The holyquran&modernscience


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The holyquran&modernscience

  1. 1. The holyQuran &modernscience By: * Sanae KHOUKHI * Loukmane lali * Hajar lamharchi
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. For many centuries, humankind was unable to study certaindata contained in the verses of the Qur’an because they did notpossess sufficient scientific means. It is only today thatnumerous verses of the Qur’an dealing with natural phenomenahave become comprehensible. A reading of old commentarieson the Qur’an, however knowledgeable their authors may havebeen in their day, bears solemn witness to a total inability tograsp the depth of meaning in such verses.
  4. 4. We could even go so far as to say that, in the 20th century, withits compartmentalization of ever-increasing knowledge, it is stillnot easy for the average scientist to understand everything hereads in the Qur’an on such subjects, without having recourse tospecialized research. This means that to understand all suchverses of the Qur’an, one is nowadays required to have anabsolutely encyclopedic knowledge embracing many scientificdisciplines.
  5. 5. Embryology
  6. 6. Since Aristotle had summed up the prevailing theories in his agerelating to the creation of the embryo, controversy continued amongthe supporters of the theory of the full dwarf embryo existing inman’s sperm and those of the theory of the full dwarf embryocreated out of the woman’s menstrual blood coagulation(thickening). Most of them believed that man was reduced into thatsperm drop, and they drew a figure in which they imagined theembryo as a full creature in the sperm drop, which then grew up inthe womb as a small tree. (Figure 1).
  7. 7. None of both groups could realize thatman’s sperm and woman’s ovum participatein the creation of the embryo, as supportedby the Italian Scientist “Spallanzani” in theyear of 1775. In 1783, Van Beneden was ableto confirm this statement, and thus the ideaof the dwarf embryo had beendiscarded. During the years 1888 and 1909Boveri proved that chromosomes whendivided carry the different geneticcharacteristics. Morgan, in 1912, was able todetermine the role of genes, existing incertain parts of chromosomes, in hereditary.
  8. 8. Therefore, it is clear that mankind did not realizethat the embryo is created of a man’s spermmingled with a woman’s ovum except in the18th century, and only to be confirmed at thebeginning of the 20th century.
  9. 9. On the other hand, the Holy Quran and the Prophetic speeches haveconfirmed in a very accurate scientific manner the creation of man froma mingled fluid-drop (nutfa amshaj), as coined by the Quran, whichsays In chapter al-Insaan:“Verily, I created humankind from a small quantity of mingledfluids.” Qur’an, 76:2The Arabic word nutfah has been translated as "small quantity”. It comesfrom the verb meaning ‘to dribble, to trickle’ and is used to describe whatremains in the bottom of a bucket which has been emptied. The versecorrectly implies that fertilization is performed by only a very small volumeof liquid.
  10. 10. On the other hand, mingled fluids ( amshaaj ) has been understood by earlycommentators to refer to the mixture of male and female discharges.Modern authors have corrected this view and note that the sperm is madeup of various components.When the Qur’an talks of a fertilizing fluid composed of differentcomponents, it also informs us that human progeny will be formed fromsomething extracted from this liquid. This is the meaning of the followingverse in chapter as-Sajdah:“Then He made [ man’s ] offspring from the essence of a despisedfluid.”Qur’an, 32:8
  11. 11. Imam Ahmed indicated in his book “Al Musnad” that a Jew passed bythe Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) while he was addressing hiscompanions. Some people from Quarish said; “O Jew! This manproclaims that he is a prophet.” The Jew said: “ I will ask him ofsomething no one knows except a prophet.” He asked theprophet (PBUH); “ O Mohammed! What is man created from? TheProphet (PBUH) said; “O Jew! Man is created from both: man’s fluid(nutfa) and woman’s fluid.” The Jew said; “This is said bythose prophets before you.” .
  12. 12. The Arabic word translated by the term ‘essence’ is sulaalah which means‘something extracted, the best part of a thing’. In whatever way it istranslated, it refers to part of a whole. Under normal conditions, only onesingle cell, spermatozoon, out of over 50 million ejaculated by a man duringsexual intercourse will actually penetrate the ovule.Once the egg has been fertilized in the fallopian tube, it descends to lodgeitself inside the uterus. This process is called the ‘implantation of the egg’.Implantation is a result of the development of villosities, which, like roots inthe soil, draw nourishment from the wall of the uterus and make the eggliterally cling to the womb.
  13. 13. The process of implantation is appropriately described in several verses bythe word ‘alaq, which is also the title of the chapter in which one of theverses appears:““ God fashioned humans from a clinging entity.” Qur’an, 96:2There is any reasonable translation of the word ‘alaq other than to use it in itsoriginal sense. It is a mistake to speak of a ‘blood clot’ here, which is the termProfessor Hamidullah uses in his translation. It is a derivative meaning whichis not as appropriate in this context.
  14. 14. The evolution of the embryo inside the maternal uterus is only brieflydescribed, but the description is accurate, because the simple words referringto it correspond exactly to fundamental stages in its growth. This is what weread in a verse from the chapter al-Mu’minoon:“I fashioned the clinging entity into a chewed lump of flesh and Ifashioned the chewed flesh into bones and I clothed the bones with intactflesh.” Qur’an, 23:14The term ‘chewed flesh’ (mudghah) corresponds exactly to the appearanceof the embryo at a certain stage in its development. It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that they are thencovered with muscle. This is the meaning of the term ‘intact flesh’ (lahm).
  15. 15. The embryo passes through a stage where some parts are in proportionand others out of proportion with what is later to become the individual.This is the obvious meaning of a verse in the chapter al-Hajj, whichreads as follows:“I fashioned (humans) a clinging entity, then into a lump of flesh inproportion and out of proportion.” Qur’an, 22:5. Next, we have a reference to the appearance of the senses and internalorgans in the chapter as-Sajdah:“... and (God) gave you ears, eyes and hearts.” Qur’an, 32:9
  16. 16. Nothing here contradicts today’s data and, furthermore, none of the mistakenideas of the time have crept into the Qur’an. Throughout the Middle Agesthere were a variety of beliefs about human development based on myths andspeculations which continued for several centuries after the period. The mostfundamental stage in the history of embryology came in 1651 with Harvey’sstatement that “all life initially comes from an egg”. At that time, when sciencehad benefited greatly from the invention of the microscope, people were stillarguing about the respective roles of the egg and spermatozoon. Buffon, thegreat naturalist, was one of those in favor of the egg theory.Bonnet, on theother hand, supported the theory of ‘the ovaries of Eve’, which stated thatEve, the mother of the human race, was-supposed to have had inside her theseeds of all human beings packed together one inside the other.
  17. 17. Let’s see this video about human creation:
  18. 18. Thanks to Allah we pass from these: To this:
  19. 19. Astronomy
  20. 20. The sequence of day and night
  21. 21. At a time when it was held that the Earthwas the centre of the world and that theSun moved in relation to it, how could anyone have failed to refer to the Sunsmovement when talking of the sequence ofnight and day? This is not however referredto in the Quran and the subject is dealtwith as follows: sura 7, verse 54: "(God) covers the day with the night which is in haste to follow it..." sura 36, verse 37: "And a sign for them (human beings) is the night. We strip it of the day and they are in darkness." sura 31, verse 29: "Hast thou not seen how God merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night." sura 39, verse 5: "...He coils the night upon the day and He coils the day upon the night."
  22. 22. The first verse cited requires no comment. The secondsimply provides an image. It is mainly the third andfourth verses quoted above that provide interestingmaterial on the process of interpenetration andespecially of winding the night upon the day and theday upon the night. (sura 39, verse ) We can see also the greatness of Allah in the sequence of seasons
  23. 23. The Big Bang theory
  24. 24. In 1916, Albert Einstein formulated his General Theory of Relativity thatindicated that the universe must be either expanding orcontracting. Confirmation of the expanding-universe theory finallycame in 1929 in the hands of the well known American astronomerEdwin Hubble.By observing red shifts in the light wavelengths emitted by galaxies,Hubble found that galaxies were not fixed in their position; instead,they were actually moving away from us with speeds proportional totheir distance from earth (Hubbles Law). The only explanation for thisobservation was that the universe had to be expanding. Hubble’sdiscovery is regarded as one of the greatest in the history ofastronomy. In 1929, he published the velocity-time relation which isthe basis of modern cosmology. In the years to come, with furtherobservations, the expanding-universe theory was accepted by scientistsand astronomers alike.
  25. 25. Yet, astonishingly well before telescopes were eveninvented and well before Hubble published his Law, ProphetMuhammad used to recite a verse of the Quran to hiscompanions that ultimately stated that the universe isexpanding.“And the heaven We created with might, and indeed Weare (its) expander.” (Quran 51:47)At the time of the revelation of the Quran, the word“space” was not known, and people used the word“heaven” to refer to what lies above the Earth. In theabove verse, the word “heaven” is referring to space andthe known universe. The verse points out that space, andthus the universe, happens to be expanding, just asHubble’s Law states.
  26. 26. Soon after Hubble published his theory, he went on to discover that not only were galaxies moving away from the Earth, but were also moving away from one another. This meant that the universe happened to be expanding in every direction, in the same way a balloon expands when filled with air. Hubble’s new findings placed the foundations for the Big Bang theory.The Big Bang theory states that around12-15 billion years ago the universe cameinto existence from one single extremelyhot and dense point, and that somethingtriggered the explosion of this point thatbrought about the beginning of theuniverse. The universe, since then, hasbeen expanding from this single point.
  27. 27. It is mentioned in the Quran:“He (God) is the Originator of the heavens and the earth…” (Quran6:101)“Is not He who created the heavens and the earth Able to create thelikes of them? Yes; and He is the Knowing Creator. His command is onlywhen He intends a thing that He says to it, ‘Be,’ and it is.” (Quran 36:81-82) The above verses prove that the universe had a beginning, that God wasbehind its creation, and all that God needs to do inorder to create is tosay “Be,” and it is. Could this be an explanation as to what triggered offthe explosion that brought about the beginning of the universe?
  28. 28. With the introduction of the Big Bang theory, it soon became clearto Muslim scholars that the details mentioned with regards to thetheory go identically hand in hand with the description of thecreation of the universe in verse 30 of chapter 21 of theQuran. The theory states that all the matter in the universe cameinto existence from one single extremely hot and dense point; thatexploded and brought about the beginning of the universe,matches what is mentioned in the verse that the heaven and Earth(thus the universe) where once joined together, and then splitapart. Once again, the only possible explanation is that ProphetMuhammad had truly received divine revelation from God, TheCreator and Originator of the universe.
  29. 29. This is a video that illustrate very well the Big Bang theory in the Holy Quran: OLc75rs
  30. 30. Conclusion
  31. 31. To attribute the presence of scientific facts in the Quran tocoincidence would be against common sense and the truescientific approach. Indeed,the scientific accuracy of the Qur’anic verses confirmsthe Quran’s open declaration.« Soon we will show them Our Signs in the furthestregions on the Earth,and in their own souls,until itbecomes manifest to them that this is the Truth.Isn’tenough tha thy Lord doth witnesses all things » [Al-Quran 41:53]
  32. 32. This a sequence of images showing how Allahcreated the Universe in a perfect design.Enjoy