Presentation ofPhD workM.M.Bagali,Research Student,KIMSKarnatak University, DharwadDr A H Chachadi, PhDHon.Research Guide,...
thanksThanks all for attending thispresentationSpecial Thanks toAll the Hon.Referees,Prof. Pranabesh RayProf. MS Subhasand...
HR is an asset“you can get the workplacesystems, style of management,and organisation capital anderect building, but it ta...
the workWorkers Empowerment :AStudy of Polyhydron PrivateLimited, BelgaumEstablished in 1981-82………Address:80, Machhe Indus...
Basis for the present workHR is essential requirement for progress anddevelopment of the countryHR forms the crucial compo...
the need, thereforeTo look at the Renaissance Strategies forCreating High Performance WorkforceA paradigm shift towards em...
The vital questions before anyone of us areWhat is this paradigm shift towards empowerment?What do we mean by empowerment?...
Theoretical and ConceptualframeworkEMPOWERMENTem-pow-er-ment (im-pau [-] r-ment)Oxford English Dictionary says, to empower...
empowermentEmpowerment involves a creativeact that frees a person,a group, anorganization and even a total systemto behave...
empowermentit means helping people todevelop self confidenceenabling to take individualdecision; overcome feelings ofpower...
Rolly May (1972)em-power “the ability to affect, toinfluence and to change otherpersons”Pinderhughes (1983)em-power “capac...
Ken Murrells (1977)em-power “is an act of building,developing and increasing one‟spower”.He identifies two major categorie...
Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1977)Professor at Harvard Business School,Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorshipa pioneer in the area ofor...
Bowen and Lawler (1992)Professor of Management, Arizona State Universityand the latter Director, the Centre for EffectiveO...
Web Definition of EmpowermentA condition whereby employeeshave the authority to makedecisions and take action in theirwork...
Giving educators, parents and students avoice in the decision-making processwww.doe.k12.ga.us/defindexTo give responsibili...
Essentially, empowerment …• it liberates people from constraintssuch as checking with the boss beforetaking actions• an en...
• people are given total freedom to dotheir job, and are trusted• enables people make independentdecisions, who operate to...
Foundation of Empowerment ConceptThough the term “empowerment” was notcoined, various forms of its practices indifferent w...
In Sociology*, notions ofempowerment have been fundamentalto most women rights movement, inwhich people campaigned for fre...
In Professional Managementliterature*, several writers have paidincreased attention to empowermentas an antidote to bureau...
Mary Parker FOLLETwas espousing the notion of workplaceempowerment. Although, she never usedthe term, an analysis of her l...
Rosabeth Moss KanterProfessor,Ernest L. Arbuckle Professor of Business AdministrationHarvard Business School,She is the on...
Explicitly, empowermentpractices appeared in the 1970‟sin USA. The idea was mostclosely associated with RosabethMoss Kante...
She argued that large companiesneed to liberate their employees fromhierarchical systems, if they are goingto be able to „...
Most other studies undertakenlater on empowerment andrelated areas, came afterKanter‟s workEichen (1989);Marjorie Reynolds...
Indian contextHomi Bhabha, a Necular Scientist,initially at Tata Institute of FundamentalResearch, practiced it in a scien...
In the Indian industrial work setting,empowerment was practiced at the NewIndia Assurance Company in its mostextreme form ...
Components of empowermentCommunicationAuthorityBureaucracyResponsibilitySharingOpennessOwnershipCultureEthicsFeedbackTrans...
Dimensions ofEmpowermentTrustworthiness, leadership,shared culture,communications, transparentethos, management style,orga...
cont:degree of accountability,employee autonomy, selfmanaged teams, collectivebargaining system, industrialdemocracy,Infor...
The Characteristics of anEmpowered Organization•shared responsibility•Individual accountability•lean and agile•flat organi...
•work excellence and effectiveness• an holistic climate of mutual respectand supportiveness•creating a strategic vision fr...
Characteristics of anempowered workforce• The commitment is high• Each is proactive problem solver• Complete trust and fai...
Benefits of Empowerment SystemsA study under by Kellogg LeadershipProject (1996) …..high-involvement of employees in organ...
benefitsSurvey results by HarbridgeConsulting GroupHigh motivation of employeesPositive commitment towards organizationEnt...
Conditions for empowermentPower to actParticipation at all levelsWay for innovationTransparency in organizational activiti...
A system for joint and shareddecision-makingA transparent feedback systemOpen information and knowledgesharing premisesPro...
Language of EmpowermentMy door is always open for discussionHow to solve your problem; your problemis our problemYou are t...
I don‟t require to tell anyone for changingthe work procedureLet me remark on the boss‟s actionCome let me write a strateg...
Let me also chair the meetingLet me write the mission statement fororganizationLet me make my observations on theproceedin...
Probable Barriers forEmpowermentReluctant to accept responsibility and powerdue to long standing cultural attitudes(Nelson...
Not their job to take power and act on itUnderstand the processConfusion in many matters, including„ who should take decis...
Why an enquiry• HR forms crucial and empowermentsystems are important components• Let us look at the concept• How is that ...
Thus,• While it was planned to havea study in this context, fewstudies and literature in thisarea was reviewed, per se, to...
Literature searchReference Brief Description Major Theme / SummaryPati 1997 Workplace Empowerment Manager should beready t...
Literature searchReference Brief Description Major Theme/SummaryMenon(1999,in press) Psychological approach The empowered ...
Key Concepts / WordsEmpowermentAuthorityLeadershipCultureDemocracyAccountabilityResponsibilityFreedomAuthorityDecision Mak...
The gaps identifiedMost Management theorists have dealt withempowerment as a set of managerial techniques andhave not paid...
The need for a study ….Thus, crystallized the present study,withfocus on :1. An organisation, which is reflectingsimilar H...
The organisationidentifiedNorth KarnatakaSpicer,Kiloskar,Grasim,TELCO,HLL,Indal, PPLIdentified : HLL and PPLInitial Attemp...
Methodologysanbag@rediffmail.com
the company chosen for the Study - PPLName of the Company: Polyhydron Pvt LtdEstablished in: 1981-82CEO / CMD: Shri S.B. H...
The Research EnquiryThe workplace has become morechallengingNeedless to say that Human Resourcesforms major component of o...
Research Designan empirical research work undertaken toknow innovative workplace programmesand policies.an explorative and...
Research Objectivesunderstand the impact of innovative workplacepractices on employee empowermentmade to understand all fa...
Bases for Hypothesis FormulationThe present study investigates the extentto which empowerment perceptionpractices are infl...
The studiesConger and Kanungo 1988;Lawler, 1988, 1992; Kanter, 1979,1989, 1995; Yukl, 1989; Bowenand Lawler 1992; Cordery....
Research Hypothesis[Ha]• Ha1 Empowerment is asense of belonging developed byemployee as a result of variouscoherent organi...
• Ha3 Access to informationabout the mission, value, goals,and vision of an organization ispositively related toempowermen...
Sampling PopulationLevel Total Employees RespondedCEO 1 1Managers 7 6Engineers 6 6Software Expert 2 2Administration 9 6Sup...
Sampling PopulationUnskilled0% Managers10%Engineers10%Software Expert3%Administration10%Supportive3%HighlySkilled8%Skilled...
Sources of data collectionPrimaryquestionnaires and discussions with eachand every respondent stage by stage [atall 3 leve...
The way• Pre-pilot observation• Pilot study• Final observation• Stage 1:• Stage 2:• Stage 3:• Interaction with the CEOsanb...
DataCollectionofEmployeesThemodelofdatacollectionadoptedforemployeecategoryincludessixstages.ObservedtheSystemPoolingallth...
The mode of Data collection of CEO / MDObservedthesystemDiscussionwithCEOSystem/PracticesinterfaceCasebycasediscussionBack...
Different aspect of Enquiry• Accountability• Bureaucracy• Communication• Culture• Decision Making• Workplace Discipline• F...
Analysis of the Results• qualitative analysis of the responses• results based on case-by-caseobservations• to test the hyp...
Limitations of the StudyThe work restricts to PPLOf the 74 total employees, 62 respondedand others didn‟t participate in t...
Data collectionthe areas♣AccountabilityEach is accountable for his action & can‟t blame othersI can healthy criticize the ...
♣Commitment, EmployeeI am made part of organization & involved in theorganization development processI stay back beyond my...
♣CultureValue to Human is high in organizationEach are accountable for their action & can‟t blame othersGossip is the way ...
♣Personal DevelopmentThey encourage working in teamPeople are allowed to take risk hereNew ideas are often dismissedEach i...
♣ EthicsHonesty & truthfulness is the only policy in OrganizationEnds are more important than means in OrganizationManagem...
♣Honest approachHonesty & truthfulness are the main policies in the organizationFew are only are honest in the organizatio...
♣Leadership PracticesNew ideas are often dismissedThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyManagement does not recognize hard...
♣Mind Set and AttitudesManagement encourage working in teamPeople are allowed to take risk hereNew ideas are often dismiss...
♣Perception and FeelingValue to Human is high in OrganizationEach is boss in himselfI am paid just to workI am trusted in ...
♣Power DistributionEach is boss in himselfI am involved in Organization strategy preparationYou need to follow rules/regul...
♣Self EsteemI can tell personally, what I am doing & my contributionsI can publish how value I am for organizationI am enc...
♣Transparent and OpennessNobody here tells what is their on their mindManagement is open to ideas & more information shari...
Demographic Informationrespondents profileDepartment No of Emps % of ResponsesAdministration 06 10Assembly 08 13Manufactur...
Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 343.76 34.6830-39 25 330.24 49.34>40 10 335.00 40.94TOTAL 60 336.60 42.11Experience<10 33 ...
Category SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SighlevelAgeBG 2261.840 2 1130.920 .630 .536WG 102375 57 1796.045Total 104636Ex...
Mean and SD Results of Ha 2Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 322.76 31.7430-39 25 311.00 47.95>40 10 321.70 47.28TOTAL 60 31...
ANOVA Results for Ha2Category Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG 1922.323 2 961.162 .551 .580WG 99484.7 ...
Table No. 14: Showing the Mean and SD Results of Ha 3Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 442.32 42.5130-39 25 425.88 65.7140+ ...
ANOVA results of Ha3Category SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SignlevelAgeBG 3925.170 2 1962.585 .585 .560WG 191072 57 33...
Mean and SD Results of Ha 4Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 393.48 36.9830-39 25 376.16 63.89>40 10 390.60 53.95TOTAL 60 38...
ANOVA results of Ha4Category Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG 4028.183 2 2014.092 .731 .486WG 156970 5...
Employee Perception on ManagementResults of Employees viewing Leadership of CEOEmployee‟s views of Management Ethos andPra...
Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 67.1200 7.524030-39 25 63.7600 10.8715>40 10 56.3000 16.7136TOTAL 60 63.9167 11.3097Experi...
ANOVA results of Employees views on the Leadership of theCEOCategory Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG ...
Mean and SD of Employees views on ManagementEthos and PracticesCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 68.8400 13.281230-39 25 66....
ANOVA results of Employees views ofManagement ethos and PracticesCategory SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SignlevelAgeBG...
Mean and SD Results of Employees views onManagements Futuristic BehaviorCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 59.6400 8.189830-3...
ANOVA results of Employees views onManagements Futuristic BehaviorCategory Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign level...
Mean and SD of Employees views on ManagementsHR Savvy BehaviorCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 75.4800 9.301130-39 25 73.64...
ANOVA results of Employees views on ManagementsHR Savvy BehaviorCategory SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SignlevelAgeBG ...
ENQUIRY AREA 1 2 3 4 5Each is accountable for his action 32 27 0 0 1and cant blame others 53.3 45.0 0 0 1.7Honesty and tru...
ENQUIRY AREA 1 2 3 4 5It is not a transparent Management 6 7 2 32 1310.0 11.7 3.3 53.3 21.7Each has confidence/faith in te...
Mean / SD Results of out come of EmpowermentPractices and Post benefitsCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 207.1600 20.818030-...
Some Surprise Responses ofEmployees on EmpowermentPracticessanbag@rediffmail.com
ENQUIRY AREA 1 2 3 4 5Constructive / healthy criticism of the boss is accepted1 11 6 25 171.7 18.3 10.0 41.7 28.3Every thi...
The CEO ResponsesWhat is your definition of empowerment and employeeownership paradigm?What type of culture is required fo...
What are the training and development programme inempowerment area be focused (Can training be givento understand the syst...
♣ Based on the experience and responses of CEOOutcome of Empowerment at PPL♣•High Productivity•Consistent Growth•Nil Emplo...
HR Systems - People Centric Practices:Value given to Human beings is high in Organization; its„Human‟ first before all;Eac...
The CEO, in responses to an enquiryregarding the language that is found in anempowered organization like the one at PPLcit...
what we saw at pplThe Results: DemystifyingEmpowerment Picture•The HR practices•The leadership•The culture•high performanc...
Areas of HR practices♣•Complete Freedom•Total Transparency•Keeping Faith•Complete Responsibility•Accountability for ones a...
We do Not Hence ResultsBribe No body expects from us,work gets done earlyBuy on credit We can’t sell on creditSell/buy wit...
Workplace culture and Institutional Values ♣The culture· Freedom to do work in one‟s own way· No Supervision/ Foreman· No ...
The CEO description of Workplace Systemsat PPLConventional PPL Dowhatistold Dowhatisrequired Libertymisused Libertymadeu...
Employee Traits found at PPL♣Traits Visible and Personal Characteristics•Open and Transparent•Positive Approach•No defined...
Overall Persona of PPLA) Values: Passion for Excellence; Integrity;Honesty; and Trust.B) Vision: We will create an Island ...
What the VISTORS say…..1.. Ricardo Frank Semler,SEMCO, rua dom Aguirre 438,Sao Paulo, BRAZIL“The practices reflect and res...
…..6.. Sri Sharadrao Pawar,MP, Government of India,Ex Chief Minister, Maharasthra Govt, IndiaEx Cabinet Minister, Govt of ...
Conclusion1981Establishment of PPL with 300 Sq feet1987Changed from Conventional management to Ethical management1988-1996...
A Start Up: Towards CreatingEmpowering OrganizationThe Process of Change: AParadigm ShiftThe Performance Indicators: HRway...
Tentative SuggestionsFirst „No‟ RULEPlatform for EmpowermentWorkplace CulturePrioritise the areaAttitudinal SurveysAccount...
Describe the AutonomyDon‟t hold unto dataInformal RelationsCreate OpportunityDesired FuturePower of EmpowermentDefine the ...
Future ResearchCompare with empowerment X less / noempowerment organisationCompare empowerment strategies amongstmale fema...
referencesAndersen, O (1993).“On the Internationalization Process ofFirms: A Critical Analysis”, Journal of International ...
Cone, Jay (1989).“The empowered employee”, Training andDevelopment, 43 (6); June, pp.97 – 98Conger, J A (1989).“Leadership...
Lawler, E. E III (1988).“Choosing an involvement strategy”,Academy of Management Executive, 2: pp. 197 – 204(1992). The Ul...
Winning, Ethan (1994). Objectives, Expectations andRewards, USA: Foundation for Enterprise Development andBeyster Institut...
Yoon, Jeong (2001).“The role of structure and motivation forworkplace empowerment: The case of Korean employees”,Social Ps...
Presentation to Senior HR Managers,of SHRI on Empowerment, part ofpresent work2003, Septembersanbag@rediffmail.com
Presentation to Senior HR Managers,of SHRI on Empowerment, part ofpresent work2003, Septembersanbag@rediffmail.com
Outcome of the workEndorsement on the WorkXLRI Editor,when published in XLRI-Management and Labour Studies JournalThe arti...
Bagali, M M“Empowerment: Creating strategies in managing HR for high performance”Behavioral Scientist, Aug, 2(2), 2002,pp....
Bagali, M M“Wining Workforce through Employee Empowerment: A Case ofPeople Centric Organisation”,SEDME, 30(2), June 2003, ...
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M M Bagali, PhD, HR, HRM, Research, Management, India, Empowerment Strategies, SHRM, Projects, OD, OB, Doctorate, …….

  1. 1. Presentation ofPhD workM.M.Bagali,Research Student,KIMSKarnatak University, DharwadDr A H Chachadi, PhDHon.Research Guide,Dean, Faculty of Management Science,Director, KIMS, Karnatak University,Dharwadsanbag@rediffmail.com
  2. 2. thanksThanks all for attending thispresentationSpecial Thanks toAll the Hon.Referees,Prof. Pranabesh RayProf. MS Subhasand every esteemed persons heresanbag@rediffmail.com
  3. 3. HR is an asset“you can get the workplacesystems, style of management,and organisation capital anderect building, but it takespeople to build a business”Thomas J WATSON,Founder of IBMsanbag@rediffmail.com
  4. 4. the workWorkers Empowerment :AStudy of Polyhydron PrivateLimited, BelgaumEstablished in 1981-82………Address:80, Machhe Industrial Estate,Machhe, Belgaum- 590014. Karnataka Statesanbag@rediffmail.com
  5. 5. Basis for the present workHR is essential requirement for progress anddevelopment of the countryHR forms the crucial component for organisation toexcelThe front line employees are the cutting edge, and arethe keyThe organisations have to be totally people centricA Paradigm shift totally focusing „HR‟ is neededThus, a relook at employees development from anarrow training and development approach to muchwider canvas is neededInfact, empowering employee would be crucial inevolving appropriate strategies, as HR is the singlemost valuable resources which can when appliedimaginatively, can make a quantum differencesanbag@rediffmail.com
  6. 6. the need, thereforeTo look at the Renaissance Strategies forCreating High Performance WorkforceA paradigm shift towards empoweringemployees at all levelsEmpowerment is an emerging construct toexplain Organisational effectivenessBecause, Empowered employees enhanceproductivityTherefore, the syntax of empowerment issimple… give people the freedom and power atworkplace, they will surely grow the organisationThus, an enquiry into various empowermentstrategies and practicessanbag@rediffmail.com
  7. 7. The vital questions before anyone of us areWhat is this paradigm shift towards empowerment?What do we mean by empowerment?How different is empowerment from otherorganizational practices? How do we empower?Can everyone be empowered in the organization?Can everyone be empowered at the same time?Will all employees react similarly to attempts ofempowerment?How much to empower?Are there difficulties while empoweringWhats the Role of leadership in empowermentexercise, andWhat empowerment does to everyone….Individual;Organisation, and the Leaderssanbag@rediffmail.com
  8. 8. Theoretical and ConceptualframeworkEMPOWERMENTem-pow-er-ment (im-pau [-] r-ment)Oxford English Dictionary says, to empower is“to authorize, to enable”.sanbag@rediffmail.com
  9. 9. empowermentEmpowerment involves a creativeact that frees a person,a group, anorganization and even a total systemto behave in new waysit ……LiberatesGives up controlDistributes powerAllows freedomMakes one responsible and accountablesanbag@rediffmail.com
  10. 10. empowermentit means helping people todevelop self confidenceenabling to take individualdecision; overcome feelings ofpowerlessness energizingthem to take actions; andmobilizing intrinsic motivationto accomplish a tasksanbag@rediffmail.com
  11. 11. Rolly May (1972)em-power “the ability to affect, toinfluence and to change otherpersons”Pinderhughes (1983)em-power “capacity to influencethe forces which affect one‟s lifespace for one‟s own benefit”sanbag@rediffmail.com
  12. 12. Ken Murrells (1977)em-power “is an act of building,developing and increasing one‟spower”.He identifies two major categoriesof empowerment:(a) self-empowerment: the ability toempower oneself, and,(b) inter-active empowerment: theprocess of creating power withotherssanbag@rediffmail.com
  13. 13. Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1977)Professor at Harvard Business School,Ernest L. Arbuckle Professorshipa pioneer in the area oforganizational empowermentand related work, defines theconcept of empowerment as“giving power to people whooperate at an advantage in theorganization success”sanbag@rediffmail.com
  14. 14. Bowen and Lawler (1992)Professor of Management, Arizona State Universityand the latter Director, the Centre for EffectiveOrganization, University of Southern California,have done extensive work in the area ofempowerment from 1970 to 2000, ……..Power to make decisions thatinfluence organizational directionand performanceMenon and Kanungo (2000)em-power “having the necessaryauthority with employees for makingdecisions in areas that affect theirjobs”sanbag@rediffmail.com
  15. 15. Web Definition of EmpowermentA condition whereby employeeshave the authority to makedecisions and take action in theirwork areas without prior approval.For example, an operator can stop a productionprocess if he or she detects a problem, or acustomer service representative can send out areplacement product if a customer calls with aproblemref: www.asg.org/info/glossarysanbag@rediffmail.com
  16. 16. Giving educators, parents and students avoice in the decision-making processwww.doe.k12.ga.us/defindexTo give responsibility and some authorityto one or more employees. The amountof authority may not be sufficient to fulfillthe responsibilitywww.geocities.com/athenssanbag@rediffmail.com
  17. 17. Essentially, empowerment …• it liberates people from constraintssuch as checking with the boss beforetaking actions• an environment where absolute controlis given up, allowing everyone makedecisions, set goals, accomplishresults and receive rewards• decision-making authority andresponsibility percolates frommanagers to the employees at thelowest rung, and to everyone, per sesanbag@rediffmail.com
  18. 18. • people are given total freedom to dotheir job, and are trusted• enables people make independentdecisions, who operate towardsorganizational success• individual employees having theautonomy for which they are totallyaccountable• an environment where absolute controlis given up, allowing everyone makedecisions, set goals, accomplishresults and receive rewardssanbag@rediffmail.com
  19. 19. Foundation of Empowerment ConceptThough the term “empowerment” was notcoined, various forms of its practices indifferent ways existed…..A)The civil rights movements*have generated a solid foundation forempowerment in theory and experienceB)The black voter registration* inpolitical activism has especiallystimulated several studies of how a groupcan overcome powerlessness* Solomon 1976; Perry 1980sanbag@rediffmail.com
  20. 20. In Sociology*, notions ofempowerment have been fundamentalto most women rights movement, inwhich people campaigned for freedomand control of their own circumstances.Similarly, sociologists have seenempowerment at work in communityand neighborhood development*Fainstein, and Martin, 1978; and Perlman 1979sanbag@rediffmail.com
  21. 21. In Professional Managementliterature*, several writers have paidincreased attention to empowermentas an antidote to bureaucratic malaise*Betof, and Harwood, 1992; Taylor, and Ramsey, 1993;Argyris, 1998; Menon, and Kanungo, 2000; Yoon, 2001;and Kanter, 2003In Industrial and organizationalsectors, empowerment has beentalked about and observed*, in relationto organizational success*Bennis, and Nanus, 1985; Conger, and Kanungo, 1988;and Thomas, and Velthouse, 1990sanbag@rediffmail.com
  22. 22. Mary Parker FOLLETwas espousing the notion of workplaceempowerment. Although, she never usedthe term, an analysis of her lectures from1925-1933, reveals recurring references tomany of the themes of modern daysthinking of workplace empowermentRef: Menon, S T , and Kanungo, R N [2000], Vision- Jl ofBusiness perceptive,pp:1-10( Special issue).sanbag@rediffmail.com
  23. 23. Rosabeth Moss KanterProfessor,Ernest L. Arbuckle Professor of Business AdministrationHarvard Business School,She is the one woman who canlegitimately be called theEmpowerment ManagementGurusanbag@rediffmail.com
  24. 24. Explicitly, empowermentpractices appeared in the 1970‟sin USA. The idea was mostclosely associated with RosabethMoss Kanter, Professor, HarvardBusiness School, OB areaHer major publications include Work and Family inUSA (1976); Another Voice…. Social life and SocialSciences (1977); Men and Women of theCorporation (1977); A tale of being different in anorganization (1980); A Change Masters (1983);Creating the future (1988); and When Giants learnto dance (1989).sanbag@rediffmail.com
  25. 25. She argued that large companiesneed to liberate their employees fromhierarchical systems, if they are goingto be able to „dance‟ in the flexibleand fast changing futureShe calls on Corporates to becomemore flexible, andA climate of transparent culture andopen communication is a key, whileyou empower people in theorganisationsanbag@rediffmail.com
  26. 26. Most other studies undertakenlater on empowerment andrelated areas, came afterKanter‟s workEichen (1989);Marjorie Reynolds (1991);Lawler (1994);Cyndy Payne (1998);Bo Burlingham(1999);Argyris 1998; andMarty O‟Neill (1999)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  27. 27. Indian contextHomi Bhabha, a Necular Scientist,initially at Tata Institute of FundamentalResearch, practiced it in a scientific worksetting for the first time in 1944 and lateron at Atomic Energy Commission (whenhe became its Chairman in 1984) andAtomic Energy Establishment (nownamed after Bhabha, called BhabhaAtomic Research Centre), established in1954sanbag@rediffmail.com
  28. 28. In the Indian industrial work setting,empowerment was practiced at the NewIndia Assurance Company in its mostextreme form in the 1950‟s. It empoweredits 500 odd field force to commit thecompany for crores of rupees. Theconcept of empowerment workedexceptionally well in this company with avery high level of trust, freedom, initiativeand accountability. But, present practicesare far removed from our ancientphilosophy and practicesIndian studies reportedPati, P (1997); Sengupta, P. S., and Shaikh, A. H(1997); Mahapatra, N. C (1997); Dwivedi, H (1998);Venkatachalam, J (1998).“sanbag@rediffmail.com
  29. 29. Components of empowermentCommunicationAuthorityBureaucracyResponsibilitySharingOpennessOwnershipCultureEthicsFeedbackTransparentLibertyIndustrialDemocracyAccountabilityPoliticsDelegationLeadershipPower DistributionShared informationCultureParticipationBureaucracyShared commonvisionDecisionMakingsanbag@rediffmail.com
  30. 30. Dimensions ofEmpowermentTrustworthiness, leadership,shared culture,communications, transparentethos, management style,organizational relationships,sharing of responsibility,delegation of authority, powerdistribution, open andtransparent feedbacksanbag@rediffmail.com
  31. 31. cont:degree of accountability,employee autonomy, selfmanaged teams, collectivebargaining system, industrialdemocracy,Informationsharing, organizational politics,suggestion systems,disciplineand the likesanbag@rediffmail.com
  32. 32. The Characteristics of anEmpowered Organization•shared responsibility•Individual accountability•lean and agile•flat organizational hierarchy•autonomous work teams at all levels•open interactions• high belief and trust in people‟s action,• enhancement of leadership at all levels• climate of collaboration and webrelationships•humanness and enjoyment• atmosphere of openness•freedom from all the threat andinsecurity sanbag@rediffmail.com
  33. 33. •work excellence and effectiveness• an holistic climate of mutual respectand supportiveness•creating a strategic vision frombottom-up•valuing autonomy•broad participation in all activities,• egalitarianism•continuous feedback•high level of job satisfaction•team approach•transparent culture•all things are open, and can beverified and questioned by allcont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  34. 34. Characteristics of anempowered workforce• The commitment is high• Each is proactive problem solver• Complete trust and faith in othersaction• Genuine liking for people• Transparent behaviour• Open lines of communication• Positive thinking and attitudes• Feeling good about what is done• Right perception• confidence in oneself and otherssanbag@rediffmail.com
  35. 35. Benefits of Empowerment SystemsA study under by Kellogg LeadershipProject (1996) …..high-involvement of employees in organizationendeavors; high morale workforce; improvedeffectiveness organizationwide; leadership at all stages;improvements in organizational communication; speedierresponses to requests and problems; better co-ordination across the organization; increasedimprovements in customer focus and high quality ofproducts and servicesEmpowerment also brought graded improvements inorganizational competitiveness and quality of work-lifeKellogg Leadership Studies Project, 1996, USA (A Comprehensive Report onLeadership in 300 US Corporate, between 1996-1998)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  36. 36. benefitsSurvey results by HarbridgeConsulting GroupHigh motivation of employeesPositive commitment towards organizationEnthusiasm in all organizational activitiesImproved customer focusIncreased sense of ownershipReduced staff turnoverIncreased innovationImproved individual performanceBetter ability to cope with changePhil Lowe (1996). Empowering Individual‟s, UK,Hardridge Consulting Group Ltdcont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  37. 37. Conditions for empowermentPower to actParticipation at all levelsWay for innovationTransparency in organizational activitiesAccountability for one‟s actionRight kind of leadershipAutonomy to workWay to release extra energyProper recognition and appreciation forthe work doneClimate of trust and faith in other‟s actionA learning culture for one to developNo rigid control systemssanbag@rediffmail.com
  38. 38. A system for joint and shareddecision-makingA transparent feedback systemOpen information and knowledgesharing premisesPromotion for open relationshipsA proper reward systemOpen lines of communicationClimate of liberty and opennessPolitics-free environmentResponsibility sharingA shared common missionA system of power distributionWay for self managed teamscont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  39. 39. Language of EmpowermentMy door is always open for discussionHow to solve your problem; your problemis our problemYou are the boss of the organizationI look for everyone in joining hands withmeYou have done a good work; let me alsolearn from youLet me help you by discussing your ideasPlease share the new techniques youhave learnt with meLet me put up your achievements and tellothers about themI will arrange a programme for sharing yoursuccess storysanbag@rediffmail.com
  40. 40. I don‟t require to tell anyone for changingthe work procedureLet me remark on the boss‟s actionCome let me write a strategy for theorganizationLet us have a forum to discuss syndicateworkI will put a weeks performance figures forallLet me invite the guest from front onbehalf of you allcont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  41. 41. Let me also chair the meetingLet me write the mission statement fororganizationLet me make my observations on theproceedings of the annual generalmeetingLet me write my dissatisfaction onmanagements new policyCome, we will all share the achievementsCome let me cheer the excellent workdoneLet me arrange for an informal socialeven.cont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  42. 42. Probable Barriers forEmpowermentReluctant to accept responsibility and powerdue to long standing cultural attitudes(Nelson, 1994; Lorsch, 1995; Mayer, et al 1995).Employees don‟t want additionalresponsibilityFeel that they are paid to work and not tothinkEven fear of loosing one‟s job for nothandling the given responsibilitySkeptical about taking risks and punishmentfor failuresanbag@rediffmail.com
  43. 43. Not their job to take power and act on itUnderstand the processConfusion in many matters, including„ who should take decisions‟Managers feel insecure and may fearpower dilutionManagement could also wonder …. if it isworth keeping faith in employeescont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  44. 44. Why an enquiry• HR forms crucial and empowermentsystems are important components• Let us look at the concept• How is that in indian context /organisation,it may have worked• What are the areas and dimensions thepractice of empowerment could beundertaken• What are the limitations one faces,when you empower employees, and• What happens at the workplace whileyou empowersanbag@rediffmail.com
  45. 45. Thus,• While it was planned to havea study in this context, fewstudies and literature in thisarea was reviewed, per se, tounderstand and know thedirection in which the studyhas to concentrate• How can a study bedesigned, and• What are the areas that canbe studied, while designing aquestionnaire and tentativeenquiry areas, per se.sanbag@rediffmail.com
  46. 46. Literature searchReference Brief Description Major Theme / SummaryPati 1997 Workplace Empowerment Manager should beready to share anddistribute powerSnegupta Organisational Information Share information of all sortsand Sheik openly1997Mahapatra Rules for Empowerment Involvement, trust,delegation1997 are the keyDwivedi Perspectives on Empowerment Varied practices empower1998 employeessanbag@rediffmail.com
  47. 47. Literature searchReference Brief Description Major Theme/SummaryMenon(1999,in press) Psychological approach The empowered state is apsychological state characterized byperceived control. Perceived control,perceived competence goals.Liden&Arad(1996) Power perspective Empowerment research should besubsumed under the rubric of powerSpreitzer(1995) Psychological motivationalapproachEmpowerment is increased intrinsicmotivation manifested in fourcognitions: competence, self –determination and impact.Eylon(1994) Process approach Empowerment is an enhancing andenergizing context specific processthat expands feelings of trust andcontrolConger(1989) Leadership approach Empowering subordinates is a majorcomponent of leadershipYukl(1989) Transformational LeadershipapproachThe effect of the transformationalinfluence is to empower subordinatesto participate in the process oftransforming the organizationHouse (1988) Focus on perceived control Empowered employees are thosewho feel confident and in control oftheir environments.Block (1986) Focus on employeeinvolvementTo feel empowered is toa) feel responsible for one’s actionsb) to have a sense of purpose inachieving something worthwhile,and c) to commit to achieving thatpurposeBurke (1986) Leadership approach Leaders empower subordinates byproviding clarity of direction whichencompasses a higher purpose orworthy causeBennis & Nanus(1985) Leadership approach Leaders energies (hence empower)through psychological identification.The critical dimensions ofempowerment are significance,competence, community andenjoyment /funsanbag@rediffmail.com
  48. 48. Key Concepts / WordsEmpowermentAuthorityLeadershipCultureDemocracyAccountabilityResponsibilityFreedomAuthorityDecision MakingEmployee ownershipsanbag@rediffmail.com
  49. 49. The gaps identifiedMost Management theorists have dealt withempowerment as a set of managerial techniques andhave not paid sufficient attention to its nature or theprocess underlying;The contexts most appropriate for empowerment andactual management practices that foster empowermentare poorly understood and catalogued;A more link between empowerment practices andleadership should be studied [conger, JA., and Kanungo,RN., 1988 study]Hence, a framework for studying empowerment, and tryto demonstrate its relevance to management theory andpracticessanbag@rediffmail.com
  50. 50. The need for a study ….Thus, crystallized the present study,withfocus on :1. An organisation, which is reflectingsimilar HR systems and strategies2. An organisation, which has similarpractices of employee empowerment;3. An organisation, which is practicingHPWS, and HPWP, and4. An organisation, which reflects theleadership practices and empowerment,sanbag@rediffmail.com
  51. 51. The organisationidentifiedNorth KarnatakaSpicer,Kiloskar,Grasim,TELCO,HLL,Indal, PPLIdentified : HLL and PPLInitial Attempt: HLLFinal Study : PLLsanbag@rediffmail.com
  52. 52. Methodologysanbag@rediffmail.com
  53. 53. the company chosen for the Study - PPLName of the Company: Polyhydron Pvt LtdEstablished in: 1981-82CEO / CMD: Shri S.B. Hundre, BE (Mech)Address: 78-80, Machhe Industrialestate,Machhe, Belgaum- 590014.Type of Industry: Private Ltd CompanyMajor Products: Hydraulic Valves, Pumps andAccessoriesRadial Piston Pumps, Pressureswitches, etcWork shift: 9.00a.m to 5.30 p.m(Sunday Holiday) (There is no OTsystem)Organization structure: Honey shaped structurePower Generation Capacity: 300 KVACapital assets: 6 croresManagement Style: Empowerment of employeesfor better resultsEach is an Owner of theorganizationEmployee Ownership CultureOrganizational Philosophy:Ethical approach in undertakingbusiness and every activityOrganizational Principle: Do honestBusinessAverage Salary: Rs 3000-9000 per month (to berevised)Employee Socio-Economic: Middle class in IndianStandardsstatusOrganizational style: Flat Organizational structureCustomer approach: Each customer is familymember of PPLOrganizational ethics: Honesty, Integrity, andFairnessProduct style: JIT, KanbanOutcome: Awarded the Best Employersanbag@rediffmail.com
  54. 54. The Research EnquiryThe workplace has become morechallengingNeedless to say that Human Resourcesforms major component of organizationalsurvivalWhat is this paradigm shift towardsempowerment all about?How different is it from otherorganization practices?Is empowerment something that has tobe given? andHow to get one-hundred percentageco-operation from all?sanbag@rediffmail.com
  55. 55. Research Designan empirical research work undertaken toknow innovative workplace programmesand policies.an explorative and descriptive designexplored the technical and commercialcontext within which the chosen firmoperated in terms of environmentalcertainty-uncertainty, stability and resourcemunificencesanbag@rediffmail.com
  56. 56. Research Objectivesunderstand the impact of innovative workplacepractices on employee empowermentmade to understand all factors that contributed toempowerment--the systems, practices, policy andleadership.an effort was also made to see how thesemanagement practices impacted upon employeebehaviorSupporting Objectives :Do we really need empowered people? Isempowerment something that can be done to someone, or is it something a person must choose? Whatrole does the person in the top have to play in thisexercise?sanbag@rediffmail.com
  57. 57. Bases for Hypothesis FormulationThe present study investigates the extentto which empowerment perceptionpractices are influenced by:a) characteristic of individuals (education,tenure with the organization, age andlocus of control);b) characteristics of work group (groupeffectiveness, intragroup trust, mutualinfluence, and worth of group); andc)characteristics at workplace (leadership,ethos, practices and HR systems)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  58. 58. The studiesConger and Kanungo 1988;Lawler, 1988, 1992; Kanter, 1979,1989, 1995; Yukl, 1989; Bowenand Lawler 1992; Cordery.,Mueller, and Parker, 1993;Rudolph and Peluchelte, 1993;Lowe, 1994; Athreya, et al 1995;Candron, 1995; Gates, 1995;Spreitzer 1995 ; Jeffery, 1995;Ann,1996; Liden and Arad 1996;Douglas, and Mc Cauley, 1997; BoBurlingham, 1998; Kahn, 1998;Argyris, 1998 and Menon 1999)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  59. 59. Research Hypothesis[Ha]• Ha1 Empowerment is asense of belonging developed byemployee as a result of variouscoherent organizational practicesand practices;• Ha2 A good Organizationalclimate would shape behaviorand develop positive attitudestowards organizational growthand development leading toemployee empowerment;sanbag@rediffmail.com
  60. 60. • Ha3 Access to informationabout the mission, value, goals,and vision of an organization ispositively related toempowerment;• Ha4 If an organizationaspires for fundamental changeswhile empowering employees, itmust change the present way offunctioning; and• Ha5 Empowerment at theworkplace makes leaderless.sanbag@rediffmail.com
  61. 61. Sampling PopulationLevel Total Employees RespondedCEO 1 1Managers 7 6Engineers 6 6Software Expert 2 2Administration 9 6Supportive 4 2Highly Skilled 5 5Skilled 18 16Semi skilled 19 16Unskilled 2 0Trainee 1 1Total 73(1) 60(1)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  62. 62. Sampling PopulationUnskilled0% Managers10%Engineers10%Software Expert3%Administration10%Supportive3%HighlySkilled8%Skilled28%Semi Skilled28%sanbag@rediffmail.com
  63. 63. Sources of data collectionPrimaryquestionnaires and discussions with eachand every respondent stage by stage [atall 3 levels]attending meetings, taking part indiscussions, visiting the actual workplace,observing first-hand the systems andpractices,Secondarywritten policy statements, work records,annual reports, documentations, bulletins,write-ups, procedure charts, personal files,case histories, site maps, follow up reports,and recorded suggestions and field notessanbag@rediffmail.com
  64. 64. The way• Pre-pilot observation• Pilot study• Final observation• Stage 1:• Stage 2:• Stage 3:• Interaction with the CEOsanbag@rediffmail.com
  65. 65. DataCollectionofEmployeesThemodelofdatacollectionadoptedforemployeecategoryincludessixstages.ObservedtheSystemPoolingalltheresponsesQuestionnaireAdministeredDiscussionwithCEOCase-by-CasediscussionPilotStudyFigNo2.1:ThemodeofDatacollectionofemployees2.7sanbag@rediffmail.com
  66. 66. The mode of Data collection of CEO / MDObservedthesystemDiscussionwithCEOSystem/PracticesinterfaceCasebycasediscussionBacktoCEOPoolingallresponsesinpresenceofallsanbag@rediffmail.com
  67. 67. Different aspect of Enquiry• Accountability• Bureaucracy• Communication• Culture• Decision Making• Workplace Discipline• Feedback, of / for the Management• Management Style and Approach• Organizational Health• Ownership Culture• Participation and Involvement• Workplace Policy• Power Distribution• Responsibility sharing• Transparent and Openness• Quality of Working LifeFew to mentionsanbag@rediffmail.com
  68. 68. Analysis of the Results• qualitative analysis of the responses• results based on case-by-caseobservations• to test the hypothesis, ANOVA hasbeen applied for obtaining the F-ratiovalues and significance level• statistical analysis has been done onlywhere requiredsanbag@rediffmail.com
  69. 69. Limitations of the StudyThe work restricts to PPLOf the 74 total employees, 62 respondedand others didn‟t participate in the study.A total of 60 have been included finally inthe studyAn attempt was made to elicit responseseven from those employees who had leftthe organization, but it was not possible,due to lack of availability of informationSince, all the respondent employeeswere male, the perception and effect ofempowerment on different grades couldnot be studiedsanbag@rediffmail.com
  70. 70. Data collectionthe areas♣AccountabilityEach is accountable for his action & can‟t blame othersI can healthy criticize the boss, if I feel soEach is responsible for his actionResponsibility of each action rests with allOne is responsible for ones faith♣Belief SystemHonesty & truthfulness are the only policies in the organizationI am trusted in the organizationSome have hidden agendasTop person doesn‟t believe me easilyManagement does not share confidential matters with mePeople are hardly trusted & spying is done♣BureaucracyWe need direction, supervision & guidance at each stage/stepEverything is not negotiable here & some matters are rigidThere is red tapism & bureaucracyI am involved in organization strategy preparationYou need to follow rules/regulation very much in organizationThe boss is always right & can‟t be questionedEveryone can have own objectives, mission, and goals♣Career PlanningI can do career planning on my ownI am paid just to workBased on likes / dislikes, some are protectedI know my next promotion periodI see money as most important Business heresanbag@rediffmail.com
  71. 71. ♣Commitment, EmployeeI am made part of organization & involved in theorganization development processI stay back beyond my work time limitI know what is my department responsibilityWe have unbalanced policesI can set my own work standards♣CommunicationWe are free to suggest improvements to boss without fearManagement is open to ideas & more information sharingManagement does not share confidential matters with meAn open line of communication follows in each teamI can openly give feed back of my boss actionI can tell personally, what I am doing & my contributionsI can publish how value I am for organizationI can publish negative behavior of Management, if I fell so♣Confidence buildingInformation is open and sharedPeople are allowed to take risk hereSome have hidden agendasNobody here tells what is there on his or her mindManagement is subjective hereManagement creates fear phobia sometimes♣Creativity, Way forPeople are allowed to take risk hereNew ideas are often dismissedYou need to follow rules/regulations very much in organizationManagement hardly recognize hard workWe don‟t try new things because of Management‟s attitudeI have the freedom to change the systems at workplacesanbag@rediffmail.com
  72. 72. ♣CultureValue to Human is high in organizationEach are accountable for their action & can‟t blame othersGossip is the way of lifeThe organization makes you insecure sometimesEach is boss in himselfMost people are conservative & not openCommon rooms are sharedResponsibility of each action rests with allEvery recognition is made known to allManagers spy on me♣Customer RelationsI can freely tell/talk what customers feed back to the ManagementI can promise the customers on behalf of managementI can assure on customer dissatisfactionCustomer can freely write/publish his feeling about Company♣Decision MakingI can permit visitors, if I feel so, without any ones consentI hardly know what is my responsibilityI hardly know what is others responsibilityI know what is my department responsibilityDecisions are objectiveI am also involved in decision-making process at all levelssanbag@rediffmail.com
  73. 73. ♣Personal DevelopmentThey encourage working in teamPeople are allowed to take risk hereNew ideas are often dismissedEach is boss in himselfThere is red tapism & bureaucracyManagement hardly recognize hard workWe don‟t try new things because of Management‟s attitudeInfighting & ego feeling is more here♣Workplace DisciplineEach are accountable for their action & can‟t blame othersHonesty & truthfulness is the only policy in organGossip is the way of lifeManagement has close door discussion sometimes♣EGOISMAll information is open and sharedNew ideas are often dismissedI can healthy criticize the boss, if I feel soMost people are conservative & not openThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyCommon rooms are sharedI can participate in all activities irrespective of membership to itI can openly give feed back of my boss actionInfighting & egoism is more here♣EncouragementManagement encourage working in teamManagement also encourages team at all levelsI am encouraged to take independent responsibilityI am encouraged to develop my way of workI am encouraged to be a leaderI am encouraged to have my own rules & regulationssanbag@rediffmail.com
  74. 74. ♣ EthicsHonesty & truthfulness is the only policy in OrganizationEnds are more important than means in OrganizationManagement does not share confidential matters with meManagement has close door discussion sometimes♣EthosThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyYou need to follow rules/regulation very much in organizationI can participate in all activities irrespective of membership to itI can openly give feed back of my boss actionI am also involved in decision-making process at all levelEveryone can have own objectives, mission, and goals♣Feedback, ManagementI can healthy criticize the boss, if I feel soI know who appraise meI can openly give feed back on my boss‟s actionsI give feed back, which is subjectiveFeedback is just for record sakeManagement feed back is always subjectiveI can publish negative behavior of Management, if I fell so♣Freedom and LibertyPeople are allowed to take risk hereWe need direction, supervision & guidance at each stage/stepI can permit visitors, if I feel so, without anyone‟s consentThere is restriction for participation in all activitiesWe are free to suggest improvements to boss without fearI can publish negative behavior of Management, if I fell soEveryone can have own objectives, mission, goalsI have the freedom to change the systems at workplaceI can attend any meetings in Organizationsanbag@rediffmail.com
  75. 75. ♣Honest approachHonesty & truthfulness are the main policies in the organizationFew are only are honest in the organizationSuggestions are done regularly and honestlySome have hidden agendasRecognition of the work is subjective S EnquiryAreas 3 4 5♣Industrial DemocracyAll information is open and sharedWorking in team s encouragedI am made part of organization & involved inOrganization development processI can participate in all activities irrespective of membership to it.I am also involved in decision-making process at all levelI can attend any meetings in Organization♣Insecurity, Psychological feelingThe organization makes you insecure sometimesIf there goes wrong, one is victimized who is / was responsible for itI can openly give feed back of my boss actionWe have partisan in organizationWe have unbalanced policesManagement has close door discussion some timesRumors are encouragedPeople are hardly trusted & are spied uponBased on likes / dislikes, some are protectedSome are favored while taking decision [Subjective]♣Knowledge SharingAll information is open and sharedNew ideas are often dismissedMost people are conservative & not openWe are pressurized to learn & develop continuouslyI can publish freely without anyone‟s prior permissionsanbag@rediffmail.com
  76. 76. ♣Leadership PracticesNew ideas are often dismissedThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyManagement does not recognize hard workManagement is open to ideas & more information sharingManagement creates fear phobia some timesThere are some polices to be shown and some polices to practiceThe boss is always right & can‟t be questionedSome are favored while taking decision [Subjective]♣Learning OrganizationWe are free to suggest improvements to boss without fearWe don‟t try new things because of Management‟s attitudeI can participate in all activities irrespective of membership to it.I can openly give feed back of my boss actionManagement allows us to take riskContinuous improvement is management responsibility♣Management Style and ApproachHonesty & truthfulness is the only policy in organizationEach is boss in himselfEvery thing is not negotiable here & some matters are rigidThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyThere is restriction for participation in all activitiesWe are pressurized to learn & develop continuouslyManagement also encourages teams at all levelsManagement has close door discussion some timesThere are some polices to be shown and some polices to practiceThe boss is always right & can‟t be questionedBased on likes / dislikes, some are protectedManagement allows us to take riskI see money as most important Business heresanbag@rediffmail.com
  77. 77. ♣Mind Set and AttitudesManagement encourage working in teamPeople are allowed to take risk hereNew ideas are often dismissedI stay back beyond my work time limitWe don‟t try new things because of Management‟s attitudeThe boss is always right & can‟t be questioned♣Organizational HealthHonesty & truthfulness is the only policy in organizationGossip is the way of lifeThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyWe don‟t try new things because of Management‟s attitudeWe have partisan in organizationManagement has close door discussion some times♣Ownership CultureI am made part of the organization & involved in theorganization development processEach is boss in himselfI can permit visitors or customers, if I feel so,without any ones consentI can meet and interact with customers freelyI can promise the customers on behalf of managementI can assure on customer dissatisfaction♣Participation and InvolvementI am made part of organization & take part inOrganization development processThere is restriction for participation in all activitiesI can participate in all activities irrespective of membership to itI am also involved in decision-making process at all levelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  78. 78. ♣Perception and FeelingValue to Human is high in OrganizationEach is boss in himselfI am paid just to workI am trusted in the OrganizationWe have partisan in organizationDecisions are objective♣Policy, WorkplaceI hardly know what is my responsibilityI hardly know what is others responsibilityI know what is my department responsibilityYou need to follow rules/regulation very much inorganizationWe have unbalanced polices♣PoliticsI give feed back, which is subjectiveWe have partisan in organizationInfighting & ego feeling is more herePeople are hardly trusted & are spied uponBased on likes / dislikes, some are protectedSome are favored while taking decision [Subjective]sanbag@rediffmail.com
  79. 79. ♣Power DistributionEach is boss in himselfI am involved in Organization strategy preparationYou need to follow rules/regulation very much in organizationI am also involved in decision-making process at all levelsI can make a career planning of my ownI have the freedom to change the system at workplaceI can set my own work standards♣RecognitionEvery recognition is made known to allI usually work to get recognitionRecognition is subjective♣RelationshipsI stay back beyond my work time limitResponsibility of each action rests with allInfighting and ego feeling is more hereBased on likes / Dislikes, some are protected♣Respect to IndividualThe organization makes you insecure sometimesEach is boss in himselfCommon rooms are sharedI blame others for over all failureTop person doesn‟t believe me easilySome are favored while taking decision [Subjective]Everyone can have own objectives, mission, and goals♣Responsibility sharingI know each work, job & what everyone is doing in organizationEach is responsible for his actionResponsibility of each action rests with allResponsibility is not shared hereIf there goes wrong, one is victimized who is /was responsible for itsanbag@rediffmail.com
  80. 80. ♣Self EsteemI can tell personally, what I am doing & my contributionsI can publish how value I am for organizationI am encouraged to take independent responsibilityI can attend any meetings in Organization♣Structure, workplaceEach is boss in himselfThere is red tapism & more bureaucracyAn open line of communication follows in each team♣Suggestion and freedomSuggestions are done regularly and honestlyWe are free to suggest improvements to boss without fearSelecting of suggestions is subjectiveRejected suggestions are explained due reasons there offI can openly give feed back of my boss action♣Team and LibertyWorking in teams encouragedResponsibility of each action rests with allResponsibility is not shared hereTeam working is not encouragedWe can have as many teams of our choiceAn open line of communication follows in each teamEach has confidence/faith in team membersManagement encourages teams at all levelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  81. 81. ♣Transparent and OpennessNobody here tells what is their on their mindManagement is open to ideas & more information sharingManagement does not share confidential matters with meManagement has close door discussion some timesIt is not a transparent Management♣Total Quality ConceptI am made part of organization & involved in Organization development processSuggestions are done regularly and honestlyManagement is interested in ends than meansContinuous improvement is management responsibility♣Total Quality PeopleEach are accountable for their action & can‟t blame othersGossip is the way of lifeMost people are conservative & not openSome have hidden agendas♣Quality of Working LifeAll information is open and sharedI am made part of organization & involved inOrganization development processThere is restriction for participation in all activitiesI am been trusted in OrganizationResponsibility is not shared hereManagement hardly recognize hard workWe don‟t try new things because of Management‟s attitude♣Values and GovernanceValue to Human is high in OrganizationHonesty & truthfulness is the only policy in OrganizationI am been trusted in OrganizationDecisions are objectiveI see money as most important Business hereIf something goes wrong, onewho is / was responsible for it is victimizedsanbag@rediffmail.com
  82. 82. Demographic Informationrespondents profileDepartment No of Emps % of ResponsesAdministration 06 10Assembly 08 13Manufacturing 33 55Workshops 06 10Packing 03 05R and D 04 06Age group No of Emps % of Responses<30 25 41.730-39 25 41.740 + 10 16.7Education level No of Emps % of ResponsesUpto SSLC/10th 24 40.0PU/BA/BSc 20 33.3PG/Engg/Dip 16 26.7Education level No of Emps % of Responses< 10 years 33 55.0>10 years 27 45.0sanbag@rediffmail.com
  83. 83. Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 343.76 34.6830-39 25 330.24 49.34>40 10 335.00 40.94TOTAL 60 336.60 42.11Experience<10 33 343.15 31.90>10 27 328.59 51.49TOTAL 60 336.60 42.11EducationUpto SSLC 24 340.29 40.80PU/BA/BSc 20 342.35 25.92PG/Engg/Dip 16 323.44 56.71TOTAL 60 336.60 42.11DepartmentManagerial 22 334.82 34.99Other 38 337.63 46.15TOTAL 60 336.60 42.11Table No. 5.6-1: Mean and SD Results of Ha1Hy 1 : Employee Empowerment results from variouscoherent organizational practices conducive to creatingsuch an environmentsanbag@rediffmail.com
  84. 84. Category SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SighlevelAgeBG 2261.840 2 1130.920 .630 .536WG 102375 57 1796.045Total 104636ExperienceBG 3147.639 1 3147.639 1.799 .185WG 101489 58 1749.806Total 104636EducationBG 3814.079 2 1907.04 1.078 .347WG 100822 57 1768.813Total 104636DepartmentBG 110.285 1 110.285 .061 .805WG 104526 58 1802.174Total 104636Note:B/W:BetweentheGroup W/G:WithintheGroup Sigh:SignificanceLevelTable No. 5.6-2: ANOVA Results of Ha1sanbag@rediffmail.com
  85. 85. Mean and SD Results of Ha 2Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 322.76 31.7430-39 25 311.00 47.95>40 10 321.70 47.28TOTAL 60 317.68 41.46Experience<10 33 321.36 29.70>10 27 313.19 52.69TOTAL 60 317.68 41.46EducationUpto SSLC 24 323.29 45.44PU/BA/BSc 20 320.30 32.10PG/Engg/Dip 16 306.00 45.65TOTAL 60 317.68 41.46DepartmentManagerial 22 314.77 36.61Other 38 319.37 44.41TOTAL 60 317.69 41.46Hy 2 : A good Organizational climate would shape behaviorand develop positive attitudes towards organizational growthand development leading to employee empowermentsanbag@rediffmail.com
  86. 86. ANOVA Results for Ha2Category Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG 1922.323 2 961.162 .551 .580WG 99484.7 57 1745.345Total 101407ExperienceBG 993.273 1 993.273 .574 .452WG 100414 58 1731.272Total 101407EducationBG 3075.825 2 1537.913 .891 .416WG 98331.2 57 1725.108Total 101407DepartmentBG 294.278 1 294.278 .169 .683WG 101113 58 1743.323Total 101407Note: B/W: Between the Group W/G: Within the Group Sigh: Significance Levelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  87. 87. Table No. 14: Showing the Mean and SD Results of Ha 3Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 442.32 42.5130-39 25 425.88 65.7140+ 10 442.20 69.96TOTAL 60 435.45 57.49Experience<10 33 439.82 39.6010+ 27 430.11 74.27TOTAL 60 435.45 57.49EducationUpto SSLC 24 441.29 62.64PU/BA/BSc 20 434.50 39.61PG/Engg/Dip 16 427.88 69.84TOTAL 60 435.45 57.49DepartmentManagerial 22 428.55 54.89Other 38 439.45 59.24TOTAL 60 435.45 57.49Mean and SD Results of Ha 3Hy 3 : Access to information about the mission, value,goals and vision of an organization is positively relatedto empowermentsanbag@rediffmail.com
  88. 88. ANOVA results of Ha3Category SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SignlevelAgeBG 3925.170 2 1962.585 .585 .560WG 191072 57 3352.135Total 194997ExperienceBG 1399.274 1 1399.274 .419 .520WG 193598 58 3337.889Total 194997EducationBG 1755.142 2 877.571 .259 .773WG 193242 57 3390.205Total 194997DepartmentBG 1656.001 1 1656.001 .497 .484WG 193341 58 3333.463Total 194997Note:B/W:BetweentheGroup W/G:WithintheGroup Sigh:SignificanceLevelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  89. 89. Mean and SD Results of Ha 4Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 393.48 36.9830-39 25 376.16 63.89>40 10 390.60 53.95TOTAL 60 385.78 52.24Experience<10 33 391.30 37.22>10 27 379.04 66.34TOTAL 60 385.78 52.24EducationUpto SSLC 24 393.38 55.29PU/BA/BSc 20 398.50 35.14PG/Engg/Dip 16 369.75 64.01TOTAL 60 385.78 52.24DepartmentManagerial 22 378.95 45.83Other 38 389.74 55.82TOTAL 60 385.78 52.24Hy 4 : If an organization aspires for fundamental changes,it must change the fundamentalssanbag@rediffmail.com
  90. 90. ANOVA results of Ha4Category Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG 4028.183 2 2014.092 .731 .486WG 156970 57 2753.860Total 160998ExperienceBG 2234.251 1 2234.251 .816 .370WG 158764 58 2737.309Total 160998EducationBG 5772.558 2 2886.279 1.060 .353WG 155226 57 2723.257Total 160998DepartmentBG 1619.860 1 1619.860 .589 .446WG 159378 58 2747.902Total 160998Note: B/W: Between the Group W/G: Within the Group Sigh: Significance Levelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  91. 91. Employee Perception on ManagementResults of Employees viewing Leadership of CEOEmployee‟s views of Management Ethos andPracticesEmployee‟s views on Managements FuturisticBehaviorEmployees viewing Managements HR Savvy Behaviorsanbag@rediffmail.com
  92. 92. Category N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 67.1200 7.524030-39 25 63.7600 10.8715>40 10 56.3000 16.7136TOTAL 60 63.9167 11.3097Experience<10 33 67.0000 7.2241>10 27 60.1481 14.1141TOTAL 60 63.9167 11.3097EducationUpto SSLC 24 53.4167 10.8824PU/BA/BSc 20 65.9000 6.3735PG/Engg/Dip 16 62.1875 16.1626TOTAL 60 63.9167 11.3097DepartmentManagerial 22 62.5000 12.1332Other 38 64.7368 10.8868TOTAL 60 63.9167 11.3097Mean and SD Results of Employees viewing Leadership of CEOsanbag@rediffmail.com
  93. 93. ANOVA results of Employees views on the Leadership of theCEOCategory Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG 837.238 2 418.642 3.557 .035WG 6709.300 57 117.707Total 7546.583ExperienceBG 697.176 1 697.176 5.904 .018WG 6849.407 58 118.903Total 7546.583EducationBG 1342.513 2 66.256 .509 .604WG 7414.071 57 130.071Total 7546.583DepartmentBG 69.715 1 69.715 .541 .456WG 7476.868 58 128.912Total 7546.583Note: B/W: Between the Group W/G: Within the Group Sigh: Significance Levelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  94. 94. Mean and SD of Employees views on ManagementEthos and PracticesCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 68.8400 13.281230-39 25 66.0400 13.4953>40 10 58.1000 21.9163TOTAL 60 65.8833 15.2672Experience<10 33 69.0303 12.0117>10 27 62.0370 17.9839TOTAL 60 65.8833 15.2672EducationUpto SSLC 24 66.0833 11.9343PU/BA/BSc 20 68.1500 8.8334PG/Engg/Dip 16 62.7500 24.1288TOTAL 60 65.8833 15.2672DepartmentManagerial 22 64.5909 17.2755Other 38 66.6316 14.1678TOTAL 60 65.8833 15.2672sanbag@rediffmail.com
  95. 95. ANOVA results of Employees views ofManagement ethos and PracticesCategory SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SignlevelAgeBG 824.963 2 412.482 1.819 .172WG 12927.2 57 226.793Total 13752.2ExperienceBG 726.251 1 726.251 3.234 .077WG 13025.9 58 224.585Total 13752.2EducationBG 260.800 2 130.400 .551 .579WG 13491.4 57 236.691Total 13752.2DepartmentBG 58.023 1 58.023 .246 .662WG 13694.2 58 236.106Total 13752.2Note:B/W:BetweentheGroup W/G:WithintheGroup Sigh:SignificanceLevelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  96. 96. Mean and SD Results of Employees views onManagements Futuristic BehaviorCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 59.6400 8.189830-39 25 59.5600 7.7732>40 10 53.5000 14.8492TOTAL 60 58.5833 9.5266Experience<10 33 60.3939 7.5289>10 27 56.3704 11.2665TOTAL 60 58.5833 9.5266EducationUpto SSLC 24 59.2500 7.8754PU/BA/BSc 20 59.7500 8.0908PG/Engg/Dip 16 56.1250 13.0378TOTAL 60 58.5833 9.5266DepartmentManagerial 22 57.0000 10.6458Other 38 59.5000 8.8341TOTAL 60 58.5833 9.5266sanbag@rediffmail.com
  97. 97. ANOVA results of Employees views onManagements Futuristic BehaviorCategory Sum of Square df Mean Square F-ratio Sign levelAgeBG 310.163 2 155.082 1.752 .183WG 5044.420 57 88.499Total 5354.583ExperienceBG 240.408 1 240408 2.726 .104WG 5114.175 58 88.175Total 5354.583EducationBG 134.583 2 67.292 .735 .484WG 5220.000 57 91.579Total 5354.583DepartmentBG 87.083 1 87.083 .959 .332WG 5267.500 58 90.819Total 5354.583Note: B/W: Between the Group W/G: Within the Group Sigh: Significance Levelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  98. 98. Mean and SD of Employees views on ManagementsHR Savvy BehaviorCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 75.4800 9.301130-39 25 73.6400 12.1239>40 10 69.1000 25.1372TOTAL 60 73.6500 14.0107Experience<10 33 75.8788 9.0476>10 27 70.9259 18.1848TOTAL 60 73.6500 14.0107EducationUptoSSLC 24 76.0417 10.8125PU/BA/BSc 20 77.1000 7.7385PG/Engg/Dip 16 65.7500 20.6252TOTAL 60 73.6500 14.0107DepartmentManagerial 22 70.3182 17.8109Other 38 75.5789 11.0151TOTAL 60 73.6500 14.0107sanbag@rediffmail.com
  99. 99. ANOVA results of Employees views on ManagementsHR Savvy BehaviorCategory SumofSquare df MeanSquare F-ratio SignlevelAgeBG 290.750 2 145.375 .734 .485WG 11290.9 57 198.086Total 11581.6ExperienceBG 364.283 1 364.283 1.884 .175WG 11217.4 58 193.403Total 11581.6EducationBG 1373.892 2 686.946 3.836 .027WG 10207.8 57 179.083Total 11581.6DepartmentBG 385.614 1 385.614 1.998 .163WG 11196.0 58 193.035Total 11581.6Note:BG-BetweentheGroup;WG-WithintheGroup Sign:SignificanceLevelsanbag@rediffmail.com
  100. 100. ENQUIRY AREA 1 2 3 4 5Each is accountable for his action 32 27 0 0 1and cant blame others 53.3 45.0 0 0 1.7Honesty and truthfulness are the only policy 49 10 0 0 1in organization 81.7 16.7 0 0 1.7They encourage working in team 16 38 5 1 026.7 63.3 8.3 1.7 0People are allowed to take risk here 16 22 2 14 626.7 36.7 3.3 23.3 10.0I am made part of organization and take part in 20 38 1 1 0Organization development process 33.3 63.3 1.7 1.1 0Constructive criticism of boss is possible 1 11 6 25 171.7 18.3 10.0 41.7 28.3I know each work, job and what one is 8 41 9 2 0doing in the Organization 13.3 68.3 15.0 3.3 0Each is boss in himself 16 38 2 3 126.7 63.3 3.3 5.0 1.7I stay back beyond my work time limit 6 11 8 24 1110.0 18.3 13.3 40.0 18.3Suggestions are given regularly 11 45 3 1 0and honestly 18.3 75.0 5.0 1.7 0We are free to suggest improvements 23 36 0 1 0to boss without fear 38.3 60.0 0 1.7 0I am been trusted in Organization 35 24 1 0 058.3 40.0 1.7 0 0Each is responsible for his action 26 31 2 1 043.3 51.7 3.3 1.7 0We dont try new things because of 0 2 2 40 16Managements attitude 0 3.3 3.3 66.7 26.7cont:Results of Outcome of Empowerment Practices and Post benefitssanbag@rediffmail.com
  101. 101. ENQUIRY AREA 1 2 3 4 5It is not a transparent Management 6 7 2 32 1310.0 11.7 3.3 53.3 21.7Each has confidence/faith in team members 10 42 4 4 016.7 70.0 6.7 6.7 0I can openly give feed back of my boss’s action 14 42 2 2 023.3 70.0 3.3 3.3 0Infighting and ego are more here 0 3 10 34 130 5.0 16.7 56.7 21.7People are hardly trusted and are spied upon 1 4 0 35 201.7 6.7 0 58.3 33.3I can publicize how value I am for Organization 9 27 18 6 015.0 45.0 30 10 0I can plan of my own career 16 37 4 3 026.7 61.7 6.7 5.0 0I am encouraged to take independent 13 40 3 4 0responsibility 21.7 66.7 5.0 6.7 0I am encouraged to be a leader 2 22 10 18 83.3 36.7 16.7 30.0 13.3I am encouraged to have my own rules 5 18 16 18 3and regulations 8.3 30.0 26.7 30.0 5.0Every one can have own objectives, 11 37 6 5 1mission, goals 18.3 61.7 10.0 8.3 1.7I have the freedom to change the system 9 42 2 5 2at workplace 15.0 70.0 3.3 8.3 3.3I can set my own work standards 9 34 4 12 115.0 56.7 6.7 20.0 1.7I can develop new products 11 34 12 2 118.3 56.7 20.0 3.3 1.7Cont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  102. 102. Mean / SD Results of out come of EmpowermentPractices and Post benefitsCategory N=60 Mean SDAge< 30 25 207.1600 20.818030-39 25 204.7200 29.8015>40 10 214.6000 26.2475TOTAL 60 207.3833 25.5834Experience<10 33 206.8788 19.6751>10 27 208.000 31.7502TOTAL 60 207.3833 25.5834EducationUpto SSLC 24 210.2917 29.8423PU/BA/BSc 20 205.8500 20.3477PG/Engg/Dip 16 204.9375 25.7176TOTAL 60 207.3833 25.5834DepartmentManagerial 22 207.8182 23.7800Other 38 207.1316 26.8803TOTAL 60 207.3833 25.5834sanbag@rediffmail.com
  103. 103. Some Surprise Responses ofEmployees on EmpowermentPracticessanbag@rediffmail.com
  104. 104. ENQUIRY AREA 1 2 3 4 5Constructive / healthy criticism of the boss is accepted1 11 6 25 171.7 18.3 10.0 41.7 28.3Every thing is not negotiable here and 3 20 8 28 1some matters are rigid 5.0 33.3 13.3 46.7 1.7I am paid just to work 2 30 1 21 63.3 50.0 1.7 35.0 10.0I know who appraises my work 11 23 17 9 018.3 38.3 28.3 15.0 0I stay back beyond my work time limit 6 11 8 24 1110.0 18.3 13.3 40.0 18.3There is restriction for participation 1 5 8 33 13in all activities 1.7 8.3 30.3 55.0 21.7Selecting of suggestions are subjective 6 34 1 14 510.0 56.7 1.7 23.3 8.3Nobody here tells what is their on their mind 3 2 19 30 65.0 3.3 31.7 50.0 10.0Ends are important then means in Organization 23 21 3 12 138.3 35.0 5.0 20.0 1.7Responsibility is not shared here 6 11 2 36 510.0 18.3 3.3 60.0 8.3They have their own people 5 15 11 18 118.3 25.0 18.3 30.0 18.3I give feed back which is subjective 4 19 10 26 16.7 31.7 16.7 43.3 1.7Choosing and writing a write-up is 2 13 17 23 5subjective by management 3.3 21.7 28.3 38.3 8.3I am encouraged to be a leader 2 22 10 18 83.3 36.7 16.7 30.0 13.3I am encouraged to have my own 5 18 16 18 38.3 30.0 26.7 30.0 5.0I know my next bonus payment 3 19 8 27 35.0 31.7 13.3 45.0 5.0Continuous improvement is management’s 15 30 2 11 2responsibility 25.0 50.0 3.3 18.3 3.3I am free to have a habit 8 13 5 28 613.3 21.7 8.3 46. 10.0Recognition is subjective 4 8 19 27 26.7 13.3 31.7 45.0 3.3Shows the Results of some Surprise Employee responses on EmpowermentpracticesBased on the literature and Study availablesanbag@rediffmail.com
  105. 105. The CEO ResponsesWhat is your definition of empowerment and employeeownership paradigm?What type of culture is required for empowerment practices?,What are the traits that need to be developed in employees?How to create an empowerment culture and strategies inorganization (the steps involved)?Describe the area (scope) of empowerment practices. Are thereany defined boundaries?What is the out-come of empowerment (How to measure theafter-math affects of such practices)?How should the CEO and the leadership be, viz: style, traits andcharacteristics?What should be the policies of the organization?How committed are your employees?sanbag@rediffmail.com
  106. 106. What are the training and development programme inempowerment area be focused (Can training be givento understand the system, if so, how)?What should be the degree of freedom in anempowered organization?What is open door policy that is practiced in PPL?(After verifying the system)What type of leadership exists in PPL, which reflectempowerment practices?What is ethical management and its relation withempowerment (share the experience of PPL)?How to develop human resources and organization inthe present millennium through employeeempowerment, per se?Cont:sanbag@rediffmail.com
  107. 107. ♣ Based on the experience and responses of CEOOutcome of Empowerment at PPL♣•High Productivity•Consistent Growth•Nil Employee Turnover•High Level of Job satisfaction•No Industrial Relation problems•No Conflicts/ Disputes•Intrinsic Satisfaction•Seeking Outright Responsibility•Staying for long with the organization•Working that extra hoursAccepting out-right responsibilitysanbag@rediffmail.com
  108. 108. HR Systems - People Centric Practices:Value given to Human beings is high in Organization; its„Human‟ first before all;Each is accountable for his actions and can‟t blame others;All information is open and shared;Every person knows each work and job and is aware of whatone is contributing towards the Organization;Each is boss in himself;Common rooms are shared;Suggestions are given regularly and honestly;Each is responsible for his actions- whether Individual, groupor team;Management is open to ideas and more information sharing;Each can do a career planning of his own;Every one can have own objectives, mission, and goals;One can meet and interact with customers freely;One has the freedom to change the system at workplace.sanbag@rediffmail.com
  109. 109. The CEO, in responses to an enquiryregarding the language that is found in anempowered organization like the one at PPLcited some examples: you have done a mistake and let us all look at it; my door is always open for discussions; let us all discuss on your idea; how to solve your problem…. your problem is ourproblem; any ideas from your side to contribute; you are the boss of the organization; I look for everyone in joining hands with me; you have done a good work, let us all learn lessonsfrom you; let me join you in helping you; please teach me the new techniques that you havelearnt ; let me announce your achievements to others; I will arrange a programme for sharing yoursuccessful story, and the likesanbag@rediffmail.com
  110. 110. what we saw at pplThe Results: DemystifyingEmpowerment Picture•The HR practices•The leadership•The culture•high performance work systems•The Traits, and the•Overall persona of the organisationsanbag@rediffmail.com
  111. 111. Areas of HR practices♣•Complete Freedom•Total Transparency•Keeping Faith•Complete Responsibility•Accountability for ones actions•Freedom / Liberty to decide course of actions•Involvement / Participation•Transparent feedback•Shared Responsibility•Delegated authority•No hidden Agenda•Complete AutonomyPower to take decisions♣ Based on the experience and responses of CEOsanbag@rediffmail.com
  112. 112. We do Not Hence ResultsBribe No body expects from us,work gets done earlyBuy on credit We can’t sell on creditSell/buy without Bill Books are not workedAccept bad Quality Good Quality is the out comeWaste our Resources Create additional resources,we have more resourcesSqueeze our suppliers We have devoted suppliers,we get materials on timeDisrespect any one Everyone respects usDuplicate works We have more spare time to thinkand better the present system.Avoid complaints Get better suggestions,better services, better qualityAvoid Discussions Get better ideas,Give better quality,Have high MoraleOrganizational Culture Model at PPLsanbag@rediffmail.com
  113. 113. Workplace culture and Institutional Values ♣The culture· Freedom to do work in one‟s own way· No Supervision/ Foreman· No Bureaucratic and Administrative interference· No Red-tapism· High Value to Human· Sharing Common Platform· Trusting each persons actions· Each one is encouraged· No restrictions for new inventions• One can fail, no punishment♣ Based on the experience and responses of CEOsanbag@rediffmail.com
  114. 114. The CEO description of Workplace Systemsat PPLConventional PPL Dowhatistold Dowhatisrequired Libertymisused Libertymadeusetofullestextent Notmyjobattitude ItiseveryonesjobCommitmentlow Highcommitmentduetosystem Lowethicalstandards Highethicalstandards Lackofscopeforimprovement Widescopeforimprovement Variouscommittees/councils Nodesignatedcommittee/councils Lesstrust Trustiscore Supervisedwork NoSupervision Freedomrestricted Morefreedomenjoyed Restrictedbehavior Transparentbehaviorsanbag@rediffmail.com
  115. 115. Employee Traits found at PPL♣Traits Visible and Personal Characteristics•Open and Transparent•Positive Approach•No defined mind set•Empathy•Free from Bias•No scapegoat attitude•High Commitment•Practical Approach•Disciplined•Trustworthy•Visionary•Enjoys the work•Loyal and Truthful♣ Based on the experience and responses of the CEOsanbag@rediffmail.com
  116. 116. Overall Persona of PPLA) Values: Passion for Excellence; Integrity;Honesty; and Trust.B) Vision: We will create an Island ofexcellence through focus on customersatisfaction, employee empowerment andcontinuous improvement and realize thisvision by nurturing an ethically managedorganization.C) Mission: We will nurture an ethicallymanaged organization. We will not exploit ourcustomers, employees, suppliers,government, society and the nature.D) Quality Policy: We at PPL strive toachieve Quality by increasing the rate ofimprovement better than the rise in customerexpectations.sanbag@rediffmail.com
  117. 117. What the VISTORS say…..1.. Ricardo Frank Semler,SEMCO, rua dom Aguirre 438,Sao Paulo, BRAZIL“The practices reflect and resemble that of SEMCO, on the linesof a beautiful principle….ethical management and idea of naturalbusiness”. [August 15,1994, through letter]…..2.. ADI Godrej,Managing Director, Godrej Soaps ltd,Eastern Express Highway, Vikhroli,Mumbai, India“It has opened my eyes in many ways by seeing the excellentwork done by you. I am sure your company has a tremendousfuture ahead of it”. [April 22,1992,after personal visit to PPL]…..3.. Dr D Nagabrahman,Director, TAPMI,Manipal, Karnataka, IndiaWrote to a Professor, who co-ordinates activities at ManagementCentre for Human Values, IIM-C.“I have seen a really exceptional man endowed with greatQualities and values of ethical Management who runs PPL ondifferent model. It is to be seen to be believed his concepts ofbusiness and work, his values and his spiritualism ”.[May 9,2001, after personal visit to PPL, wrote to Shri Chakaravaoty, Professor, IIM-C, WestBengal, India]sanbag@rediffmail.com
  118. 118. …..6.. Sri Sharadrao Pawar,MP, Government of India,Ex Chief Minister, Maharasthra Govt, IndiaEx Cabinet Minister, Govt of India,“Congratulations for a modern, clean plant.Your Vision on 21st century will take youglobally”. [1997, after personal visit]…. 7. Sri B A Mohideen,Ex Minister of Small Scale Industry,Government of Karnataka, Karnataka State,India“Here is a place worth visiting and emulating.This is a place for human development inevery walk of life with a tinge of spirituality”.sanbag@rediffmail.com
  119. 119. Conclusion1981Establishment of PPL with 300 Sq feet1987Changed from Conventional management to Ethical management1988-1996Evolution of an empowered PPL with practices like ….factory within the factory; no security; no reception; nostores; trust based; single scoring, no incoming inspection;elimination of department; finest special library.Creating High PerformanceWorkforce throughEmployee Empowerment: APracticing Organizationsanbag@rediffmail.com
  120. 120. A Start Up: Towards CreatingEmpowering OrganizationThe Process of Change: AParadigm ShiftThe Performance Indicators: HRway [behavior / awards / workplace culture]Problems within the systemsanbag@rediffmail.com
  121. 121. Tentative SuggestionsFirst „No‟ RULEPlatform for EmpowermentWorkplace CulturePrioritise the areaAttitudinal SurveysAccountabilityDefine the PurposeOpen Door Policy and TransparencyOwnership CultureRecognitionPassionate workplacePsychological Empowermentsanbag@rediffmail.com
  122. 122. Describe the AutonomyDon‟t hold unto dataInformal RelationsCreate OpportunityDesired FuturePower of EmpowermentDefine the GainsEducationTime to empower or not to empowerCan‟t empower areasDon‟t impose empowermentFun at workplacesanbag@rediffmail.com
  123. 123. Future ResearchCompare with empowerment X less / noempowerment organisationCompare empowerment strategies amongstmale femaleCompare with Public X Private sectorcompanyCompare with Small x Medium X LargeNot-for Profit x GovernmentSelf managed team or what type of groupsincrease empowerment , and whyRetired / leftover employees survey oropinion can also be hadsanbag@rediffmail.com
  124. 124. referencesAndersen, O (1993).“On the Internationalization Process ofFirms: A Critical Analysis”, Journal of International BusinessStudies, 24: pp. 209 - 231Ann, Howard (1996). The empowered leader: Unrealizedopportunities, Kellogg Leadership Studies Project, USAArthur, J.B (1994).“Effects of Human Resource Systems onManufacturing Performance and Turnover”, Academy ofManagement Journal, 37(3); pp.670 - 687Bell, C. R., and Zemke, R (1998).“Terms of empowerment”,Personnel Journal, Sep, pp.76 – 83Betof, Edward, C and Harwood, Ferderic (1992).“RaisingPersonal Empowerment”, Training and Development, 46 (9);Sep, pp.31-34Betof, Edward, C and Harwood, Ferderic (1992). A Survey onthe use of formal development relationship in organizations,USA; Centre for Creative LeadershipBowen, David. E., and Lawler, E E III (1992).“Theempowerment of service workers: What, Why, How andWhen”, Sloan Management Review, Spring, 33 (3); pp. 31- 39sanbag@rediffmail.com
  125. 125. Cone, Jay (1989).“The empowered employee”, Training andDevelopment, 43 (6); June, pp.97 – 98Conger, J A (1989).“Leadership: The art of empowering others”,The Academy of Management Executive, 3,pp.17-24Conger, J.A., and Kanungo, R, A (1988).“The empowermentprocess: Integrated theory and practice”, Academy ofManagement Review, 13 (3); pp. 471- 482Hoerr, Tim (1998). A new (old) paradigm of High Performance,USA: Foundation of Entrepreneur Development and BeysterInstitute of Entrepreneurial Employee OwnershipHolpp, Lawrence (1995).“If empowerment is so good, why does ithurt”? Training, March, 33 (3); pp. 52 – 57Kanter, R. M (1977). Men and Women of the Corporation, NY;(Basic Books)(1979).“Power failures in Management Circuits”,Harvard Business Review, 57 (4); July-Aug, pp. 40 - 55(1989).“The New Managerial Work”, Harvard BusinessReview, 67 (6); November-December, pp. 85 - 92.(1989). When Giants Learn to Dance, NY; (Simon andSchuster)(1995). World Class: Thriving locally in the GlobalEconomy, NY; (Touchstone Rockefeller Center)(2003).“Leadership and the Psychology ofTurnarounds”, Harvard Business Review, 81 (6); June,pp. 48 - 57sanbag@rediffmail.com
  126. 126. Lawler, E. E III (1988).“Choosing an involvement strategy”,Academy of Management Executive, 2: pp. 197 – 204(1992). The Ultimate Advantage: Creating the highinvolvement organization, San Francisco;(Jossey- Bass)Lawler, E E., III and Bowen, D. E (1995).“Empowering ServiceEmployees”, Sloan Management Review, Spring, 35 (3); pp.73-84Lawler, E. E. III., Ledford, G. E. Jr., and Mohrman, S. A(1989). Employee Involvement in America-A Study ofcontemporary practice, Houston: American Productivity andQuality CenterSmilor, Raymond W. (1995). Buying In and Cashing Out:Entrepreneurial Leadership in growth companies, USA: Centerfor Entrepreneurial leadership Inc. Ewing Marion Kaufmanfoundation, Foundation Annual Conference, Sep, San DiegoSmilor, Raymond W. (1996). Leadership in an EntrepreneurialCompany, USA, Centre for Entrepreneurial Leadership,Research CentreSmith, Jane (1996). Empowering people: How to bring out thebest in your Workforce, UK; (Kogan Page)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  127. 127. Winning, Ethan (1994). Objectives, Expectations andRewards, USA: Foundation for Enterprise Development andBeyster Institute for Entrepreneurial Employee OwnershipYoon, Jeong (2001).“The role of structure and motivation forworkplace empowerment: The case of Korean employees”,Social Psychology Quarterly, 64 (2); pp. 195 – 206Yulk, G A (1989): “ Managerial Leadership: A Review ofTheory and Research”, Journal of Management,15: pp. 251-289Zimmerman, M.A., Israel, B. A., Schutz, A., and Checkoway, B(1992).“ “Further explorations in Empowerment theory: Anempirical analysis of psychological empowerment”, AmericanJournal of Community Psychology, 20 (6); pp. 707 - 727sanbag@rediffmail.com
  128. 128. Yoon, Jeong (2001).“The role of structure and motivation forworkplace empowerment: The case of Korean employees”,Social Psychology Quarterly, 64 (2); pp. 195 – 206Yoon, Jeong,Professor of ob and hr,AJOU university, South Koreasanbag@rediffmail.com
  129. 129. Presentation to Senior HR Managers,of SHRI on Empowerment, part ofpresent work2003, Septembersanbag@rediffmail.com
  130. 130. Presentation to Senior HR Managers,of SHRI on Empowerment, part ofpresent work2003, Septembersanbag@rediffmail.com
  131. 131. Outcome of the workEndorsement on the WorkXLRI Editor,when published in XLRI-Management and Labour Studies JournalThe article printed below is a truly extraordinary example of employeeempowerment. The methods followed by the organisation studiedwould be considered revolutionary anywhere in the world and evenmore so in India. Infact, one sometimes wonders how the whole effortdid not end in chaos. The company has apparently succeeded indeveloping a work force and a leadership almost devoid of the foiblesof most other humans. (Printed on the Article XLRI-Management andLabour Studies, 26,2,April, 2001, pp.109-119)David Ang, MSHRIExecutive Director,Singapore Human Resources Institute, SingaporeA Talk to Senior Practising HR Managers of SingaporeThe presentation (your paper) was informative and interesting. Theyhave learned insights on the aspects and benefits of employeeempowerment. The talk was timely, as organizations have to give theiremployees both authority and responsibility to inspire renewedcommitment, innovation and initiative.(19th Sep, 2003 / Through Personal Letter)Executive Director,Indian Journal of Training and Development, ISTD, IndiaThe article published in the area of Empowerment in ISTD has beenadjudged as the Best Paper published during the year-2001. Kindllyaccept our Heartiest Congratulations.(22July, 2002 / Through Personal Letter)sanbag@rediffmail.com
  132. 132. Bagali, M M“Empowerment: Creating strategies in managing HR for high performance”Behavioral Scientist, Aug, 2(2), 2002,pp. 113-120Bagali, M M“Creating High Performance Workforce through Employee Empowerment: AnInnovative HRD Approach”,The Business Review,8(1&2), March 2002,pp. 104-111(University of Kashmir, India)Bagali, M M“People centric Organisation-A Case of Empowered Employees”, Pratibimba,2(1), Jan-June, 2002,pp.53-66Bagali, M M“Demystifying Empowered Culture: A Case of a practicing Organisation”,SAGE-Jl of Entrepreneurship, 11(1), Jan-June, 2002,pp. 33-54Bagali, M M“Empowered Employees”,Management Researcher, VIII (3 and 4), Jan-June 2002, pp. 13-23Bagali, M M“Creating A Winning Workforce Through Employee Empowerment: AnEntrepreneurs Success Experiment in HR”,Amity Business Review, 4(1), Jan-June 2003,pp.57-67 (Also presented atHigh Profiled Regional HR Practitioners under the banner of SHRI-SingaporeHuman Resources Institute, at Singapore, 19 Sep, 2003)Bagali, M M“Demystifying POWER of Empowerment: A Case of practicing Organisation”,NMIMS Management Review, XIV (1), Jan-June, 2003,pp.26-42sanbag@rediffmail.com
  133. 133. Bagali, M M“Wining Workforce through Employee Empowerment: A Case ofPeople Centric Organisation”,SEDME, 30(2), June 2003, pp.1-26Bagali, M M“Creating HPWS through Employee Empowerment: The Case ofPractising Organisation”, AMDISA – SAJM, 10(4), Oct,2003,pp.50-57Bagali, M M“A Model of Employee Empowerment: A Case of PractisingOrganisation”,GITAM Jl of Management, 2(1), January-June, 2004,pp.60-77Bagali, M MOrganisation of Tomorrow: A Global HRD Model, UdayvaniSpecial Supplement, Sponsored by HR Foundation, Bangalore,July 2004Bagali, M MAn Organisationwide HRD approach for building future Workforce,Udayvani Special Supplement, Sponsored by HR Foundation,Bangalore, July 2004thank you, all very muchsanbag@rediffmail.com

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