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Cellular Base Stations: Infrastructure Sharing, Carbon Emissions and CDM Opportunities in India


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India has emerged as the world’s fastest growing telecom market in recent years. Increasing subscribers’ base and penetration in remote areas require expansion of infrastructure. More than 100, 000 base stations have been erected on Indian soil in last 15 months which have made total number to cross 300,000. A large number of these base stations are run on diesel generators. These diesel generators consume more than 2.12 billion litres of diesel and emit 5.61 million tons of carbon annually. There is a huge scope to earn carbon credits from these base stations as many operators are switching to renewable energy resources like solar, wind or hybrid. If all the players in the telecom market come together and form an alliance to go for CDM Programme of Activities (PoA), it can bring in billions of dollar in the Indian economy from the sale of CERs. At the same time it will help in reducing the carbon footprint of the sector. This CDM PoA can also be replicated in other developing countries like China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh where telecom sector is growing rapidly.

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Cellular Base Stations: Infrastructure Sharing, Carbon Emissions and CDM Opportunities in India

  1. 1. Bhomik ShahCellular Base Stations: Infrastructure Sharing, CarbonEmissions and CDM Opportunities in India
  2. 2. Outline• Background• About the paper• Indian telecom market• Market share• Carbon footprint• Greening the base stations• Opportunities for CDM• Replication of ‘ITMA Model’• Conclusion• A mile ahead
  3. 3. June 2009Nov. 2008
  4. 4. Jan. 2010
  5. 5. About the Paper Objectives • To assess the carbon footprint of mobile networks in the country • To assess the potential for CDM project/programme • To present a framework for cellular network service providers for CDM
  6. 6. About the Paper Scope Analyzing the diesel consumption by mobile networks and assess the opportunities for CDM and reducing carbon emission in India Methodology • Data Collection • Secondary sources • Quantitative Analysis
  7. 7. About the Paper Literature Review • UNFCCC • GSM Association, London • IPCC • Industry Reports • Annual Reports • Telecom India • TRAI • MNRE • MoEF • Communication Networks etc.
  8. 8. India: The fastest Growing Telecom market inthe World• The second largest mobile market• From 6.40 million in 2002 to 670 million subscribersin Aug. 2010• 47% Growth in last 12 months• Monthly addition of 15-20 million subscribers Source: TRAI, Telecom India 2010
  9. 9. Aug. 2010 wireless tele-density 56.6 Growth driven by rural market*Based on TRAI data
  10. 10. Expansion in rural area: Infrastructurebuilding• April 2010: 337 000 cellular towers/BTS• 237 000 in 11 years• 100 000 in 1.3 years (Source: GTL & Telecomm India)
  11. 11. Mast Antenna ACellularInfrastructure Antenna B Battery Generator Air Cond. (Source; Vodafone 2010)
  12. 12. Indian Cellular Infrastructure Industry Cellular towers’-ownership 14%108000 Independent companies 15% Operator owned 60000 50000 Joint Ventures 71% 38000 33000 32000 7100 8900 Indus BSNL/MTNL Reliance Quippo-WTTIL GTL Bharati ATC Others (Source: GTL Infratel 2010)
  13. 13. Carbon Footprint• A BTS with one operator requires 3-4 kW ofelectricity• A fully utilized BTS with four operatorsrequires 8kW of electricity• India’s energyinfrastructure calls formassive DieselGenerator (DG) use
  14. 14. Carbon Footprint BTS dependence on DG sets 10% 20% Off Grid (18-24 hours per day) 20% Poor Grid (Min. 10 hours per day) Unreliable Grid (2 to 6 hours per day) Others (No DG) 50% (Source: GTL Infratel, 2010 & GSMA London 2010)
  15. 15. Carbon Footprint • A single DG set consumes 2.7 litres of diesel/hour* • One litre diesel combustion emits 2.64kg carbon** • Average DG dependence Seven hours in a day*Source: * Hansson, A. 2010 ** IPCC, 2007
  16. 16. Carbon FootprintDiesel consumption per day 2156899*2.7 = 5823360 ltrsDiesel consumption/Annually 5823360*365 = 2.12.billion ltrsCO2 emission per day 5823360*2.64 = 15373670 kgTCO2 emission per day 15373 TCO2TCO2 emission/Annually 5.61 million TCO2
  17. 17. Greening the base stations • TRAI has issued guidelines to operators to switch to renewable energy resources for off- grid base stations • A few operators are adopting • Use of solar/wind/hybrid/fuel cell • Bharti Airtel targeting 2000 RE based sites Saving US$ 16.6 million/annually • Aircel & Vodafone launched green BTS“The green drive will prevent theseengines of development (BTS) frombecoming grave environmentalhazards” -MNRE Official
  18. 18. Greening the base stations “Many of the mobile service providers do emit more carbon from their India operations than their global operations outside India” Vodafone’s India operation: 1.90 MtCo2/annually Vodafone’s global operation outside India: 1.31MtCO2/annually •Focus on solar with improved Technology • 72 hours back up(Source: • 25 years of lifePlanet EarthAug. 2010)
  19. 19. CDM Opportunities: CDM PoA Operators Owned Companies Independent Tower Operators JVs Companies Indian Telecom Market Alliance (ITMA)
  20. 20. CDMOpportunities:CDM PoA
  21. 21. CERs calculation (annual) for off–grid fully DG dependent Sites Description Calculations for Estimate for Year Year 2010 2013*Potential Total number of BTS 337,000 463,000CERs Fully DG run 30,000 46,000 Diesel Consumption 710 million litres 1.09 billion litres CO2 Emissions 1.85 million tons 2.82 million tons CERs 1.85 million 2.82 million Monetary Value US$ 22.2 million US$ 33.84 million
  22. 22. CERs calculation for poor grid connected sites (Annual) Description Calculations for Estimate for Year Year 2010 2013Potential Total number of BTS 330,000 463,000CERs DG run (10hrs/day) 60,000 90,000 Diesel Consumption 591 million litres 887 million litres CO2 Emissions 1.54 million tons 2.30 million tons CERs 1.54 million 2.30 million Monetary Value US$ 18.48 million US$ 27.6 million Cost of Going for CDM PoA: 15-25% of Monetary value
  23. 23. Replication of ‘ITMA Model’ • China • Pakistan • Bangladesh • Indonesia • Sri Lanka • Approximately 800 000 BTS • 10% switch to RE • 5Million CO2e/CER annually
  24. 24. Conclusion• High potential for CDM• Need of the hour• Enhanced/improved technology has arole to play• Cooperation among the players isessential• Greening the BTSs will lead to financialincentives as well• Initial Capex is a major concern
  25. 25. A mile ahead..• Providing the surplus power to healthcenters• Schools• Community centers and helping in building social infrastructure Nigeria is following the same..
  26. 26. Thank You for your attention Email: