespondent to observe the system and practices. Getting information through questionnaire andhaving discussions at each stage was done at primary level in collection of required information.Secondary data includes written policy statements, work records, annual reports,documentations, bulletins, write-ups, procedure charts, instructions, personal files, case histories,site maps, follow up reports, suggestions done and field notes. All the policy papers related tovision statement, mission set, objectives, guiding principles, code of conduct were referred,reviewed and examined. To add, all the data was meaningfully related to the objectives of study,the hypothesis to be tested and the intended results.Analysis of the Results:The focus in present study was on the qualitative analysis of the responses and results based oncase-by-case observations. To test the hypothesis, ANOVA has been applied in obtaining the F-ratio values. As also, to understand the degree of responses in relation to organisational practices,the mean and SD percentage value have been put-forth. As far as CEO data is concerned,various levels of discussions were undertaken from time to time. The results are presentedverbatim in a form of question-answer structures focusing on quality aspect of CEO’s responses.
12Period of Study:The total span of time utilized to collect actual data for the present study was ten months. Aseries of pre-observation and discussions were held from time to time over a period of two yearsand very many factors were identified and finally put to test after pilot work was undertaken.However, for present study, the actual data was collected during 2000-2001.Uniqueness of the Study:The study has been undertaken to come out with apt practices for overallenhancement and development of human resources and organisation as a whole throughempowering employees. In fact, developing global standard strategies and practices has been thefocus throughout the study.1. There has been an attempt made to draw up theories, model development and how suchsystem should be practiced at macro level. The model specifies the priority area of institutingempowerment practices step by step.2. Several valid empowering areas have been identified while knowing the intensity of suchpractices. To add, How to create a challenging, satisfying work environment and strategies for highperformance work force is found.3. It is not only system, which makes an organisation and work force empowered, but, anattempt has also been made to know the required essential human traits needed.4. Besides identifying the Management practices that can significantly affect a company’sperformance, we’ve developed a list of leadership behavior that supports excellence in eachpractice.5. We could identify which work place culture actually worked. In other words, we couldconclude that improving on specific practices guarantees a company’s superior performance andthat fumbling at those practices is bound to worsen performance.6. An attempt has been made to utilize the results of the study on a larger canvas, whereIndividual, Organisation, Academic and Research Institute could be benefited.Limitations of the Study:a) The work pertains to PPL, an engineering based organisation.b) Of 73 total employees, 62 responded and a total of 60 have been included finally in thestudy, whereas, two respondents could not complete the questionnaire.c) An attempt was done to illicit responses from the employees, who left the organisation,but could not do it. They could have been the potential respondents.d) Since, all the respondent employees were male, generalization as to how people differ ingender and perception of empowerment is limited.
13Chapterisation of the thesisChapter 1Each Chapter opens with the contemporary vignette drawn from the real world and isinterconnected, but, at the same time, they reflect different focuses of study. The opening vignetteset a relevant application for all and helps relate more to theoretical content of each chapter to realevents, real people and real organisation. The work opens with the history of how peoplemanagement was undertaken in organisation and the paradigm shift towards EmployeeEmpowerment. It also focus on how various Management Gurus, Experts, Professionals andManagement thinkers over a period of time have given their views on developing and managingHuman Resources. It also addresses the challenges facing managers in the new economy and howculture affects organisation life.Chapter 2Second Chapter includes the review of how researchers have studied the concept of empowermentand various works done in different organisations. This chapter provides a broad over-view of howpracticing empowerment was beneficial. It looks at the issue of empowerment, employeeperception and the outcomes of studies undertaken. The discussion in part one and two providesthe context of human resource development and management and prepares the groundwork for restof the work.Chapter 3The Chapter deals with the methodology followed. What was the issue that the study tried toprobe; the objectives with which the study went about; the hypothesis formulated; and the variousmethods of data collection adopted throughout the study. The chapter also speaks about the scopeof the study and the benefits, per se.Chapter 4Fourth Chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation, which is divided into two sections. Firstpart deals with the data collection from all the respondent employees (60); where as, next sectiondeals with data collected from the CEO / MD.Chapter 5Discussion about the foregone results is described in the fifth chapter with supportive work. Thechapter focuses on the present work done, the practices undertaken and the outcomes. The resultsare also looked in contrast with other Research findings, per se.Chapter 6The work concludes with the observations done in Research work. Conclusions and workabletentative suggestions and avenues for further research are outlined. The historical events anddevelopment of the organisation – PPL, Questionnaire / schedule and Reference sources and worksforms the other section of the thesis work.
14Results:Findings of the StudyENQUIRY AREA Strongly Agree Cant Say Disagree StronglyAgree disagreeValue to Human is high in Organisation 41 18 0 0 168.3 30.0 0 0 1.7Each are accountable for their action 32 27 0 0 1and cant blame others 53.3 45.0 0 0 1.7Honesty & truthfulness is the only policy 49 10 0 0 1in organ 81.7 16.7 0 0 1.7The organisation makes you insecure sometimes 0 2 6 37 150 3.3 10.0 61.7 25Each is boss in himself 16 38 2 3 126.7 63.3 3.3 5.0 1.7Most people are conservative & not open 0 9.0 17.0 32.0 20 15.0 28.3 53.3 3.3Every thing is not negotiable here & 3 20 8 28 1some matters are rigid 5.0 33.3 13.3 46.7 1.7I am paid just to work 2 30 1 21 63.3 50.0 1.7 35.0 10.0There is red tapsim & more bureaucracy 0 2 3 29 260 3.3 5.0 48.3 43.3Common rooms are shared 7 34 4 14 111.7 56.7 6.7 23.3 1.7I am been trusted in Organisation 35 24 1 0 058.3 40.0 1.7 0 0Some have hidden agendas 4 3 9 34 106.7 5.0 15.0 56.7 16.7I blame others for over all failure 0 0 4 43 130 0 6.7 71.7 21.7Top person doesnt believe me easily 1 4 6 44 51.7 6.7 10.0 73.3 8.5Ends are important then means in Organisation 23 21 3 12 138.3 35.0 5.0 20.0 1.7Management is subjective here 5 10 8 33 48.3 16.7 13.3 55.0 6.7Management hardly recognize hard work 1 6 6 39 81.7 10.0 10.0 65.0 13.3We dont try new things because of Managements 0 2 2 40 16Attitude 0 3.3 3.3 66.7 26.7Management is open to idea’s & more 31 28 0 0 1information sharing 51.7 46.7 0 0 1.7Management creates fear phobia some times 0 1 5 31 20 1.7 8.3 51.7 38.3Management does not share confidential 2 9 12 31 6matters with me 3.3 15.0 20.0 51.7 10.0It is not transparent Management 6 7 2 32 1310.0 11.7 3.3 53.3 21.7They have their own people 5 15 11 18 118.3 25.0 18.3 30.0 18.3We have threatening atmosphere to learn & 4 1 1 32 22develop continuously 6.7 1.7 1.7 53.3 36.7Each has confidence/faith in team members 10 42 4 4 016.7 70.0 6.7 6.7 0Management also encourages team at all level 10 32 14 3 1
1516.7 53.3 23.3 5.0 1.7Management feed back is always subjective 2 8 13 34 33.3 13.3 21.7 56.7 5.0Management has close door discussion some times 0 4 9 32 150 6.7 15.0 53.3 25.0There are some polices to be shown and some 0 2 7 33 18polices to practice 0 3.3 11.7 55.0 30.0The boss is always right & cant be questioned 2 13 5 35 53.3 21.7 8.3 58.3 8.3People are hardly trusted & spying is done 1 4 0 35 201.7 6.7 0 58.3 33.3Based on likes / dislikes, some are protected 1 2 11 38 81.7 3.3 18.3 63.3 13.3Decisions are objective 6 12 10 28 410.0 20.0 16.7 46.7 6.7Some are favored while taking decision 0 2 12 38 8[Subjective] 0 3.3 20.0 63.3 13.3I am also involved in decision-making 3 22 23 11 1process at all level 5.0 36.7 38.3 18.3 1.7Managers spy me 1 1 6 37 151.7 1.7 10.0 61.7 25.0Every one can have own objectives, mission, goals 11 37 6 5 118.3 61.7 10.0 8.3 1.7Every recognition is made known to all 7 37 10 6 011.7 61.7 16.7 10.0 0I usually work to get recognition 2 10 14 31 33.3 16.7 23.3 51.7 5.0The Employee Results on Variance Skewness and KurtosisIndices Mean SD VarianceSkewness KurtosisAccountability 8.5 1.789 3.203 -1.238 3.173Shared Information 7.43 2.606 6.792 -1.558 2.858Freedom to Critize Boss 3.26 2.223 4.944 1.010 0.616Each is Boss 8.48 2.514 6.321 -2.643 5.706No Bureaucracy 8.81 2.317 5.372 -3.148 9.358Involvement in OD 6.66 3.452 11.920 -0.858 -0.740Each is trusted 9.43 1.332 1.775 -6.190 44.022Each are Responsible 8.55 1.943 3.777 -2.915 11.262Transparent Mgt 7.73 2.821 7.961 -1.333 0.378Open Communication 7.21 2.059 4.240 -2.084 3.806Balanced Policies 8.41 2.812 7.908 -2.472 4.782No Air for Ego 5.33 2.595 6.734 -1.271 o.467As many as 121 different angles were put to test
16Showing the ANOVA ResultsCategory Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Significance levelAgeBG 2261.840 2 1130.920 .630 .536WG 102375 57 1796.045Total 104636ExperienceBG 3147.639 1 3147.639 1.799 .185WG 101489 58 1749.806Total 104636EducationBG 3814.079 2 1907.04. 1.078 .347WG 100822 57 1768.813Total 104636DepartmentBG 110.2851 1 110.285 .061 .805WG 104526 58 1802.174Total 104636Note: B/W: Between the Group W/G: Within the GroupShows the Results of Employees viewing Leadership of CEOENQUIRY AREA Strongly Agree Can’t Say Disagree StronglyAgree DisagreeResult oriented 22 30 3 5 036.7 50.0 5.0 8.3 0Respects all 26 32 2 0 043.3 53.3 3.3 0 0Encourages at all times 26 31 2 1 043.3 51.7 3.3 1.7 0Motivation oriented 25 30 5 0 041.7 50.0 8.3 0 0Looking for new challenges 24 34 1 1 040.0 56.7 1.7 1.7 0Openly criticizes for better 10 19 12 11 816.7 31.7 20.0 18.3 13.3Preaching one & practicing differently 0 6 5 28 210 10.0 8.3 46.7 35.0Visionary 22 22 4 8 436.7 36.7 6.7 13.3 6.3
17Showing the Mean and SD Results of Employees viewing Leadership of CEOCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 67.12007.524030-39 25 63.760010.871540+ 10 56.300016.7136TOTAL 60 63.916711.3097Experience<10 33 67.00007.224110+ 27 60.148114.1141TOTAL 60 63.916711.3097EducationUpto SSLC 24 53.416710.8824PU/BA/BSc 20 65.90006.3735PG/Engg/Dip 16 62.187516.1626TOTAL 60 63.916711.3097DepartmentManagerial 22 62.500012.1332Other 38 64.736810.8868TOTAL 60 63.916711.3097Concluding Remark:The organisation is in the process of creating global systems that serve the mission and vision andincredible things happen and this is how empowerment and empowering employees has beencreated at work place in the organisation. The leader with the vision and mission can turn the veryface of organisation and great strides can be achieved as has been seen in the organisation underthe preview of the study.It should also be noted that, empowerment and empowering employees is a holist approach andall the systems, practices, people, leadership, culture, ethos, policies and principles shouldtogether join hands in working at it. If a single element in this entire system is missing,empowerment can hardly be practiced. Today, employees at every level expect to be treated asvalued members of their organisation. They also seek power for better organisational deeds.The vision of the leader has paved the way for an introduction of all these. They are now payingdividends.The experiment has come a long way. Today the results of such efforts are also farreaching. The organisation can safely boast of having highly motivated and committed workforce:employees who handle their responsibilities professionally and have the inherent capability to takeindependent decisions; a low employee turnover; and a disciplined and confident workforce withopen and transparent behavior. The industrial climate is also free from disputes. All these
18practices make for the good image the organisation carries today in the market, while enjoys thereputation of high ethical organisation.But, one thing is clear. At this particular time in history, with thousands of our major organisationsfacing global challenges and some even unable to cope in managing to the extent needed, it is littlewonder that organisational anxiety about future will be much wide spread in our country in thedays to come. We are likely to see more efforts of empowerment in future. We are put at end bystating that, “there is nothing Indian Organisations need more at this moment than a trueRENAISSANCE strategy towards human resource development and management at every level”.Empowerment and empowering employees in organisation is the answer.Recommendations for Empowerment strategies to be institutedFirst RULE:The first rule is that there are NO rules. Don’t have any particular rule to perform an assignment,work or activity. Ends and means are important, and stress for ethical means to reach the desiredends. Promote and allow each employee to follow his own rules as far as ethical ways are adoptedbecause each is different at work. Each is different, each comes from different culture and workpractices. Employee should set his or her own standards. Rules also don’t mean that, one can goout of the boundary.Plat form for Empowerment:Be prepared thoroughly to experiment power distribution and delegated responsibility. A propergrounding is required and do not be in a hurry. One may start the practice and may not get thedesired results immediately. Study and understand what has to be looked into: the system, thepractices, the people and the leadership. Each stage requires careful study and each step should befollowed by next appropriate step. Also, look at how much empowerment is too much. There arecertain essentials, which have to be seen and worked out:• Is organisation policy apt to practice empowerment;• Is leadership at all level visible;• Is employee’s behavior transparent;• Are they truthful and faithful;• Do employees accept challenges, and• Can employees at this stage understand the sprit of empowermentDescribe the Autonomy:Liberty is to be felt, rather than given. Autonomy in choosing the work, assignment, productionstyle, prioritising of the task…. are to be felt by the employees. The feeling that one hasindependence and the liberty in one’s area of work will boast the morale and motivate employees.Autonomy in choosing the work style, manufacturing the products, scheduling the work area andautonomy in deciding the future course of action will be of prime importance in empowermentexercise. One should psychologically feel the autonomy and freedom to perform. All ways,systems and work place practices should make one feel liberated to perform towards corporateadvantage.
19Define the purpose:Each employee needs to know what is that the organisation wants from him and what’s theorganisation purpose and objective. Define the organisation purpose and that of individualpurpose. Make them also realise how purpose was built and how it can be realised and fulfilled byeach. Define the purpose of the organisation, the purpose of empowerment and the purpose of whyand how power is given to them and the difference they can make. People should be told the verypurpose of WHY of all the activities undertaken in the organisation while empowering them.When an empowering exercise has been practised and employees liberated through sharing thepower, there are some who may not understand the sprit behind it. Make them realise why such aparticular act or action has been initiated.Open Door:Follow the principle of transparency in all the activities and functioning. Be open and clean inapproach, action and follow-up work. Never should the management create an impression amongthe employees that they are dissatisfied with management behavior, attitude and the reason beingthe closed approach of management. Never should employees feel insecure owing to managementbehavior and policy. Their (management) behavior, attitudes, style of functioning, ideas, empathicbehavior towards employee contributes and positive thinking makes all that difference in thesuccess of an organisation. Avoid dual policy of saying one and practising another. Create afriendly management feeling through apt actions. This also signifies how the organisation could doin the days to come.Ownership Culture:Ownership concept should follow on the rule that each is an owner and each are worth equally inthe exercise of running the organisation. Make each feel like an owner in himself. This could bedone through sharing equal responsibility and authority among all. While doing so, make youremployees feel like owners and make them understand and realise the ownership. Ownership is apsychological feeling, which creates a personal World in itself. The concept that ‘I’ have just cometo work should be removed and the feeling of ‘My Organisation’ should suffice. They always needto feel part of the organisation and not mere employees, who is paid to perform the work.Leadership:In this exercise of employee empowerment, develop leadership at all the stages, instead of makingorders and instructions come from one person. One voice could be of several voices put together.A leader is to be understood in terms of shared voice, shared approach and shared organisationendure. Leader need not be a power concentrated concept. Each should have the power in decidingthe destiny of the organisation. A good leader is one who leads the organisation from the back.Priority:Identify what systems and practices should follow at what point of time. Which should be the firstand the interconnection systems in a particular area? For Example: without trust, you cantdelegate; without delegating power, you can’t share responsibility; without sharing responsibility,
20you cannot share authority; without sharing authority, you cannot give power; without powerdistribution, no one is held accountable; without accountability, non can share the success; withoutsuccess, you cannot create a business. Hence, business is built on trust. In this exercise ofemployee empowerment, one should decide what should follow what and how each should beinterrelated. Priorities the area of practices and relate one to another in a meaningful way towardsdesired objective. Infact, check and build the foundation. Identify what has to be changed in theorganisation…personal; interpersonal; or organisational. Is it the Individual; group; department;systems; practices or policies. Is it one section or several or all at the same time?Recognition:Decide how merit has to be recognised organisation wide. People should know ‘what’ one’scontribution is towards the organisation and what work gets recognised. Follow and adopt goodgovernance. Keep financial awards as the last way to recognise one’s contribution. People aremotivated and feel pleasure to receive appreciation in other forms, and those could be:• A nice dinner with CEO;• A personal Photo on the organisation wall, and of family members too;• A place of workshop section to name after a person for his contribution;• Membership to the Board;• Membership to some Municipal or community council;• Look to represent the organisation in the community;• Look to lead the organisation for a day and more;• Sees to decide the menu for others;• An invitation as guest to CEO could make an employee as guest.• There could several like these gestures. Identify those while recognition. Self esteem has tobe raised and people like this. Practice raising self-esteem. Self-esteem is the cause for buildingcivilizations.Passion:Passion cannot be instilled or purchased or can be brought from any place or person. One, infact,cant transfer passion; instead, work place practices should instil passion towards reachingorganisation goals. Flat and circular work structure, commonality, due recognition for the work,mutual trust, reposing faith in a person, assigning work objectively will create passion. ThenCREATE it. The management actions should be objectively executed and the entire organisationissues should be objectively dealt. A clean practice creates passion and with passion, civilizationsare built. Management is crucial in creating passion work force and this can be done through cleanand professional policies and practices, per se. Be truthful and demonstrate it to everyone in theorganisation. It is the feeling of employees that they are ‘WITH’ the organisation as the successthumb rule while empowering employees.Monitoring tool:Monitor the balance of power from time to time at regular intervals. At times, group memberschange their minds about the beauty of empowerment. Study the status and working of the system.This also gives a picture of too fast, too slow, too much, not much analysis of the distributedpower. Evolve a scale (tool) for measuring empowerment programme. The scale could include:• An analysis of power distribution;• The analysis of delegated responsibility and the work done;• The errors one has committed;
21• The degree of accountable one is; and• The liberty of freedom used and its post effect in one’s behavior.Have all this monitoring systems done through mentoring circles, monitoring group, peer groupand structured network. This has to be followed with continuous renewal phase. Document all themonitoring work done and the course of follow-up action.Attitudinal surveys:People also feel to be treated as equal partners in the organisation. People also think about howorganisation should be. Conduct attitudinal surveys regularly. The span could depend onorganisational policy and time, but once in six months would be an ideal span. Survey shouldinclude about the given power- whether it has been utilised; how much power is too much;attitudes of employees towards the organisation goals, improvements, aspirations and ideasgenerated. These surveys send the message that management cares and is concerned. In fact,naming it as “our staff satisfying survey” would give proper thrust and push-up. The outcome ofattitudinal survey should be debated organisation wide.Create Opportunity:Opportunities are to be created equally to everyone, and he/she should be told to utilize them.Provide them all the tools and resources for power to succeed. The healthy work place culture,climate, practices and strategies are to be created over a period of time and worked-outsuccessfully and meticulously towards the organisation success. People should not develop thefeeling of deficiency in oppournity. Oppournity do come, but creating an oppournity to eachemployee makes the difference. By crating oppournity, employee contributes significantly and onthe other, their feelings towards organisation are high.Common language:Improve the work place language organisation wide, from I to WE; One to ALL or US and ME tothey all. The systems like sharing commonplace, due recognition for the work done, informationto be transparent, equal power to all and the like are the management approach to be adopted.People should feel that they share common feeling, which the organisation makes with better workplace ethos. The language should make them feel part of the organisation and not mere anemployee, who has come to earn the days livelihood. A language is after all shared human feelingsand this has to be instituted and developed organisationwide amongst all. Management also cancreate this, if it deals objectively with all the issues in the organisation. A simple distensionamongst employees kills the sprit.Power of Empowerment:Make employees AWARE that empowerment exists and all ways of empowerment exercise areopen to them. People tend to look at power distribution as weakness of management and passingthe power towards employees as a punishment. Make employees realise how power has been givento each, and how it has to be effectively used towards organisation growth. Also, make sure tocommunicate how organisation is improved (will improve/has improved analysis) throughemployee empowerment. Employees should realise the POWER of empowerment and the gains,per se.Time to empower or not to empower:An initial human nature study needs careful understanding and analysis of individuals with respectto:• Who are cut above average at their level of responsibility;
22• Does the person has the right technical / functional skills before one is empowered;• Is an employee self-disciplined? Look for it because they have to work with nosupervision;• Do people like to be empowered;• Do people understand the sprit of power behind empowerment;• Are people with EGO clash and status;• Can an empowered employee be still further being empowered?Can’t empower areas:There are some areas you cannot empower and empowerment is restricted. These areas should bekeenly seen and understood. Otherwise, it is advisable to be cautious in these fields, like:• Employees stating their own wages or scale to the post;• Setting of the wages of top management;• Deciding the time and quantum of bonus in bad times;• Deciding the amount of dividend paid to share holders;• Making down sizing decisions and deciding on the final employee selections;• Deciding to work less than prescribed hours;• Devoting organisation resources for personal reasons;• Ignoring company policies;• Spending and planning to spend company money beyond certain limits, and• Creating a threatening ‘or else’ climate.Don’t impose empowerment:An organisation perception and attitude survey from time to time needs to be crafted out. It couldalso happen that few employees may be not just prepared to accept such work place systems andpractices. Don’t impose or set time boundaries. Drive out the fear and illusion. Prepare their mindand heart before one is empowered. Communicate the sprit behind such exercise.There were 311 references, which includes papers, reports, research findings, articles andresearch papers.The final awarded thesis had 299 pages total.It was awarded on 16thMarch, 2008.