Brown - 8 Processes Involved in Listening Comprehension

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I prepared these slides to help study the 8 processes listed in Brown's "Teaching by Principles" for processing spoken English according to his Interactive Model. They are found on pages 301-302 of the Third Edition of his book.

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  • Brown - 8 Processes Involved in Listening Comprehension

    1. 1. 8 PROCESSES INVOLVED IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION - From H. D. Brown’s Teaching by Principles Slides by Daniel Beck (aka SamuraiTheologian) samuraitheologian@gmail.com
    2. 2. Process “Raw Speech”
    3. 3. 1. PROCESS “RAW SPEECH” The hearer processes what “raw speech” and holds an “image” of it in short-term memory. This image consists of the constituents* of a stream of speech.
    4. 4. Constituents of Speech Phrases Clauses Cohesive Markers Intonation Stress Patterns
    5. 5. Determine Type of Speech
    6. 6. 2. DETERMINE TYPE OF SPEECH The hearer determines the type of speech event* being processed and then appropriately “colors” the interpretation of the perceived message.
    7. 7. Types of Speech Events (EXAMPLES) A Conversations A Speech A Radio Broadcast
    8. 8. Infer Speaker Objectives
    9. 9. 3. INFER SPEAKER OBJECTIVES The hearer infers the objectives of the speaker through consideration of the type of speech event, the context, and the content.
    10. 10. Objectives of Speakers (EXAMPLES) Persuasion Affirm Request Deny Exchange Inform Pleasantries
    11. 11. Background Information Recalled
    12. 12. 4. BACKGROUND INFORMATION RECALLED The hearer recalls background information (schemata) relevant to the particular context and subject matter. A lifetime of experiences and knowledge is used to perform cognitive associations in order to bring a plausible interpretation to the message.
    13. 13. Literal Meaning Assigned
    14. 14. 5. LITERAL MEANING ASSIGNED TO UTTERANCE The hearer assigns a literal meaning to the utterance. Literal and intended meanings do not always match. Second language learners must learn to go “beneath” the surface of metaphorical and idiomatic language.
    15. 15. Intended Meaning Assigned
    16. 16. 6. INTENDED MEANING ASSIGNED TO UTTERANCE The hearer assigns an intended meaning to the utterance. A key to human communication is the ability to match perceived meaning with intended meaning.
    17. 17. Pitfalls to Understanding Intended Meaning (EXAMPLES) Metaphorical Conceptual Language Complexity Idiomatic Language Contextual Miscues Careless Speech Psychological Inattention by Barriers Hearer
    18. 18. I never forget! Short or Long-term Retention
    19. 19. 7. RETAIN INFORMATION SHORT OR LONG-TERM The hearer determines whether information should be retained in short- term or long-term memory.
    20. 20. Delete Form of Original Message
    21. 21. 8. DELETE FORM OF ORIGINAL MESSAGE The hearer deletes the form in which the message was originally received. The words, phrases, and sentences are quickly forgotten or “pruned”.
    22. 22. 8 PROCESSES INVOLVED IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION 1.Raw Forms 5.Literal Meaning Processed Assigned 2.Speech Type 6.Intended Meaning Determined Assigned 3.Speaker’s 7.Information Objectives Inferred Retained Short or Long-term 4.Schemata Recalled 8.Original Form Deleted
    23. 23. 8 PROCESSES INVOLVED IN LISTENING COMPREHENSION - From H. D. Brown’s Teaching by Principles Slides by Daniel Beck (aka SamuraiTheologian) samuraitheologian@gmail.com

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