Consumer Learning


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Consumer Learning

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Consumer Learning

  1. 1. Consumer Learning
  2. 2. Importance of Learning • Marketers must teach consumers: – where to buy – how to use – how to maintain – how to dispose of products
  3. 3. ConsumerConsumer LearningLearning A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior.
  4. 4. Learning Processes • Intentional: learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information • Incidental: learning acquired by accident or without much effort
  5. 5. Learning Theories • Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as Stimulus Response Theory. • Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving.
  6. 6. Behavioral Learning Theories • Classical Conditioning • Instrumental Conditioning • Modeling or Observational Learning
  7. 7. ClassicalClassical ConditioningConditioning A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
  8. 8. Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Meat paste Conditioned Stimulus Bell Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Bell Conditioned Response Salivation AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS
  9. 9. Cognitive Associative Learning • Classical conditioning is viewed as the learning of associations among events that allows the organism to anticipate and represent its environment. • From this viewpoint, classical conditioning is not reflexive action, but rather the acquisition of new knowledge
  10. 10. Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning • Repetition • Stimulus Generalization • Stimulus Discrimination
  11. 11. Repetition • Repetition increases strength of associations and slows forgetting but over time may result in advertising wear out.
  12. 12. Stimulus Generalization • Learning is also depends upon the ability of individuals to generalize • Making the same response to slightly different stimuli is called stimulus generalization
  13. 13. StimulusStimulus DiscriminationDiscrimination The ability to select a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli because of perceived differences.
  14. 14. InstrumentalInstrumental (Operant)(Operant) ConditioningConditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
  15. 15. A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Stimulus Situation (Need good- looking jeans) Try Brand D Try Brand C Try Brand B Try Brand A Unrewarded Legs too tight Unrewarded Tight in seat Unrewarded Baggy in seat Reward Perfect fit Repeat Behavior
  16. 16. Instrumental Conditioning • Consumers learn by means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than other purchase behaviors. • A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.
  17. 17. Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response • Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as a reinforcement to buy shampoo • Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior • Example: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream
  18. 18. Other Concepts in Reinforcement • Punishment – Choose reinforcement rather than punishment • Extinction – Combat with consumer satisfaction • Forgetting – Combat with repetition
  19. 19. ObservationalObservational LearningLearning A process by which individuals observe the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning.
  20. 20. CognitiveCognitive LearningLearning TheoryTheory Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.
  21. 21. Involvement Theory A theory of consumer learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.
  22. 22. 7-22 ` HOPE YOU “LEARN”