Principles of Research Ebony Smith and Kimberli Thompson


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Principles of Research Ebony Smith and Kimberli Thompson

  1. 1. Principles of Research Ebony Smith and Kimberli Thompson Pharm D Candidate May 09’
  2. 2. The Current State of our School System <ul><li>Ebony Smith Pharm D. Candidate May 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Kimberli Thompson Pharm D. Candidate May 09 </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Research?
  4. 4. Research <ul><li>Research is an organized systematic way of finding answers to questions . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research <ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a definite set of procedures and steps follow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structure or method in going about doing research </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Research <ul><li>Questions are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use </li></ul><ul><li>Finding answers is the end of all research </li></ul>
  7. 7. Purpose of Research <ul><li>To find an answer to generate ideas for an hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>To test an hypothesis in order to apply them to real life </li></ul>
  8. 8. Validity/Reliability <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The strength of our conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the study prove/disprove the hypothesis? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher’s bias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the measurement be repeated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you get the same results? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test/Retest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to be valid, a test must be reliable; but reliability does not guarantee validity. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Research <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul>
  10. 10. Qualitative Research <ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis-generating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to understand; Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic; observes natural setting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Data <ul><li>Subjective; perceptions of participants in environment </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth interviews, direct observation, written text </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methods <ul><li>Interviewer is integral part of research </li></ul><ul><li>Human person is primary instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed data gained through open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grounded Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘‘ I am totally a victim of my circumstances …right now I lack complete free will …life is dictating to me.’’ </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare experiences of the homeless </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sampling <ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Random </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participants are selected based on some established characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowball Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>participants are referred from earlier informant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. When Should you use Qualitative Research? <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth; Comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide understanding of concept in natural setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost less </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties in establishing reliability and validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to prevent of detect researcher bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited due to in-depth format </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Quantitative Research <ul><ul><ul><li>Focused; aims to test hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental; controlled setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization of findings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. DATA <ul><li>Objective; statistically valid </li></ul><ul><li>Displayed using tables, charts, histograms, graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul>
  17. 17. Methods <ul><li>Use of structured question where answers have been pre-determined </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments; scales, test, surveys, computers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of relationships between variables </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sampling <ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><li>Representative </li></ul><ul><li>Random </li></ul>
  19. 19. When Should I use Quantitative Researcher? <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematically confirmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and Validity measured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost more </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Let’s Compare <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews/ Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complimentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new ways of thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate training </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. What type of research question is this? <ul><li>What percentage of teenagers engage in illegal substances acts before the age of 20? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>B: Quantitative </li></ul>
  23. 23. What type of research question is this? <ul><li>Partying Before the Party: Interviews Examining Prepartying Behavior Among College Students </li></ul><ul><li>A: Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>B: Quantitative </li></ul>
  24. 24. What type of research question is this? <ul><li>Randomized controlled trial on loud music listening </li></ul><ul><li>A: Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>B: Quantitative </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ethics <ul><li>Norm of conduct that distinguishes between acceptable and unacceptable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Method, procedure, or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly debatable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute of Environmental Health Science </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Ethics (continued…) <ul><li>Some Ethical Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal Care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Subject Protection </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Ethics (continued…) <ul><li>Institutional Review Board (IRB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approve, require modifications, disapprove research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform critical oversight functions for research conducted on Human subjects that are scientific, ethical, and regulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Committee of Animal Research and Ethics (C.A.R.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics Committee for Animal rights </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. What Would You Do? <ul><li>EUTHANASIA </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Physician Assistant Suicide </li></ul>
  29. 29. Parts of Research Article: <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction/Background </li></ul><ul><li>Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results/Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  30. 30. Abstract <ul><li>concise single paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>summary of work </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the rationale behind the study </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the general approach to the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions or new questions </li></ul>
  31. 31. Research Parts <ul><li>Introduction/ Background </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale behind work </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>fundamental question </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul>
  32. 32. Methods <ul><li>aka: Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>discusses how the research was conducted </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>materials used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>general procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion/exclusion criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical data </li></ul>
  33. 33. Findings / Results <ul><li>present and illustrate your findings </li></ul><ul><li>presented in a table or chart format </li></ul><ul><li>can either prove or disprove the theory of the study </li></ul>
  34. 34. Discussion & Conclusion <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>author’s interpretation of the results </li></ul><ul><li>subjective information and author bias </li></ul><ul><li>May provide limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Results are </li></ul><ul><li>complied,calulated and </li></ul><ul><li>explained </li></ul><ul><li>objective </li></ul>
  35. 35. What Research Part is this? <ul><li>In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non–restricted-calorie (mean age-52 years; mean body-mass index -31; males-86%; females-14%) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Results </li></ul><ul><li>B. Methods </li></ul><ul><li>C. Research Problem </li></ul>
  36. 36. What Research Part is this? <ul><li>Overall, 44.9% of high school students reported drinking alcohol during the past 30 days (28.8% binge drank and 16.1% drank alcohol but did not binge drink). Although girls reported more current drinking with no binge drinking, binge-drinking rates were similar among boys and girls. Binge-drinking rates increased with age and school grade. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Background </li></ul><ul><li>B. Methods </li></ul><ul><li>C. Results </li></ul><ul><li>D. Abstract </li></ul>
  37. 37. When Pharmacist Tell The Truth
  38. 38. Scenario <ul><li>Ms Phyllis is at her neighborhood pharmacy to pick up her monthly meds and asks to speak to the pharmacist. She tells you that she recently heard of this new drug from one of her girlfriends and she wanted some information about it. The drug is not in your Drug Information Handbook and you can’t seem to locate it in any of you usual sources. What do you do? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Resources <ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdated once published </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credible Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin of Research </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Research and Pharmacists
  41. 41. Research in Pharmacy <ul><li>Important for knowledge base </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research articles over textbook knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates indications for drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FDA Drug Approval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NAPLEX Exam </li></ul>
  42. 42. I Wish I Would Have Known <ul><li>Journal Club </li></ul><ul><li>Not to memorize </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT rely on Old tests! </li></ul><ul><li>Work as a unit </li></ul>
  43. 43. Reference <ul><li>Graziano, Anthony M., Raulin, Michael L. “Research Methods A Process of Inquiry” Pearson Education; 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Environmental Health Science </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> Copyright 2008 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  44. 44. Listen Up! <ul><li>Log onto blackboard Take the assessment titled &quot;Principles of Research&quot; assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Show us what you learned! Then take the survey titled &quot;Principles of Research Lecture&quot; survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me how I can improve the way I teach! </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU for letting me teach you today!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Password for Assessment: “sephora” </li></ul>