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High Rise Structural Systems and Services

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this is a study done on high rise builing's structural systems, types of loads, Services, Damping Systems etc.

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High Rise Structural Systems and Services

  1. 1. High-rise Building : Structural System & Services Abhinav Chunchu [2010BARC001] Sandeep Verma [2010BARC057] Vishal Ekka [2010BARC058] Shrivan W [2010BARC079] 25 Sept 2014
  2. 2. Content • Definition of High-rise • Evolution • Structural Systems • Comparative analysis of structural systems • Wind load and Effects • Foundation Types • Damping Systems • Services Fire fighting systems Vertical circulation Plumbing • Wind tunnel testing • Case-Study : Hines Tower, Shanghai
  3. 3. Definition of High-rise A tall building is not defined by its height or number of stories. It is the building in which “tallness” strongly influences planning, Designing and use. It is a building whose height creates different conditions in design, construction and operation from those that exist in “common” buildings of a certain region and period. A high-rise structure is considered to be one extends higher than the maximum reach of available fire fighting equipment in absolute numbers, This has been set variously between 75-100 ft. Ref. : Building Structure Illustrated by Francis DK Ching, Barry S. Onouye, Douglas Zberbuhler High-rise security and fire life safety by Geoff Craighead
  4. 4. Definition of High-rise India Hyderabad : High-rise building is one with 18m or more in height Bhopal : High-rise building is one with 18m or more in building height Mumbai : High-rise building is one with 7 floors or more, or one with 24m or more in building height Bangalore : High-rise building is one with ground floor plus four or more floors above the ground floors. Chennai : High-rise building is one with ground floor plus four or more floors above the ground floors. Kolkata : High-rise building is one with ground floor plus four or more floors above the ground floors. Ref. : High-rise security and fire life safety by Geoff Craighead Bhopal Building Bye laws Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation (BMMC) Bangalore mahnagarapalika Building Bye Laws (2003) Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA)
  5. 5. What is Tall Building? a) Height Relative to Context b) Proportion c) Tall Building Technology Ref. : CTBUH (Council on Tall Buildings & Urban Habitat)
  6. 6. Evolution Spire or Dome Heights Skyscraper evolved in two different urban environment • Chicago (Banking, Finance) • New York (Commercial activities clustered around broadways) These factors served as the setting for cast-iron framed structures which augured the skyscrapers
  7. 7. Evolution A.T. stewart’s second store, New York, 1859-62 illustrated the capacity of new iron construction Around 1880 builder gave rise to elevator buildings Equitable Life Assurance Society Building (Begun 1868, Enlarged 1875-76, 1886-89) Ref. : The Tall Building Reference Book by Dave Parker & Antony Wood (Data as of January 2013) Building Structure Illustrated by Francis DK Ching, Barry S. Onouye, Douglas Zberbuhler
  8. 8. Evolution A.T. stewart’s second store, New York, 1859-62 illustrated the capacity of new iron construction Around 1880 builder gave rise to elevator buildings Ref. : The Tall Building Reference Book by Dave Parker & Antony Wood (Data as of January 2013) Building Structure Illustrated by Francis DK Ching, Barry S. Onouye, Douglas Zberbuhler
  9. 9. History of the World’s Tallest Building Ref. : The Tall Building Reference Book by Dave Parker & Antony Wood (Data as of January 2013)
  10. 10. Average Height of the 100 tallest buildings 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2012 150 169 170 178 197 229 255 285 323 341 Height (in meters) Ref. : The Tall Building Reference Book by Dave Parker & Antony Wood (Data as of January 2013)
  11. 11. External Loads Wind Load • Direct pressure • Suction • Drag Seismic Load • Inertial force Effects of lateral loads • P -Delta Effect • Overturning Moment • Vortex Shedding Ref. : Building Structure Illustrated by Francis DK Ching, Barry S. Onouye, Douglas Zberbuhler High-rise security and fire life safety by Geoff Craighead
  12. 12. Suction Drag Direct Pressure Direct Pressure Received by building surfaces perpendicular to wind’s path(windward direction) Suction Side and leeward building surfaces, as well as windward roof surfaces having a slope of less that 30 ° This results in negative pressure which may result in roofing or cladding failure Drag Generated on the surfaces parallel to the windward direction
  13. 13. In contrast to vertical gravity loads, the effect of lateral loads on buildings are not linear and intensify rapidly with increase in height
  14. 14. P DELTA EFFECT When gravity load is displaced laterally by a distance (delta) due to wind, seismic, or balanced gravity loads, it generates forces and additional deflections throughout the structure added deflection generate further p delta effect. Lateral Loads P = KV² P= Pressure K= coefficient of wind V = velocity of wind K= 0.006 for conventional rectangular building OVERTURNING MOMENT Any lateral load applied at a distance above grade generates an overturning moment at the base of a structure. For equilibrium , the overturning moment and an internal resisting moment provided by forces developed in columns members and shear walls
  15. 15. VORTEX SHEDDING In fluid dynamics, vortex shedding is an oscillating flow that takes place when a fluid such as air or water flows past a cylindrical body at certain velocities, depending on the size and shape of the body. In this flow, vortices are created at the back of the body and detach periodically from either side of the body. JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING, CHICAGO
  16. 16. Wind Tunnel test • Determine the nature and intensity of wind forces acting on the structure • Model of scale 1:100 or 1:200 or 1:400 • For model of 1:400, wind speed in tunnel and full scale wind of 1:3 is chosen. • This results in time scale of 1:133 • To limit damage to the cladding on the building façade and to partitions and interior finishes. • To reduce effect of motion perceptibility. • To limit the P- delta effect.
  17. 17. OUTRIGGER SYSTEM • Generally in form of steel truss or reinforced concrete or composite. • Tied to the core and combined with exterior columns • Reduce overturning moment and lateral shift • Under load shear core tend to bend and the out rigger act as lever arm • Use at different levels: create mechanical floors BELT TRUSS SYSTEM • Placed on exterior wall panels • Strong and stiff subsystem • Reduce the shear lag • Entire story depth can be used to construct mechanical floor • It distributes loads equally on exterior columns
  18. 18. TYPES OF STRUCTURES BRACED FRAME RIGID TUBE TUBE IN TUBE DIAGRID TRUSSED TUBES BUNDLED TUBES SPACE FRAMES MEGRAFRAME
  19. 19. RIGID FRAME SRUCTURE • Resist Shear+ bending moment • Height efficiency Steel = 30 floors Concrete = 20 floors • Column size increases towards the base of the building. • become cost-prohibit for use in buildings exceeding 35 stories. Lake shore drive apartment, Chicago Ingallas Building, Cincinnati Ohio
  20. 20. • Shear walls and rigid moment resisting frames. • Greater lateral rigidity for building • Capacity to rise unto 60 floors. Seagram Building Cook County Administration Building,Chicago SHEAR WALL CORE RIGID FRAME STRUCTURE:
  21. 21. A typical column and beam frame is assumed To be joined with pin or hinged connections, Which can potentially resist applied vertical loads. Four hinged quadrilateral is inherently unstable, However, and would be unable to resist a laterally Applied load. The additional of diagonal bracing system Would provide the requisite lateral stability To the frame. Knee braces used in pairs to resist the lateral forces From either directions. Single diagonal braces: able to handle both tension and compression. K bracing consist of two diagonal braces that meet near the Midpoint of vertical frame member. Each diagonal member Can be subject to either tension or compression, depending On lateral force acting on the frame. V bracing consist of diagonal braces that meet near the midpoint Of horizontal frame member . TYPES OF BRACINGS. Chevron bracing is similar to V bracing but its orientation Allows for passage through the space below the inverted V. Diagonal bracing consists a pair of diagonals. A certain degree of redundancy is achieved If each diagonal alone is capable of stabilizing the frame. Diagonal tension counter systems consist of cable or rods that Work primarily in tension. A pair of cables or rods is always necessary to Stabilize the frame against lateral forces from either directions. For each force direction, one cable of road will operate effectively in Tension while the other becomes slack and it assumed to carry no load.
  22. 22. • The link beam absorb energy from seismic activity through plastic • Eccentrically braced frames deformations of other members. may also be designed to control frame deformations and minimize damage to architectural elements during cyclical seismic load. • Steel is ideal material for braces frames because of its ductility- the capacity to deform without fractures combined with its high strength. • Eccentrically braced frames are generally placed in the exterior wall planes of a structure but are also sometimes used to brace steel frame cores. ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES
  23. 23. BRACED FRAME SRUCTURE • Vertical truss: resist lateral loads • K,V,X members eliminating bending under lateral loading. • Column girder and diagonal bracing are connected by pin joints. • Fabrication is more economical than other moment resisting connection in rigid framed structure • John Hancock building, chicago
  24. 24. BRACED FRAME SRUCTURE WITH SHEAR CORE • Shear walls: To resist the lateral load caused by wind & earthquake • Relatively thin: height/width • The assembly of shear walls is known as “coupled shear wall” • Belt trusses distribute the tensile and compressive force to the large no. of exterior trusses Shanghai Financial Centre, Chaina Empire State Building (NewYork)
  25. 25. BRACED CORE STRUCTURE: • Shear Resisting core • Minimized possibility of torsion due to lateral load • May contain one or more cores Connected by outriggers to provide column free space • Out rigger generally form of steel trusses or reinforced concrete • connect core to the peripheral columns, reduce the overturning moment and lateral drift in the building.
  26. 26. TUBE STRUCTURE: • Utilize entire building to resist lateral loads. • Outer frame: closely spaced columns rigidly connected to deep spandrel beams. • Loads are transferred by external frame Shear lag reduced by use of belt truss placed on exterior wall panels. Belt truss used to equalize tension and compression forces due to shear lag. Shanghai world financial center Exterior column spacing 5ft to 15 ft (1.5 m-4.5 m) Spandrel beam depth 24 in-48 inch (600-1200mm)
  27. 27. TUBE IN TUBE STRUCTURE: Tabung haji tower, • Stiffness of framed tube is improved by using structural core. • Resist gravity as well as lateral loads. • Floor diaphragms tie the exterior and interior tube together • Allowing two tubes to resist as one unit malesia One shell plaza Texas DDA building, new Delhi
  28. 28. BRACED TUBE STRUCTURE: • Framed tube + Diagonals = braced tube • Diagonal braces and spandrel beams give wall like rigidity against lateral loads • Stiffening the parameter frames overcomes the shear lag problem faced by framed tube. John Hancock centre, Chicago
  29. 29. • Cluster of individual tubes tied together to act as a single unit • framed tubes are bundled at the base and terminates at different levels, without loss of structural integrity • Single tube : height restriction – slenderness ratio • Height efficiency : 110 story • Advantage: flexibility of organizing floor areas • Individual tube can be of any shape rectangular, triangular, hexagonal 110 story sears tower designed by SOM • Framed steel tubes- each with structural integrity • Individual tubes bundled together in varying configuration and terminated at various levels breaking the wind sway by breaking flow of the wind. Sears Tower, Chicago Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (Bruce Graham) BUNDLED TUBE STRUCTURE:
  30. 30. MEGAFRAME STRUCTURE: • Building rise above 60 stories • Utilizes mega columns comprise the chords of oversized braced frames at building corners. • Linked by multi story trusses at every 15-20 story intervals. • Often at mechanical floor levels • Mechanical floors can be used to construct stiff horizontal sub system. Example : Tuntex sky Tower, Taiwan Hotel de las Artes, madrid
  31. 31. • IDEA of stacking triangulated prisms which contain diagonal bracing the exterior and interior frame. • Resist both lateral + vertical loads • Diagonals prominent part of interior parts. bank of china building – I.M.Pie SPACE TRUSS STRUCTURE: Diagonal Tower South korea, by SOM
  32. 32. Hearst Tower (Above) Swiss Re Headquarters (left below) IBM Building (Right below) DIAGRID STRUCTURE Proposed by Sir Norman Foster Height efficiency: Concrete: 60 Steel : 100 • Lattice work on exterior • Resist both lateral & gravity loads • Vertical columns eliminated • Triangulation ( gravity and lateral loads) - uniformly distributed • Shear deformation minimized • Resist shear through axial action rather than by bending vertical columns & spandrel • Both shear & bending rigidity to resist the effects of drift & overturning moment. • Highly redundant – can transfer loads through multiple paths in case of a localized structural failure.
  33. 33. Category Sub- Category Material / Configuration Efficient Height Limit Advantages Disadvantages Building Examples Rigid Frames Steel 30 Provide in floor planning. Fast construction flexibility. Expensive moment connections. Expensive fire proofing. Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Chicago, USA) Assurance Tower (Kansas City) Concrete 20 Provide flexibility in floor planning. Easily mouldable. Expensive formwork. Slow construction. Ingalls Building (Cincinnati, USA) Braced Hinged Frames Steel Shear Trusses + Steel Hinged Frames 10 Efficiently resist lateral loads by axial forces in the shear truss members. Allows shallower beams compared with the rigid frames without diagonals. Interior planning limitations due to diagonals in the shear trusses. Expensive diagonal connections. Low-rise buildings Shear Wall / Hinged Frames Concrete Shear Wall + Steel Hinged Frame 35 Effectively resists lateral shear by concrete shear walls. Interior planning limitations due to shear walls. 77 West Wacker Drive (Chicago, USA), CasseldenPlace (Melbourne, Australia) Outrigger Structures Shear Cores(Steel Trusses or Concrete Shear Walls) + Outriggers (Steel Trusses or Concrete Walls) + (BeltTrusses) + Steel or Concrete Composite (Super) Columns 150 Effectively resists bending by exterior columns connected to outriggers extended from the core. Outrigger structure does not add shear resistance. Taipei 101 (Taipei, Taiwan), Jin Mao Building (Shanghai, China)
  34. 34. Category Sub- Category Material / Configuration Efficient Height Limit Advantages Disadvantages Building Examples Shear Wall (or Shear Truss) - Frame Interaction System Braced Rigid Frames Steel Shear Trusses + Steel Rigid Frames 40 Effectively resists lateral loads by producing shear truss - frame interacting system. Interior planning limitations due to shear trusses. Empire State Building (New York, USA), SeagramBuilding Shear Wall / Rigid Frames Concrete Shear Wall + Steel Rigid Frame 60 Effectively resists lateral loads by producing shear wall - frame interacting system. Interior planning limitations due to shear walls. Seagram Building, (New York, USA) Concrete Shear Wall + Concrete Frame 70 _ _ _ Tube Framed tube steel 80 Efficiently resist lateral loads by locating lateral system at the building perimeter. Shear lag hinders true tubular behaviour Narrow column spacing obstruct the view AON Centre ( Chicago, USA) concrete 60 “ “ Water tower place (Chicago, USA) Braced tube steel 100( + interior) / 150( - interior) Efficiently resist lateral shear by axial forces in the diagonal members. Wider column spacing possible compared with framed tubes. Reduced shear lag. Bracing obstruct the view. John Hancock Centre ( Chicago , USA) concrete 100 “ “ Onterie Centre ( Chicago) Bundled tube steel 110 Reduced shear lag. Interior planning limitations Sears Tower ( Chicago) Tube in tube Ext. Framed Tube (Steel or Concrete) + Int. Core Tube (Steel or Concrete) 80 Effectively resists lateral loads by producing interior shear core - exterior framed tube interacting system. Interior planning limitations due to shear core. 181 West Madison Street (Chicago, USA)
  35. 35. Category Sub- Category Material / Configuration Efficient Height Limit Advantages Disadvantages Building Examples Diagrid - steel 100 Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in the diagonal members. Complicated joints. Hearst Building (New York,USA), 30 St Mary Axe, also known as Swiss Re Building (London, UK) concrete 60 “ Expensive formwork. Slow construction. O-14 Building (Dubai) Space Truss Structures - steel 150 Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in the space truss members. Obstruct the view. May obstruct the view. Bank of China (Hong Kong, China) Super frames - steel 160 Could produce super tall buildings. Building form depends to a great degree on the structural system. Chicago World Trade Center (Chicago, USA) concrete 100 “ “ Parque Central Tower (Caracas, Venezuela)
  36. 36. 100 Tallest Buildings by structural material Ref. : The Tall Building Reference Book by Dave Parker & Antony Wood (Data as of January 2013) CTBUH (Council on Tall Buildings & Urban Habitat) Steel concrete composite Mixed Unknown
  37. 37. Damping systems in high-rise buildings Damping System Passive Damping Active Damping • Aerodynamic Damper Tuned Mass Active Tendon • Viscous Dampers Tuned Liquid • Friction Dampers • Yielding Dampers
  38. 38. DAMPING SYSTEMS IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS Minimizing the effects of wind –induced vibrations and earthquake shaking on tall buildings as well as non structural architectural elements and mechanical components. ACTIVE DAMPING SYSTEM: • Requires power for motors sensors and computers control. • Constant external power is required and may be undependable during a seismic event on disruption of power supply. • more suitable for tall buildings: where wind induced loading rather than the unpredictable cyclic loading caused by earthquake. SEMI ACTIVE DAMPING SYSTEM: • Use of controlled resistive force to reduce motion • They are fully controllable yet require little input power. • More useful in reducing sway during storm. • Less satisfactory for building deflections during seismic event.
  39. 39. TUNED MASS DAMPERS: • Consist of huge mass of concrete or steel suspended from a cable like pendulum mounted in tracks in upper stones of a building. • Lateral force -> swaying in the building - > computer senses the motion and signals motor to move the weight in an opposing direction and neutralize the motion. ACTIVE TENDON DAMPING SYSTEM: • Uses a conceptualized controller that responds to the building moment • Adjust member which are connected to an array of steel tendons disposed adjacent to structures main support members. TUNED LIQUID DAMPERS • Tank moves back and forth in the opposing direction transferring its momentum to the building and counteracting the effect of wind vibration. Where it dangles: Taipei 101 Diameter: 18 ft. Weight: 730 tons Cable thickness: 3 1/2 in. Protects against: Earthquakes, high winds, oversize gorillas.
  40. 40. PASSIVE DAMPING SYSTEMS • Absorb a portion of wind induced or seismic energy • reducing the need for primary structural elements to dissipate energy. Viscous Damper Friction Damper Yielding Damper
  41. 41. Factors for foundation system design • soil conditions • load transfer pattern • shape and size of building • site constraints Types of foundation system Shallow Foundation: Those that transfers the load to the earth at the base of the column or wall of substructure. Deep Foundation: Those that transfers load at a point deep below the substructure.
  42. 42. Foundation Systems Deep Foundation Systems Shallow Foundation Systems Displacement Replacement Caissons Barrette Pile Driven cast In Place Precast Pile Bored Pile Piles Timber Piles Steel Piles Reinforced concrete Piles Isolated footing Wall footing Combined footing Mat footing Foundation Systems Ref. : Construction Technology for Tall Buildings Book by CHEW Yit Lin, Michael
  43. 43. Shallow Foundations in tall buildings In situation where the allowable bearing capacity of the soil is low in relation to the weight of building, column footing become large enough so that it is more economical to merge them into single mat or raft foundation that supports entire building. Shell tower, Hitachi tower, Singapore Ocean building, Singapore Raffles city, Singapore Tung Centre, Singapore Hitachi tower- 128m(33 storey) has 2.8m thick raft 40X68m in plan Hitachi tower Examples
  44. 44. Deep Foundations in tall buildings • Deep foundations are used when adequate soil capacity is not available close to the surface. • The common type of deep foundations are caissons and piles. • These are classified in two types displacement and replacement • Displacement piles refers to piles that are driven, thus displacing the soil. examples are pre cast and driven cast in place piles. • Replacement piles formed by boring/ removing a column of soil replaced with steel reinforcement and wet concrete. Examples are caissons and bored piles
  45. 45. Services Fire Fighting Systems Vertical Circulation Plumbing Ref. : The Tall Building Reference Book by Dave Parker & Antony Wood (Data as of January 2013) CTBUH (Council on Tall Buildings & Urban Habitat) National Building Code
  46. 46. Metal brake Safety lift Equitable life assurance building, New York Burj Khalifa, Dubai
  47. 47. Vertical circulation in high rise building
  48. 48. Sky lobby In very tall buildings, elevator efficiency can be increased by a system that combines express and local elevators. The express elevators stop at designated floors called sky lobbies. There, passengers can transfer to local elevators that will take them to their desired floor. By dividing the building into levels served by the express elevators, the local elevators can be stacked to occupy the same shaft space. That way, each zone can be served simultaneously by its own bank of local elevators.
  49. 49. Pudong and Shanghai World Financial Center
  50. 50. ELEVATORS The single-deck units are designed for speeds in excess of 10 meters per second and ultimately will meet speeds of 15 meters per second, while the double-deck units are designed for 10 meters per second. Double-deck elevators One car stops at even floors and the other stops at the odd floors. Depending on their destination, passengers can mount one car in the lobby or take an escalator to a landing for the alternate car.
  51. 51. 30 St' Mary Axe ,London • Low rise go from lobby to level 12. • Medium rise lifts go from lobby to 22 stopping from level 11. • High rise lifts go from lobby to 34 stopping from level 22. • Shuttle lift goes from level 34 to level 39. Ground Floor Plan Twenty-First Floor Plan
  52. 52. Compass Destination Entry System of traffic control. As office workers use their pass to go through a lobby gate, they are directed by the system to a car that will take them to their floor. By assigning passengers to specific floors, it allows each car to make only about a quarter of the stops normally required in heavy traffic periods. 1. Conventional system 2. Compass dispatching system 1. Enter destination floor. 2. Proceed to assigned elevator. 3. Enter assigned car. 4. Travel to designated floor.
  53. 53. Pneumatic waste collection systems Pneumatic waste collection systems is an automatic garbage collection system The system is based on pipes connected to buildings which are operated by vacuum. Waste inlet in each floor Collection into closed compactors Pneumatic pipeline transfer system Powerful vacuum unit with filter solution
  54. 54. RUFUGE AREA • AT EVERY 30 FLOORS • CONCRETE WALLS. • 2 HOURS FIRE RESISTANCE Heat sensor Sprinkler system Sprinkler system Network of high powered fans pumps clean air through fire resisting ducts Smoke detector Fresh air pushes the smoke down back Fire safety in burj khalifa
  55. 55. THE REFUGE AREA The refuge area shall be provided on the periphery of the floor & open to air at least on one side protected with suitable railing. a) For floors above 24m & up to 39m one refuge area on the floor immediately above 24m. b) For floors above 39m one refuge area on the floor immediately above 39m & so on after 15m refuge area shall be provided. Ref : As per section 8.12.3 on part IV of NBC
  56. 56. Plumbing Physical realities Water in a typical 10 storey building exerts a pressure of 3.3 bar 10 storey building 3.3 Bar Ref : NORR Architects Engineers & Planners
  57. 57. Water in 30 storey tall building will exerts a pressure of = 3.3 X (pressure exerted by water in 10 storey building) = 3.3 X 3 10 bar 10 bar 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey Plumbing Ref : NORR Architects Engineers & Planners
  58. 58. 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey 10 storey Upper building zone High pressure zone Medium pressure zone Pressure breaks Ref : NORR Architects Engineers & Planners
  59. 59. Case study - Hines Jing’an Tower, Shanghai Key features • Construction of new tower on an existing foundation • Curtain wall design based on reflectivity studies • Integration of Metro rail station with project circulation
  60. 60. 1,93,000 Site area (in sqft) 2 million Total built area (in sqft) 1.4 million Tower area (in sqft) 55 Number of floors above ground 4 Number of floors below ground 820 Height of the tower (in ft) 7.58 FAR Case study - Hines Jing’an Tower, Shanghai The numbers
  61. 61. Basement location Case study - Hines Jing’an Tower, Shanghai
  62. 62. Case study - Hines Jing’an Tower, Shanghai
  63. 63. Site parameters Typical floor plan Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai
  64. 64. Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai Loading map
  65. 65. Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai Column and wall variations
  66. 66. Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai Typical tower section I Comparison 4.45 METER FLOOR-TO-FLOOR 4.38 METER FLOOR-TO-FLOOR
  67. 67. Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai
  68. 68. Outrigger elevation A Outrigger elevation B Outrigger truss & Belt truss plan Truss Details Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai
  69. 69. Level 11 Level 49 Case study Hines Tower, Shanghai Vertical circulation
  70. 70. Wooden skyscraper Link http://www.ted.com/talks/micha el_green_why_we_should_build_ wooden_skyscrapers
  71. 71. Thank you
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this is a study done on high rise builing's structural systems, types of loads, Services, Damping Systems etc.

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