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'Crowd Management: Disciplinary Evolution' - by Madhukar Sanap


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Pursuing PhD in Disaster Management at TISS

Published in: Education
  • Are all crowd disasters stampedes? The author of this note has classified all crowd disasters as stampedes. that is exactly where we take a wrong start when we say that we do not learn from history. the inquiry report conducted into these disaster, closely examined by me in case of few crowd disasters mentioned in this note were also classified as stampedes whereas the facts collected by the inquires indicated that crowd densities prevailing at the time of disasters were the causes of fatalities. if crowd densities were critical,then how the deceased or others were trying to run away and killing others? where was the space? and what was the trigger to instigate running by the people? experts world over now are unanimous in their opinion that stampedes happen rarely. One of the leading crowd management expert has averred that he has never seen stampedes as the cause of fatalities. in any case, our local laws are still inadequate to ensure proper planning of crowd events. national framework is more suited for natural disasters or disasters caused by fire, floods or structural collapses and more so for rescue and relief operations. two documents issued regarding crowd management need a rethink in terms of concept as well as planning recommendations as they are more based upon crowd control models than crowd management model. An analysis of plan documents and IRS documents issued by the concerned to manage one of the largest crowd gathering events staged last year were nothing but prepared for the sake of defence mechanism. at the same time, the documents exposed the lack of understanding of the issues by the authors. in any case, while planning mass gathering events we hardly pay any attention to crowd dynamics whereas crowd dynamics is influenced by venues but venue characterisation itself is hardly undertake. what we need to do is to go back to basics and understand the concept of crowd management.
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'Crowd Management: Disciplinary Evolution' - by Madhukar Sanap

  1. 1. Madhukar Sanap PhD Scholar, JTCDM, TISS, Mumbai ROUND TABLE ON “MASS GATHERING AND RISK OF STAMPEDE” April 25th & 26th 2014 JT Center for Disatser Management, TISS, Mumbai
  2. 2. Human stampedes most often occur during religious pilgrimages, professional sporting, music events, rallys, protests, break down out systems, natural & man-made disasters, etc as these events tend to involve a large number of people. They also often occur in times of mass panic as people try to get away.
  3. 3. “We learn from history that we do not learn from history” Major Stampedes in India: Stampedes during Kumbh Mela: 1954 Kumbh mela Stampede 1996 Ujjain and Haridwar stampedes 2003 Kumbh Mela stampede in Nashik (39 killed) 2010 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar (7 killed) 2013 Kumbh Mela stampede in Allahabad (36 killed)
  4. 4. Ratangarh Mata Temple Stampede (MP)  2006 Ratangarh Mata Temple (56 died)  2013 Ratangarh Mata Temple (115 died) Sabarimala Stampede (Kerala)  1999 – Sabarimala Temple (Kerala) (53 died)  2011 - Sabarimala Temple (Kerala) (116 died)
  5. 5. 2005 Chennai stampede  November 2005 – Chennai (relief distribution to flood affected people)  December 2005 – Chennai (tokan for relief measures distribution) Stampedes In Maharashtra 1994 – Gowari Stampede, Napur 2005 –Mandher Devi Temple, Wai Satara 2013 - Tuljabhavani temple, Osmanabad 2014 - Spiritual leader Syedna's funeral Kumbh Melas (2003 & 2013) 1992 - Mahamaham Stampede 1997 - Uphaar Cinema Fire 2006 – Orrissa Temple 2008 - stampedes in the Naina Devi Temple in Himachal Pradesh, 2008 - Chamunda Devi temple in Jodhpur, 2009 – New Delhi (5 School girls died) 2010 - stampede in the Janki Temple in Pratapgarh and 2012 – Satsanga Deoghar Many Stampedes at Lord Jagannath Temple
  6. 6. Some Facts..........  India has a long history of stampede tragedies  Human stampedes have been identified as a major hazard that could occur during mass gathering  Numbers of stampedes have been reported in India especially due to the unmanageable mass gathering during festivals, religious locations, public protests, political rallies, etc.  But also the reality is that these mass gathering has become a way of life in India
  7. 7. Some of our current Legislations.... In India there are various legal provisions to regulate and manage crowd  Disaster Management Act 2005,  The Bombay Police Act, 1951  The Police Act 1861,  Madras City Police Act 1888,  Kerala Police Act 2011,  UP Melas Act 1938,  Cinematograph Act 1952, and  Delhi Cinematograph Rules 1953.  Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporation Act. 1949  Any many others Authority: Event Management will abide by all applicable legislations / regulations / norms including Safety, Health and Welfare, licensing requirement of indoor /outdoor events, Fire Services (responsibility for fire safety on persons in control of premises), Waste Management etc. (NDMA Guidelines)
  8. 8. Judgements of High Courts .......  Uphaar Cinema Tragedy (Delhi High Court Judgment, II (2003) ACC 114, 2003 ACJ 1631, 2003 IIIAD Delhi 321)  Dabwali Fire tragedy (Decision of Punjab-Haryana High Court, 2009; Civil Writ Petition No. 13214 of 1996)  Kumbh Mela Stampede, Nashik (the Magisterial Enquiry Report)  Shri Kalubai Yatra Mandhardev at Wai, Satara, Maharashtra (Justice Rajan Kochar Commission of inquiry )  Sabarimala Tragedy (Justice Chandrasekhara Menon Commission of Inquiry - 1999)  After each incidents there has been Magisterial Enquiries and there detail report has been submitted to concern State Government
  9. 9. Gaps in understanding the causes / Triggers ..........  Structural collapses  Fire/Electricity  Crowd Control  Crowd Behaviour  Security related issuesand  Lack of coordination between various line department and other stakeholders
  10. 10. Risk Analysis and Preparedness Prevention is better than cure  Identify threats/causes  Risk Assessment and Planning  Overall location Development Plan (long term perspectives, Staging points (queue complex), multiple routes)  Information Management and Dissemination system  Safety and Security Measures (role of security agencies)  Effective use of early warning system  Logistic, Transportation and Traffic Management
  11. 11.  No back up plans and compliance checking these things will continue to happen  Planning is the key  Need to know on advance  the size of the crowd,  the capacity of the event,  not just the size of the area but the capacity to manage that crowd,  Crowd stewards, (position of the role one who is in charge )  monitoring potential changes in crowd behavior, and  having sufficient entry and exit points are all crucial to maintaining a safe event
  12. 12. Analyses stampede data from religious, entertainment and political gatherings over the last few decades in India to derive an Effective risk reduction framework for mass gatherings & Prioritizes  This further prioritizes on 1. ‘Ensure that crowd risk management is a priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation’. 2. ‘To identify, assess and monitor crowd risks and enhance early warning systems along with ensuring other safety measures. 3. Use of knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels, reduce the underlying risk factors. 4. Strengthen disaster risk (possible stampedes risk) Preparedness for effective response at all levels. and 5. Ensuring effective governance and better institutional arrangements through Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)/ICS matter to crowd risks, more effective disaster preparedness, setting up of early warning systems and crowd risk management policy.
  13. 13. Efficient functioning of command and control is single most important component of Crowd Management
  14. 14. WE HAVE LEGISLATIONS, PLANS, HUMAN RESOUR FUND but still Vulnerable to RISK Ensuring effective governance and better institutional arrangements are the key of Planning