Risk Of Adverse Outcomes Associated With Concomitant Use Of Clopidogrel And Proton Pump Inhibitors


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Risk Of Adverse Outcomes Associated With Concomitant Use Of Clopidogrel And Proton Pump Inhibitors

  1. 1. Risk of Adverse Outcomes Associated With Concomitant Use of Clopidogrel and Proton Pump Inhibitors Following Acute Coronary Syndrome Online article and related content P. Michael Ho; Thomas M. Maddox; Li Wang; et al. current as of March 9, 2009. JAMA. 2009;301(9):937-944 (doi:10.1001/jama.2009.261) http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/301/9/937 Supplementary material JAMA Report Video http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/301/9/937/DC1 Contact me if this article is corrected. Correction This article has been cited 2 times. Citations Contact me when this article is cited. Topic collections Cardiovascular System; Prognosis/ Outcomes; Cardiovascular Disease/ Myocardial Infarction; Drug Therapy; Adverse Effects Contact me when new articles are published in these topic areas. Subscribe Email Alerts http://jama.com/subscribe http://jamaarchives.com/alerts Permissions Reprints/E-prints permissions@ama-assn.org reprints@ama-assn.org http://pubs.ama-assn.org/misc/permissions.dtl Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  2. 2. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Risk of Adverse Outcomes Associated With Concomitant Use of Clopidogrel and Proton Pump Inhibitors Following Acute Coronary Syndrome P. Michael Ho, MD, PhD Context Prior mechanistic studies reported that omeprazole decreases the platelet Thomas M. Maddox, MD, MSc inhibitory effects of clopidogrel, yet the clinical significance of these findings is not clear. Li Wang, MS Objective To assess outcomes of patients taking clopidogrel with or without a pro- Stephan D. Fihn, MD, MPH ton pump inhibitor (PPI) after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Robert L. Jesse, MD, PhD Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort study of 8205 patients with Eric D. Peterson, MD, MPH ACS taking clopidogrel after discharge from 127 Veterans Affairs hospitals between October 1, 2003, and January 31, 2006. Vital status information was available for all John S. Rumsfeld, MD, PhD patients through September 30, 2006. T REATMENT WITH CLOPIDOGREL Main Outcome Measures All-cause mortality or rehospitalization for ACS. in addition to aspirin reduces Results Of 8205 patients taking clopidogrel after discharge, 63.9% (n=5244) were recurrent cardiovascular events prescribed PPI at discharge, during follow-up, or both and 36.1% (n=2961) were not following hospitalization for prescribed PPI. Death or rehospitalization for ACS occurred in 20.8% (n=615) of pa- acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for tients taking clopidogrel without PPI and 29.8% (n=1561) of patients taking clopi- patients treated either medically or dogrel plus PPI. In multivariable analyses, use of clopidogrel plus PPI was associated with percutaneous coronary interven- with an increased risk of death or rehospitalization for ACS compared with use of clo- tion.1-3 Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pidogrel without PPI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], medications are often prescribed pro- 1.11-1.41). Among patients taking clopidogrel after hospital discharge and pre- scribed PPI at any point during follow-up (n=5244), periods of use of clopidogrel plus phylactically with initiation of clopi- PPI (compared with periods of use of clopidogrel without PPI) were associated with a dogrel, with the goal of reducing the higher risk of death or rehospitalization for ACS (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, risk of gastrointestinal tract bleeding 1.10-1.46). In analyses of secondary outcomes, patients taking clopidogrel plus PPI while taking dual-antiplatelet therapy. had a higher risk of hospitalizations for recurrent ACS compared with patients taking Recent mechanistic studies, however, clopidogrel without PPI (14.6% vs 6.9%; AOR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.57-2.20]) and re- suggest that PPIs may reduce the in- vascularization procedures (15.5% vs 11.9%; AOR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.30-1.71]), but hibitory effect of clopidogrel on plate- not for all-cause mortality (19.9% vs 16.6%; AOR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.80-1.05]). The let aggregation.4,5 In addition, varia- association between use of clopidogrel plus PPI and increased risk of adverse out- tions in platelet reactivity have been comes also was consistent using a nested case-control study design (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.54). In addition, use of PPI without clopidogrel was not associated with associated with adverse outcomes fol- death or rehospitalization for ACS among patients not taking clopidogrel after hospi- lowing stent implantation.6,7 These in- tal discharge (n=6450) (AOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.85-1.13). vestigations open the question of Conclusion Concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPI after hospital discharge for ACS whether the efficacy of clopidogrel is was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes than use of clopidogrel with- influenced by concomitant use of PPI out PPI, suggesting that use of PPI may be associated with attenuation of benefits of medication. clopidogrel after ACS. To date, there remains significant on- www.jama.com JAMA. 2009;301(9):937-944 going controversy regarding the clini- cal outcomes of patients taking clopido- 2 types of medications.9 However, there grel and PPIs.8 The US Food and Drug Author Affiliations are listed at the end of this were insufficient data to make any rec- Administration recently released an early article. Corresponding Author: P. Michael Ho, MD, PhD, ommendations, and the Food and Drug communication about a safety review of Department of Cardiology (111B), 1055 Clermont St, Administration highlighted the need for the potential interaction between these Denver, CO 80220 (michael.ho@va.gov). ©2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. (Reprinted) JAMA, March 4, 2009—Vol 301, No. 9 937 Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  3. 3. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AND CLOPIDOGREL additional studies to evaluate the effec- Clopidogrel and PPI Use Statistical Methods tiveness of clopidogrel when used con- Use of clopidogrel and PPI medica- The primary analytic cohort consisted currently with PPIs. tions were based on pharmacy refill of patients taking clopidogrel at hos- To address this gap in knowledge, data, which records the date dis- pital discharge with or without a pre- we evaluated the prevalence of use pensed and the number of days sup- scription for PPI medication at any of clopidogrel plus PPI following plied for each dispensed medication. point in time (ie, at hospital discharge hospital discharge for ACS in a Clopidogrel and PPI medications were or during follow-up) (n=8205). Base- national Veterans Affairs (VA) cohort considered available and taken if there line characteristics, ACS presentation, and compared rates of all-cause mor- was a prescription for the medication and treatment (including coronary re- tality and rehospitalization for ACS, that covered the date of follow-up based vascularization), and unadjusted death including myocardial infarction (MI) on the dispense date and the number or ACS outcomes were compared be- of days supplied.10,11 In the primary and unstable angina, between patients tween patients prescribed clopidogrel taking clopidogrel plus PPI vs clopi- analysis, we allowed a 7-day gap be- with or without PPI. Multivariable lo- dogrel without PPI. Based on prior tween prescription refills before a pa- gistic regression, adjusting for all vari- mechanistic data, we hypothesized tient was considered to have discon- ables in TABLE 1 (demographics, co- that use of clopidogrel plus PPI would tinued the medication. In secondary morbidities, ACS presentation and be associated with higher adverse analysis, we increased the gap to 14 days treatment) assessed the association be- events compared with use of clopido- between prescription refills to catego- tween taking PPI and adverse out- grel without PPI. rize a patient as discontinuing a medi- comes among patients taking clopido- cation. The findings were consistent grel after hospital discharge. METHODS with the primary results and are not fur- To further account for potential Data for this study were collected as part ther reported. confounding indication for PPI use, of the Cardiac Care Follow-up Clini- secondary analyses were performed that Outcome cal Study, which uses national data from restricted the cohort to patients pre- the Veterans Health Administration The primary outcome was the com- scribed PPI at hospital discharge or during follow-up (n = 5244).14 Base- (VHA) external peer review program for bined end point of all-cause mortality quality monitoring for a variety of medi- or rehospitalization for ACS (MI or un- line characteristics, ACS presentation cal conditions and procedures, includ- stable angina) following index hospi- factors, and hospital treatment were ing acute MI and unstable angina. Be- tal discharge for ACS. Secondary out- compared between patients pre- ginning in 2003, the records of all comes included (1) rehospitalization for scribed PPI at hospital discharge vs dur- patients discharged from any VHA hos- ACS; (2) revascularization proce- ing follow-up. A time-varying analysis pital with acute MI or unstable angina dures, percutaneous coronary inter- was used in which patients could have were manually abstracted using stan- vention, or coronary artery bypass graft different categories of medication use dard reporting forms as part of a na- surgery; and (3) all-cause mortality fol- over time: clopidogrel plus PPI, clopi- tional VA cardiac care initiative. Addi- lowing index ACS hospitalization. The dogrel without PPI, PPI without clopi- tional details of the study methods have VA vital status file was used to assess dogrel, or no use of clopidogrel or PPI. been previously published.10,11 the mortality outcome.12,13 This file has This approach allowed comparison of 98.3% sensitivity and 97.6% exact the incidence of adverse events during Patient Population agreement with dates when compared periods of use of clopidogrel plus PPI with the National Death Index.12 This was a retrospective cohort study vs use of clopidogrel without PPI. Sur- of all patients with acute MI or unstable The ACS outcome was based on chart vival time was measured from hospi- angina as documented by standard elec- review consistent with the patient in- tal discharge and censored at the end trocardiographic criteria, elevated clusion criteria using standard electro- of follow-up. Unadjusted cumulative troponin levels, and other clinical evi- cardiographic criteria, elevated tropo- death and ACS rates were compared for dence, discharged from any 1 of 127 nin levels, and/or other clinical the different categories of medication VHA medical centers between Octo- evidence. Revascularization proce- use during follow-up using the Aalen cumulative hazard method.15 Multi- ber 1, 2003, and January 31, 2006, and dures were based on International Clas- prescribed clopidogrel at hospital dis- sification of Diseases, Ninth Revision variable Cox proportional hazard mod- charge. During this period, 8790 (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Ter- els evaluated the association between patients with ACS were prescribed clo- minology codes for percutaneous coro- medication use as a time-varying co- pidogrel at hospital discharge based on nary intervention or coronary artery by- variate and outcomes. These models ad- chart documentation. Of these patients, pass graft surgery performed within the justed for all of the variables in Table 1 8205 patients (93.3%) filled a prescrip- VHA. Vital status information was avail- and the proportional hazards assump- tion for clopidogrel through the VA out- able for all patients through Septem- tion was confirmed by the Schoenfeld residual test.16 patient pharmacy. ber 30, 2006. ©2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. 938 JAMA, March 4, 2009—Vol 301, No. 9 (Reprinted) Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  4. 4. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AND CLOPIDOGREL To further assess the robustness of cluded because presence of these medi- clopidogrel, or neither of these medi- our findings, a series of sensitivity analy- cations may indicate more severe gas- cations at the time of an event was com- pared between cases and controls.18 ses was performed among patients tak- trointestinal tract disease and higher ing clopidogrel after hospital dis- rates of adverse outcomes (n = 1547). Conditional multivariable logistic re- charge and prescribed PPI at any point Fourth, the clustering of patients within gression assessed the association be- in time. First, because patients with a hospitals was accounted for in the Cox tween medication use and outcomes, models.17 history of gastrointestinal tract bleed- adjusting for all variables in Table 1. ing may be associated with both PPI use Next, to confirm the findings of the In addition, the association be- and adverse outcomes, patients with a primary cohort analysis, a nested case- tween use of clopidogrel plus PPI com- history of gastrointestinal tract bleed- control study was performed to assess pared with use of clopidogrel without ing prior to the index hospitalization the association between medication use PPI was assessed for the individual sec- were excluded (n = 414). Second, be- and outcomes among patients who were ondary outcomes of rehospitalization cause bleeding events also may be as- prescribed clopidogrel plus PPI at hos- for ACS, revascularization proce- sociated with PPI use and adverse out- pital discharge or during follow-up. dures, and mortality. Moreover, among comes, patients with any bleeding When a death or ACS event occurred patients prescribed a PPI medication at events during the index hospitaliza- (1561 cases), 10 controls with the same some point, the dose of PPI medica- tion or after hospital discharge were ex- duration of follow-up and without an tion prescribed and the duration of con- cluded (n=1288). Third, patients who event were matched with a case. Medi- comitant use of clopidogrel and PPI was filled a H2-antagonist prescription at cation use with clopidogrel plus PPI, examined to determine whether the in- anytime during follow-up were ex- clopidogrel without PPI, PPI without tensity of treatment was associated with Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of Patients Taking Clopidogrel After Hospital Discharge a Clopidogrel With PPI Clopidogrel Clopidogrel Without PPI During Follow-up At Discharge With PPI (n = 2961) (n = 1953) (n = 3291) P Value (n = 5244) P Value Age, mean (SD), y 65.7 (11.7) 67.7 (11.4) .001 67.4 (11.4) 67.8 (11.3) .21 Male sex 2928 (98.9) 5162 (98.4) .10 1921 (98.4) 3241 (98.5) .74 Diabetes 1126 (38.0) 2386 (45.5) .001 900 (46.1) 1486 (45.1) .51 Prior myocardial infarction 594 (20.1) 1383 (26.4) .001 517 (26.5) 866 (26.3) .90 PCI within last 6 mo 209 (7.1) 395 (7.5) .59 148 (7.6) 247 (7.5) .92 CABG surgery 587 (19.8) 1377 (26.3) .001 503 (25.8) 874 (26.6) .52 Heart failure 477 (16.1) 1372 (26.2) .001 498 (25.5) 874 (26.6) .40 Cerebrovascular disease 225 (7.6) 478 (9.1) .02 195 (10.0) 283 (8.6) .09 Peripheral vascular disease 481 (16.2) 1345 (25.6) .001 483 (24.7) 862 (26.2) .24 Prior clopidogrel use 519 (17.5) 1379 (26.3) .001 474 (24.3) 905 (27.5) .01 Cancer 166 (5.6) 382 (7.3) .01 135 (6.9) 247 (7.5) .42 COPD 503 (17.0) 1346 (25.7) .001 454 (23.2) 892 (27.1) .002 Renal disease 294 (9.9) 914 (17.4) .001 323 (16.5) 591 (18.0) .19 Liver disease 70 (2.4) 181 (3.5) .01 64 (3.3) 117 (3.6) .59 Dementia 301 (10.2) 726 (13.8) .001 261 (13.4) 465 (14.1) .44 TIMI risk score, mean (SD) 2.8 (1.2) 2.9 (1.2) .001 2.9 (1.2) 2.9 (1.3) .79 LVEF 40% 719 (24.3) 1395 (26.6) .02 535 (27.4) 860 (26.1) .32 ACS presentation STEMI 644 (21.7) 876 (16.7) 331 (16.9) 545 (16.6) .001 .43 NSTEMI 2036 (68.8) 3696 (70.5) 1358 (69.5) 2338 (71.0) PCI performed 1644 (55.5) 2427 (46.3) .001 902 (46.2) 1525 (46.3) .91 CABG performed 75 (2.5) 137 (2.6) .83 44 (2.3) 93 (2.8) .21 Discharge medications Aspirin 2700 (91.2) 4687 (89.4) .01 1736 (88.9) 2951 (89.7) .57 -Blocker 2747 (92.8) 4892 (93.3) .64 1818 (93.1) 3074 (93.4) .21 ACE inhibitor 2340 (79.0) 4114 (78.4) .09 1531 (78.4) 2583 (78.5) .84 Statin 2825 (95.4) 5031 (95.9) .25 1875 (96.0) 3156 (95.9) .85 Abbreviations: ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ACS, acute coronary syndrome; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NSTEMI, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PPI, proton pump inhibitors; STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction; TIMI, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction. a Values are expressed as number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated. ©2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. (Reprinted) JAMA, March 4, 2009—Vol 301, No. 9 939 Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  5. 5. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AND CLOPIDOGREL Table 2. Adverse Outcomes Following Hospital Discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) No. (%) of Events Clopidogrel Clopidogrel Without PPI With PPI Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR (95% CI) a Outcome (n = 2961) (n = 5244) (95% CI) Primary outcome Death or rehospitalization for ACS 615 (20.8) 1561 (29.8) 1.62 (1.45-1.80) 1.25 (1.11-1.41) Secondary outcome Rehospitalization for ACS 205 (6.9) 764 (14.6) 2.29 (1.95-2.69) 1.86 (1.57-2.20) Revascularization procedures 353 (11.9) 815 (15.5) 1.36 (1.19-1.55) 1.49 (1.30-1.71) Death (all-cause) 493 (16.6) 1042 (19.9) 1.24 (1.10-1.40) 0.91 (0.80-1.05) Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; PPI, proton pump inhibitors. a Adjusted for all variables in Table 1 except male sex. adverse outcomes. For PPI dosing, low-up Clinical Study, which was ap- PPI remained significantly associated omeprazole and rabeprazole were fo- proved by the University of Washing- with a higher risk for recurrent ACS cused on because these were the 2 most ton Human Subjects Committee and the (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.57-2.20) and re- commonly prescribed PPI medica- Colorado Multiple Institutional Re- vascularization procedures (AOR, 1.49; tions and their dosage ranges were simi- view Board. 95% CI, 1.30-1.71) compared with use lar. In addition, among patients pre- of clopidogrel without PPI; however, RESULTS scribed PPI, the association between the there was no association between use specific PPI medication and adverse Of 8205 patients with ACS taking clo- of clopidogrel plus PPI and all-cause outcomes was assessed. pidogrel after hospital discharge, 63.9% mortality (AOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80- To determine if use of PPI without (n=5244) were prescribed PPI at dis- 1.05) compared with use of clopido- clopidogrel was associated with ad- charge, during follow-up, or both and grel without PPI. verse outcomes, cardiovascular events 36.1% (n=2961) were not prescribed In the analyses restricting the were also compared between patients PPI. Patients taking clopidogrel after hos- cohort to patients filling PPI medica- with and without a PPI prescription pital discharge and prescribed PPI at any tions at hospital discharge (n = 3291) who were not taking clopidogrel after point in time were older and had more or during follow-up (n = 1953), base- hospital discharge. Demonstration of a comorbid conditions (Table 1). Me- line characteristics were similar lack of an association between PPI use dian follow-up after hospital discharge between these 2 patient groups and adverse outcomes in patients not was 521 days (interquartile range, 305- (Table 1). The cumulative incidence taking clopidogrel would further sup- 779 days). Death or rehospitalization for rates of death or rehospitalization for port the conclusion that an interac- ACS occurred in 20.8% (n=615) of pa- ACS after 1080 days of follow-up for tion between PPI and clopidogrel is as- tients prescribed clopidogrel without PPI the different medication exposure sociated with adverse outcomes, rather and 29.8% (n=1561) of patients pre- groups were 0.62 for use of neither than use of PPI itself. This analysis in- scribed clopidogrel plus PPI. In multi- clopidogrel nor PPI, 0.55 for use of cluded 6450 patients with ACS, of variable analysis, use of clopidogrel plus PPI without clopidogrel, 0.47 for clo- whom 80.0% (n = 5163) were pre- PPI at any point in time was associated pidogrel plus PPI, and 0.33 for clopi- scribed PPI at hospital discharge or dur- with an increased risk of death or rehos- dogrel without PPI. In multivariable ing follow-up and 20.0% (n = 1287) pitalization for ACS compared with use analyses with medication use as a were not prescribed PPI. of clopidogrel without PPI (adjusted OR time-varying covariate, periods of use Based on the sample size of 8205 pa- [AOR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval of clopidogrel without PPI were asso- tients taking clopidogrel after dis- [CI], 1.11-1.41) (TABLE 2). ciated with a significantly lower risk of charge with or without PPI, the mini- For the secondary outcomes, the adverse events compared with periods mum detectable odds ratio (OR) with rates of recurrent hospitalization for without use of either clopidogrel 80% power in a 2-sided test and an ACS (14.6% [n=764] vs 6.9% [n=205]; or PPI (P .001). However, this asso- level of .05 (based on an exposure P .001), revascularization proce- ciation appeared to be attenuated prevalence of approximately 60% and dures (15.5 [n=815] vs 11.9 [n=353]; when comparing periods of use of clo- event rate in the nonexposure group of P .001), and death (19.9% [n=1042] pidogrel plus PPI use with periods 20%) was 1.17. Statistical analyses were vs 16.6% [n = 493]; P .001) were without use of either clopidogrel or conducted using Stata software ver- higher among patients taking clopido- PPI (FIGURE). Periods of clopidogrel sion 10.0 (StataCorp, College Station, grel plus PPI compared with those tak- plus PPI use were associated with a Texas). A waiver of informed consent ing clopidogrel without PPI. In multi- higher risk of death or rehospitaliza- was obtained for the Cardiac Care Fol- variable analyses, use of clopidogrel plus tion for ACS compared with periods ©2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. 940 JAMA, March 4, 2009—Vol 301, No. 9 (Reprinted) Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  6. 6. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AND CLOPIDOGREL of use of clopidogrel without PPI CI, 1.96-4.09) with adverse out- after hospital discharge, a prescrip- (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.27; comes. The association among the other tion for PPI was not associated with 95% CI, 1.10-1.46) (TABLE 3). PPIs (ie, lansoprazole and pantopra- death or rehospitalization for ACS The association between use of clo- zole) was not explored given the small (AOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.85-1.13), sup- pidogrel plus PPI and a higher risk of numbers of patients taking these medi- porting the hypothesis that the inter- an adverse outcome compared with use cations. action of PPI and clopidogrel, rather of clopidogrel without PPI remained Finally, whether a prescription for than PPI itself, was associated with significant in the analysis excluding PPI was associated with an increased increased adverse outcomes. patients with a history of gastrointes- risk of death or rehospitalization COMMENT tinal tract bleeding prior to index hos- for ACS among patients not taking pitalization for ACS (AHR, 1.30; 95% clopidogrel after hospital discharge To our knowledge, this is the first study CI, 1.11-1.51), excluding patients with (n = 6450) was examined. When to compare outcomes of patients tak- a bleeding event during the index hos- patients were not taking clopidogrel ing clopidogrel without PPI with pa- pitalization or follow-up (AHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.45), and excluding Figure. Cumulative Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Recurrent Acute Coronary Syndrome patients with any H2-antagonist pre- (ACS) Among Patients Taking Clopidogrel After Hospital Discharge for ACS and Prescribed a scription during follow-up (AHR, 1.21; Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) at Hospital Discharge or During Follow-up (n=5244) 95% CI, 1.02-1.44) (Table 3). The re- 0.70 sults also were consistent after adjust- Neither clopidogrel nor PPI ing for the clustering of patients within PPI without clopidogrel Proportion of Deaths or Recurrent ACS 0.60 Clopidogrel + PPI hospitals. In the nested case-control Clopidogrel without PPI study analysis, use of clopidogrel plus 0.50 PPI remained associated with higher 0.40 odds of death or rehospitalization for ACS compared with use of clopidogrel 0.30 without PPI (AOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14- 1.54). 0.20 Among patients prescribed PPI at hospital discharge or during follow- 0.10 up, 59.7% (n=3132) were prescribed omeprazole, 2.9% (n = 151) were pre- 0 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 810 900 990 1080 scribed rabeprazole, 0.4% (n=22) were Period Since Discharge, d prescribed lansoprazole, 0.2% (n = 15) No. at risk Neither clopidogrel 1223 1688 1531 1127 751 391 180 were prescribed pantoprazole, and nor PPI 36.7% (n=1924) were prescribed more PPI without 1093 1223 1210 921 585 310 155 clopidogrel than 1 type of PPI during follow-up. For Clopidogrel 2425 1878 1179 620 362 147 78 without PPI patients prescribed omeprazole or ra- 2490 1577 891 494 214 102 Clopidogrel + PPI 3931 beprazole, the mean (SD) dose daily was The number at risk indicates the number of individuals at risk for each period during the 90-day interval with 26.5 (10.7) mg and the median dose medication use as the time-varying covariate. Because medication use is assessed as a time-varying covariate, was 20 mg (interquartile range, 20- the number of individuals at risk in each interval can increase over time as patients change categories of medi- 33.3 mg). There was no obvious dose- cation use. response relationship between PPI dose and adverse outcomes (OR, 1.00; 95% Table 3. Risk of Death or Rehospitalization While Taking Clopidogrel and a Proton Pump CI, 0.99-1.01 for each 1-mg incre- Inhibitor (PPI) Following Hospital Discharge for Acute Coronary Syndrome ment), with recognition of low vari- No. of Crude HR Adjusted HR ability in the dose range. However, each (95% CI) a Patients (95% CI) 10% increase in the proportion of time Use of clopidogrel with PPI after hospital 5244 1.35 (1.18-1.56) 1.27 (1.10-1.46) discharge or during follow-up b taking clopidogrel plus PPI during fol- low-up was associated with a higher risk No history of gastrointestinal tract 4830 1.38 (1.19-1.61) 1.30 (1.11-1.51) bleeding of death or rehospitalization for ACS No gastrointestinal tract bleeding during 3956 1.32 (1.13-1.56) 1.23 (1.04-1.45) (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.05-1.09). In evalu- index hospitalization or follow-up ating individual PPI agents, there was No H2-antagonist prescription 3697 1.30 (1.09-1.54) 1.21 (1.02-1.44) a consistent association between Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio. a Adjusted for all variables in Table 1 except male sex. omeprazole (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08- b Compared with periods of use of clopidogrel without PPI. 1.41) and rabeprazole (OR, 2.83; 95% ©2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. (Reprinted) JAMA, March 4, 2009—Vol 301, No. 9 941 Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  7. 7. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AND CLOPIDOGREL tients taking clopidogrel plus PPI in a proximately 60% of the patients that the platelet inhibitory effects of clopi- national cohort of patients with ACS. took PPI medications in this study were dogrel by PPI medications in a na- We found that PPI medications were prescribed omeprazole, and there was tional cohort of patients with ACS. frequently prescribed with clopido- a strong association between use of clo- The results of this study, along with grel following hospitalization for ACS, pidogrel and omeprazole and adverse preliminary data reported by Aubert et al25 that suggested an increased risk of and concomitant use of clopidogrel and outcomes, directly supporting the plate- PPI was associated with a higher risk let studies. While we found similar re- nonfatal cardiovascular events with clo- of adverse outcomes than use of clopi- sults with rabeprazole, the sample size pidogrel plus PPI highlight the need for dogrel without PPI. The findings were was small and future studies should fur- additional investigation, ideally ran- consistent in various sensitivity analy- ther assess whether this potential in- domized controlled trials, to deter- ses and using a nested case-control teraction occurs with rabeprazole as mine whether use of clopidogrel plus study method. In contrast, among pa- well as other PPI medications. We did PPI is causally associated with in- tients who were not taking clopido- not find a dose-response relationship creased risk of adverse outcomes com- grel after hospital discharge, PPI use was between PPI medications and adverse pared with use of clopidogrel without not associated with adverse out- outcomes, but this may be due to the PPI. In the meantime, however, this comes. These findings, coupled with small degree of variance in the pre- study raises some concern about con- prior mechanistic studies, suggest that scribed PPI doses or that the usual pre- comitant use of PPI medications and concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPI scribed doses of PPI medications fully clopidogrel following hospitalization for may be associated with an attenuation inhibit the CYP2C19-mediated genera- ACS. While the risk estimates associ- of the benefits of clopidogrel after hos- tion of the active clopidogrel metabo- ated with clopidogrel plus PPI vs clo- pitalization for ACS. lite. In contrast, we found that longer pidogrel without PPI were modest, the Mechanistic and translational stud- duration of treatment with clopido- absolute number of adverse events at- ies suggest a biological mechanism sup- grel plus PPI was associated with ad- tributable to this potential drug inter- porting the findings of this outcomes verse outcomes, suggesting that time re- action is considerable when extrapo- study. Prior platelet studies have dem- ceiving the combination treatment is lated to a population level, given how onstrated that PPIs reduce the anti- important. It is not known whether evi- frequently PPI medications are pre- platelet effects of clopidogrel.4,5 These dence for a similar interaction will be scribed to patients receiving dual- medications share common metabolic seen with other thienopyridine medi- antiplatelet therapy. However, this epi- pathways mediated by cytochrome cations or how long it takes for the in- demiological study cannot confirm a P450 isoenzymes (ie, CYP2C19) in the hibitory effect of PPI medications to causal relationship, and cannot ad- liver.19 Gilard et al4 demonstrated that wear off once therapy is stopped. Fu- dress the individual patient benefits of patients taking PPI following percuta- ture studies of platelet activity should PPI therapy with clopidogrel after hos- neous coronary intervention and treat- explore these issues, which can then be pitalization for ACS. Pending addi- ment with clopidogrel had less plate- addressed in subsequent clinical stud- tional evidence, however, the results of let inhibition compared with non-PPI ies evaluating patient outcomes. this study may suggest that PPIs should users. These investigators random- Additionally, several studies have be used for patients with a clear indi- ized patients who were receiving dual- demonstrated that a CYP2C19 gene cation for the medication, such as a his- antiplatelet therapy to omeprazole or polymorphism is associated with higher tory of gastrointestinal tract bleeding, placebo following stent implantation platelet aggregability, greater clopido- consistent with current guideline rec- and also found less platelet inhibition grel nonresponse, and an increased risk ommendations, rather than routine pro- phylactic prescription.3 Alternative among patients randomized to omepra- of cardiovascular events, which is simi- zole.5 lar to the antiplatelet inhibitory ef- gastrointestinal tract medication regi- fects of PPIs on clopidogrel.20-24 Both In our study, we found a significant mens also may be considered until ad- association between treatment with clo- high platelet-activity levels and clopi- ditional data regarding concomitant use pidogrel and PPI and the primary com- dogrel nonresponse have been associ- of PPI and clopidogrel becomes avail- bined outcome of all-cause mortality ated with increased risk of adverse able. events following stent implantation.6,7 and rehospitalization for ACS. In a sen- There have been prior concerns of sitivity analysis of the secondary out- Thus, prior studies suggest the hypoth- drug interactions involving clopido- comes, it appears that this increased risk esis that an attenuation of the antiplate- grel. Specifically, mechanistic studies is primarily due to recurrent hospital- let effects of clopidogrel by omepra- reported that atorvastatin attenuates the ization for ACS, which is consistent zole could lead to adverse clinical platelet inhibitory effects of clopido- with the hypothesized mechanism of a outcomes by lessening the efficacy of grel likely due to common metabolic pathways.26-29 However, subsequent epi- relatively prothrombotic state due to in- clopidogrel. Our study takes the next hibition of the antiplatelet activity of step by providing epidemiological evi- demiological studies did not find dif- clopidogrel by PPI medications. Ap- dence consistent with an attenuation of ferences in outcomes between pa- ©2009 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. 942 JAMA, March 4, 2009—Vol 301, No. 9 (Reprinted) Downloaded from www.jama.com by guest on March 9, 2009
  8. 8. OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS AND CLOPIDOGREL tients prescribed clopidogrel with or VHA were not available unless pa- with a clear indication for the medica- without atorvastatin.28,29 One poten- tients were transferred to a VA hospi- tion, rather than routine prophylactic tial limitation of the clopidogrel- tal. However, it is anticipated that re- prescription. atorvastatin epidemiological studies is current hospitalizations or procedures Author Affiliations: Denver VA Medical Center, Den- that medication use was assessed at only outside the VA would tend to bias the ver, Colorado (Drs Ho, Maddox, and Rumsfeld); Uni- versity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 1 point in time and this can result in results toward the null. Next, fol- (Drs Ho, Maddox, and Rumsfeld); VA Puget Sound misclassification bias. In contrast, the low-up for our study ended in 2006, Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (Ms Wang current study included detailed phar- however, neither clopidogrel nor the and Dr Fihn); VA Central Office, Washington, DC (Drs Fihn and Jesse); Richmond VA Medical Center, Rich- macy dispensing data to assess medi- PPI medications that we evaluated have mond, Virginia (Dr Jesse); and Duke Clinical Research cation use over time. The assessment changed since that time and there is no Institute, Durham, North Carolina (Dr Peterson). Author Contributions: Drs Ho and Rumsfeld had full of medication use with a time-varying a priori reason to hypothesize that the access to all of the data in the study and take respon- method does not assume that once a pa- association would change over time. sibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. tient starts the medication it is contin- In addition, there are inherent limi- Study concept and design: Ho, Wang, Rumsfeld. ued indefinitely, and accounts for stops tations with an observational study de- Acquisition of data: Fihn, Jesse. and restarts of the medication, reduc- sign, and we cannot conclude causal- Analysis and interpretation of data: Ho, Maddox, Wang, Fihn, Peterson, Rumsfeld. ing the likelihood of misclassification ity or exclude unmeasured confounding Drafting of the manuscript: Ho, Wang, Fihn. bias.30 In addition, medication use based as a contributor to the observed asso- Critical revision of the manuscript for important in- tellectual content: Ho, Maddox, Wang, Fihn, Jesse, on pharmacy records has been corre- ciation. For example, (1) a prescrip- Peterson, Rumsfeld. lated with a broad range of patient out- tion for PPI may be a marker of more Statistical analysis: Wang. Obtained funding: Fihn, Jesse. comes, and has been shown to be more severe comorbid conditions that may Administrative, technical, or material support: Fihn, accurate than patient self-report.31-33 The be associated with adverse outcomes; Peterson. Study supervision: Fihn, Rumsfeld. current study also accounted for pa- (2) patients receiving PPI may have Financial Disclosures: Dr Peterson reported receiv- tient adherence behavior by allowing more epigastric or atypical chest pain ing honoraria and research support from the partner- gaps between prescription refills of up leading to a PPI prescription; or (3) PPI ship between Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi. No other authors reported financial disclosures. to 14 days.14 medications may have a negative ino- Funding/Support: This study was supported by the tropic effect on the myocardium. 35 There are important considerations Quality Enhancement Research Initiative of the US De- partment of Veterans Affairs. Dr Ho is supported by in interpreting the results of this study. However, we performed a series of sen- VA Health Services Research and Development Ca- Since June 2003, the PPI omeprazole sitivity analyses, including restriction reer Development Award. Dr Peterson is supported by an RO1 grant from the National Institute on Ag- has been available over-the-counter and of the cohort to only those patients who ing and from an Agency for Healthcare Research and we were unable to determine over-the- had a PPI prescription at hospital dis- Quality Center for Education and Research on Thera- counter use.34 However, it is unlikely charge or during follow-up to reduce peutics. Role of the Sponsor: The US Department of Veter- that many VA patients would pay out the potential medication indication bias, ans Affairs was not involved in the design and con- of pocket for such an over-the- and adjusted for a wide range of po- duct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, counter medication that is available to tential confounders. Further, a PPI pre- review, or approval of the manuscript. them under the VA pharmacy benefits scription without clopidogrel was not Disclaimers: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent plan. Moreover, we would expect such associated with adverse outcomes. the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. use to occur more frequently in the Thus, the results of this study support Dr Peterson, a JAMA contributing editor, was not in- volved in the editorial review or decision to publish group using clopidogrel without PPI, the hypothesis of an inhibitory effect of this article. causing our results to be biased to- PPI medications on clopidogrel. ward the null (ie, to be more conser- In conclusion, this study found that REFERENCES vative). Our cohort consisted primar- concomitant use of clopidogrel and PPI 1. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, Tognoni ily of male veterans and should be after rehospitalization for ACS is asso- G, Fox KK; Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Pre- replicated in other cohorts. However, ciated with a higher risk of adverse vent Recurrent Events Trial Investigators. 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