Literacy and Numeracy Gain in Local Youth Programs Presented by: Bill Diehl and Amewusika Sedzro Youth Pathways, Commonwea...
Agenda <ul><li>The Importance of Literacy and Numeracy Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Making Gains: Assessment, EFLs and Co...
Agenda Items <ul><li>AND… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we’ll integrate some learning ideas in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Today’s Tools <ul><li>Manuals with LOTS of information </li></ul><ul><li>Application Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Post-it ...
Getting Started... <ul><li>Main Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the reading selection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen...
Why Incorporate Literacy & Numeracy into WIA Programs?
Why Incorporate Literacy and Numeracy in WIA Programs? <ul><ul><li>See and learn the adult applications of literacy and nu...
What is Literacy? <ul><li>BASIC: Ability to read & write a simple sentence in any language </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL: A...
What is Literacy? <ul><li>Literacy is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the ability to read, write, and speak in English, and compute a...
<ul><li>Managing a situation or solving a problem in a real context  </li></ul><ul><li>by responding  </li></ul><ul><li>to...
Of Real, Material and Lifelong Consequence <ul><li>Critical for:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving the knowledge and skills...
Of Real, Material and Lifelong Consequence <ul><li>“ Literacy is inseparable from opportunity, and opportunity is insepara...
<ul><li>“ We [must] recognize that literacy is not just about the mechanics of reading and writing but is about personal d...
<ul><li>Between 1996 and 2006, the average literacy level required for all American occupations is expected to rise by 14 ...
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Projected Percentage of Jobs that will Require Low- High Levels of Language Skills by 2...
Labor Market Connections:  Top 10 Industries with the Fastest Employment Growth, 1998- 2008 Source: USDOL
Labor Market Connections: The 10 Fastest Growing Occupations, 1998-2008 Source: USDOL
The 10 Fastest Growing Occupations, 2002-2012 (numbers in thousands of jobs) Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority, Resea...
The 10 Occupations with Largest Job Growth, 2002-2012  (numbers in thousands of jobs) Source: Boston Redevelopment Authori...
We CAN Make a Difference ! <ul><li>We can break some of the negative cycles </li></ul><ul><li>We can help close the achiev...
Hence…. <ul><li>The WIA Literacy and Numeracy Performance Measure  </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Making Gains: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Assessment, EFLs and Common Measures </li>...
Common Measures -   Literacy/Numeracy Gain <ul><li>Official Definition:  </li></ul><ul><li>Of those out-of-school youth wh...
Calculation  <ul><ul><li>Number of participants who increase one or more educational functioning levels </li></ul></ul>num...
<ul><li>Individual must advance at least one EFL level </li></ul><ul><li>Gain can occur in literacy  or  numeracy </li></u...
Common Measures Requirements  <ul><li>Based on out-of-school youth who are “Basic Skills Deficient” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Common Measures Requirements  <ul><li>Of 1,507 youth  who exited from WIA Title I Youth programs in FY2007, at least  33% ...
Common Measures Requirements  <ul><li>Most Out-of-School Youth  served in WIA Title I Youth programs are in at least one e...
What is an Educational Functioning Level (EFL)? <ul><li>ABE levels range from Level 3, Beginning Literacy (grade level 0-1...
EFL Crosswalk Source: TEGL 17-05 Change 1, Attachment B High Adult Secondary Education 6 8 Not Basic Skills Deficient Exit...
NRS Assessment Tools <ul><li>Must  use one of NRS cross-walked tests or equate alternate test to NRS scale </li></ul><ul><...
The MAPT   <ul><li>“ Massachusetts Adult Proficiency Test” or MAPT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aligned with curriculum framework...
Youth #2 EFL 1 EFL 2 EFL 3 EFL 4 EFL 5 Youth #1 Youth #3 Youth #4 Youth #5 Youth #6 Youth #7 Examples of EFL Improvement P...
Literacy Numeracy Youth # 3 Literacy Numeracy Youth # 2 Numeracy Literacy Youth # 1 Examples of Literacy and Numeracy EFL ...
Literacy Numeracy Year # 2 Numeracy Literacy Year # 1 Examples of Literacy and Numeracy EFL Improvement Pre-test to post-t...
Data from Massachusetts Adult Education From FY2006 Federal NRS Report ESOL ABE 372 522 325 1219 6 286 379 400 1065 5 552 ...
Data from Massachusetts Adult Education From FY2006 Federal Federal NRS Report ABE Enrollees, By EFL Level  3046 33% 3633 ...
Data from Massachusetts Adult Education From FY2006 Federal Federal NRS Report ESOL Enrollees, By EFL Level  3094 24% 4558...
MAKING GAINS <ul><li>What exactly are we trying to achieve?  </li></ul><ul><li>How will we know? </li></ul><ul><li>How do ...
3 <ul><li>Youth can “attain skills” or “make gains” in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>A specific plan is necessary to achieve...
Needed  Plan <ul><li>Need a beginning point - baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Need a framework of skills and benchmarks </li></...
So how do we proceed?? <ul><li>Stages of Literacy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Numeracy Development  </li></ul>...
Understanding Literacy & Numeracy Development
Literacy 4-Stage Model <ul><li>Building decoding skills and basic word recognition  </li></ul><ul><li>Building fluency and...
What do we need to know & be able to do? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding the words (phonics) </li></ul><ul><...
3   components of language <ul><li>Listening and speaking  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sound  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar...
Stage #1-Decoding Skills &  Basic Word Recognition  <ul><li>Learning to break the “code” of written language </li></ul><ul...
Stage #2-Fluency &  Building Word Recognition   <ul><li>4th-6th grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered basics, but oral la...
Stage #3-Vocabulary and Meaning   <ul><li>6th-8th grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered basics; oral language and written...
Stage #4-Comprehension and Study Skills   <ul><li>8th grade & higher level </li></ul><ul><li>Written language skills equal...
Application Activity <ul><li>Take 5 minutes to quickly jot down strategies that feel would be useful in helping learners i...
Stage #1-Decoding Skills & Basic Word Recognition   <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make referrals and be an adv...
Stage #2-Fluency &  Building Word Recognition <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage lots of reading and writ...
Stage #2-Fluency &  Building Word Recognition <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read-alouds and variations </li></u...
Stage #3-Vocabulary and Meaning <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage lots of reading and writing with mater...
Stage #3-Vocabulary and Meaning <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary builders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gr...
Stage #4-Comprehension and Study Skills <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage lots of reading and writing wi...
The 5 Stages of Numeracy:   Stage #1 <ul><li>STAGE 1: Beginning to recognize and use numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly...
<ul><li>STAGE 2:  Basic use of operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide, use simple fractions)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R...
<ul><li>STAGE 3:  More complex use of operations  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 4 th  through 5 th  grade level </li></u...
<ul><li>STAGE 4:  Mastery of math operations   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 6 th  through 8 th  grade level </li></ul><...
<ul><li>STAGE 5:  Application to geometry, algebra, and real life   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 9 th  through 12 th  g...
Application Activity <ul><li>Take 5 minutes to quickly jot down strategies that feel would be useful in helping learners a...
Stage 1 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 1 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on IEP or diagnostic testing to guide instruct...
Stage 1 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 1 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make referrals and be an advocate </li></ul></ul><u...
Stage 2 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 2 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruc...
Stage 2 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 2 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice “paper and pencil” arithmetic and encourag...
Stage 3 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 3 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide high interest math problems with no clear s...
Stage 3 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 3 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide problems where the operations aren't obviou...
Stage 4 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 4 – Strategies:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real world practice to use fractions, percents, d...
Stage 4 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 4 – What to do:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on pattern recognition and generalization </...
Stage 5 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 5-  Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide sophisticated, real-world problems with no ...
Stage 5 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 5-  What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage independent learning </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Promoting Literacy & Numeracy in WIA Youth Services
10 WIA Youth Service Elements: <ul><li>Tutoring, study skills training, and instruction, leading to completion of secondar...
10 WIA Youth Service Elements   (continued) : <ul><li>Occupational skill training; </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership developmen...
<ul><li>Follow-up services for not less than 12 months after the completion of participation, as appropriate; and </li></u...
Participation in the Ten WIA Youth Service Elements Participation in each element as a % of total enrollees
Application Activity! <ul><li>Main Ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>Use the strategies you listed in the first exercise, strategie...
Application Activity: Ten Elements Application Activity 3 30% 1007 Support Services Check (x) to indicate where strategy c...
OVERALL <ul><li>Make reading, writing, numeracy and computing rewarded and valued </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate in ISS </l...
Choosing a Service Provider/ Program <ul><li>Key Consideration 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be appropriate for both <...
<ul><li>Key Consideration 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be flexible enough to allow for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Key Consideration 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must build on principles of effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>educat...
<ul><li>20 Critical Questions  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Instructional Practices   </li></ul><ul><li>Youth Development P...
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Directly teach skills and strategies </li></ul>
Directly Teach <ul><ul><li>For youth who are far behind their peers, targeted and intensive instruction, tutoring, and pra...
Model and Coach   <ul><li>I do - you watch </li></ul><ul><li>I do - you help </li></ul><ul><li>You do together - I help </...
Seven Strategies Used by Skilled Readers  <ul><li>Uses existing knowledge to make sense of new information </li></ul><ul><...
Seven Strategies Used by Skilled Readers   <ul><li>Uses “fix-up” strategies when meaning breaks down </li></ul><ul><li>Det...
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Create learning environments rich with literacy opportunities </li></ul>
Creating a Literacy-Rich Environment <ul><li>Why important? </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure, practice, models, direct instructi...
Amount of Reading Words per year Minutes per day 0 0 0 2 150,000 2.4 .7 50 900,00 9.2 4.6 50 1,800,00 16.9 9.6 70 @4,200,0...
Creating a Literacy-Rich Environment <ul><li>2 ideas for all programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained Silent Reading </li>...
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Integrate into the 10 key program service areas </li></ul>
Five Things All WIA Programs Can Do <ul><li>In all activities, use the “teachable moments”  </li></ul><ul><li>Use differen...
Five Things All WIA Programs Can Do <ul><li>Incorporate “proven strategies” </li></ul><ul><li>Involve  all  staff, mentors...
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use Teachable Moments in the 10 Elements  </li></ul>
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use Questions </li></ul><ul><li>to Build </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul>
Higher-Order Thinking  (Bloom’s Taxonomy) Application Activity 4
Application Activity! <ul><li>Imagine your city is having a local election </li></ul><ul><li>8 people are running for 4 ci...
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use refection and journals </li></ul>
So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use strategies proven to be effective </li></ul>
Four of the Top Strategies that Improve Student Achievement <ul><li>Identifying similarities and differences (45%) </li></...
Identifying Similarities  and Differences <ul><li>Explicit modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing -- talk aloud;  Venn diagr...
Identifying Similarities  and Differences <ul><li>Program Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate compare/contrast with 2...
Involve ALL Adults -Five Ways <ul><li>Be a role model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read, write,use math, and use computers in the...
Involve ALL Adults -Five Ways <ul><li>Be a cheerleader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk about specific things you’ve read, what ...
Involve ALL Adults -Five Ways <ul><li>Be a literacy/numeracy developer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include in all the activities...
OVERALL <ul><li>Make reading, writing, numeracy and computing rewarded and valued </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate in ISS </l...
We CAN Make a Difference! <ul><ul><li>See and learn the adult applications of literacy and numeracy (contextualized) </li>...
Time Out for Reflection <ul><li>Three - two - one   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 things I found out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
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Making Gains in Literacy/Numeracy

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Making Gains in Literacy/Numeracy

  1. 1. Literacy and Numeracy Gain in Local Youth Programs Presented by: Bill Diehl and Amewusika Sedzro Youth Pathways, Commonwealth Corporation
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>The Importance of Literacy and Numeracy Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Making Gains: Assessment, EFLs and Common Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Literacy and Numeracy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Literacy and Numeracy in WIA Youth Services: What does this mean for our vendors, programs, service elements, practices ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda Items <ul><li>AND… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we’ll integrate some learning ideas in the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AND in keeping with what we know about attention and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we’ll intersperse activities - using the 20 - 5 rule (more or less) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AND we’ll have fun! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Today’s Tools <ul><li>Manuals with LOTS of information </li></ul><ul><li>Application Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Post-it notes and highlighters </li></ul><ul><li>Parking lot </li></ul><ul><li>“ Burning Questions” sheet </li></ul><ul><li>“ Wisdom” sheet </li></ul>
  5. 5. Getting Started... <ul><li>Main Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the reading selection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate a list of ten strategies used by good readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are a teacher/instructor, what strategies would you employ to teach these skills? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember, there are no right or wrong answers! </li></ul>What do skilled readers do?? Application Activity 1
  6. 6. Why Incorporate Literacy & Numeracy into WIA Programs?
  7. 7. Why Incorporate Literacy and Numeracy in WIA Programs? <ul><ul><li>See and learn the adult applications of literacy and numeracy (contextualized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand labor market connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivate life-long learning skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-connect with education & school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find new motivation after possibly being turned off from learning </li></ul></ul>In WIA and other non-traditional learning environments, youth can:
  8. 8. What is Literacy? <ul><li>BASIC: Ability to read & write a simple sentence in any language </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONAL: Ability to perform literacy tasks necessary for success in life (and in jobs) </li></ul><ul><li>NEW BASIC SKILLS: Solve complex problems, think critically, communicate effectively, use computers and other technology </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is Literacy? <ul><li>Literacy is: </li></ul><ul><li>“ the ability to read, write, and speak in English, and compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function in society, to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Managing a situation or solving a problem in a real context </li></ul><ul><li>by responding </li></ul><ul><li>to information about </li></ul><ul><li>mathematical ideas </li></ul><ul><li>that is represented in a range </li></ul><ul><li>of ways </li></ul><ul><li>and requires activation of a range </li></ul><ul><li>of enabling knowledge, behaviors, and processes </li></ul>What is Numeracy?
  11. 11. Of Real, Material and Lifelong Consequence <ul><li>Critical for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieving the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed at school, work, in the family, and as a citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being productive in the 21 st Century – including continuing to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing high school,the GED, and post-secondary ed or training </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Of Real, Material and Lifelong Consequence <ul><li>“ Literacy is inseparable from opportunity, and opportunity is inseparable from freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The freedom promised by literacy is both freedom from—from ignorance, oppression, poverty—and freedom to—to do new things, to make choices, to learn.... </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>“ We [must] recognize that literacy is not just about the mechanics of reading and writing but is about personal dignity, the right to participate, the empowerment of the marginalized and the excluded, and the opportunity to learn in a variety of ways and settings, both formal and nonformal.” </li></ul><ul><li>Koichiro Matsuura, Director General </li></ul><ul><li>2001 UN International Literacy Day </li></ul>Of Real, Material and Lifelong Consequence
  14. 14. <ul><li>Between 1996 and 2006, the average literacy level required for all American occupations is expected to rise by 14 percent. </li></ul><ul><li>The twenty-five fastest-growing professions today have far greater than average literacy demands, while the twenty-five fastest-declining professions have lower than average literacy demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Barton, 2000 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Projected Percentage of Jobs that will Require Low- High Levels of Language Skills by 2014 and Average Salary $48,945 $64,071 $23,762 $30,349 23.1% 30.6% 29.1% 15.9%
  16. 16. Labor Market Connections: Top 10 Industries with the Fastest Employment Growth, 1998- 2008 Source: USDOL
  17. 17. Labor Market Connections: The 10 Fastest Growing Occupations, 1998-2008 Source: USDOL
  18. 18. The 10 Fastest Growing Occupations, 2002-2012 (numbers in thousands of jobs) Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority, Research Division 2012 2002 Associate degree 73 50 Physical therapists assistants Bachelor’s degree 409 281 Computer software engineers, systems software Bachelor’s degree 573 394 Computer software engineers, applications Short-term on-the-job training 54 37 Physical therapists aide Associate degree 216 147 Medical records & health info techs Short-term on-the-job training 859 580 Home health aides Moderate-term on-the-job training 454 305 Social & human service assistants Bachelor’s degree 94 63 Physicians Assistant Bachelor’s degree 292 186 Network& data communications analyst Moderate-term on-the-job training 579 365 Medical assistant Most significant source of post secondary education or training Employment Occupation
  19. 19. The 10 Occupations with Largest Job Growth, 2002-2012 (numbers in thousands of jobs) Source: Boston Redevelopment Authority, Research Division 2012 2002 Short-term on-the-job training 1,718 1,375 Nursing aides, orderlies & attendants Short-term on-the-job training 2,464 2,097 Waiters and waitresses Bachelor’s degree or higher plus work experience 2,425 2,049 General operations managers Short-term on-the-job training 2,681 2,267 Janitors, cleaners, except maids & housekeepers Short-term on-the-job training 3,886 3,432 Cashier, except gaming Short-term on-the-job training 2,444 1,990 Combined food prep & serving worker (fast food included) Moderate-term on-the-job training 2,354 1,894 Customer service representative Short-term on-the-job training 4,672 4,076 Retail salesperson Doctoral degree 2,184 1,561 Post-secondary school teachers Associate degree 2,908 2,284 Registered Nurse Most significant source of post secondary education or training Employment Occupation
  20. 20. We CAN Make a Difference ! <ul><li>We can break some of the negative cycles </li></ul><ul><li>We can help close the achievement gap </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hence…. <ul><li>The WIA Literacy and Numeracy Performance Measure </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Making Gains: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Assessment, EFLs and Common Measures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Common Measures - Literacy/Numeracy Gain <ul><li>Official Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Of those out-of-school youth who are basic skills deficient: The number of participants who increase one or more educational functioning levels divided by the number of participants who have completed a year in the program (ie., one year from the date of first youth program service) plus the number of participants who exit before completing a year in the program. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Calculation <ul><ul><li>Number of participants who increase one or more educational functioning levels </li></ul></ul>numerator denominator <ul><ul><li>Number of out-of-school youth who are basic skills deficient who have completed a year in the program + the number who exit before completing a year in the program. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Individual must advance at least one EFL level </li></ul><ul><li>Gain can occur in literacy or numeracy </li></ul><ul><li>EFLs consistent with Adult Basic Education National Reporting System (NRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-tested within 60 days and post-tested before the end of one year </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are only included in measure a second time if they complete a second full year of participation </li></ul>Common Measures Requirements
  26. 26. Common Measures Requirements <ul><li>Based on out-of-school youth who are “Basic Skills Deficient” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual computes or solves problems, reads, writes or speaks English at or below the eighth grade level OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual is unable to compute or solve problems, read, write or speak English at a level necessary to function on the job, in the individual’s family or in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States and grantees have the opportunity to come up with their own definition as long as the above language is included. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Common Measures Requirements <ul><li>Of 1,507 youth who exited from WIA Title I Youth programs in FY2007, at least 33% were out-of-school youth who were basic skills deficient and therefore would be measured through the Literacy/Numeracy Common Measure. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Common Measures Requirements <ul><li>Most Out-of-School Youth served in WIA Title I Youth programs are in at least one educational activity. </li></ul>
  29. 29. What is an Educational Functioning Level (EFL)? <ul><li>ABE levels range from Level 3, Beginning Literacy (grade level 0-1.9) to Level 8 - High Adult Secondary Education (grade level 11-12). </li></ul><ul><li>ESL levels range from Level 1 - Beginning Literacy to Level 7 – Advanced ESL. </li></ul><ul><li>ABE levels describe reading, writing, numeracy and functional workplace skills. </li></ul><ul><li>ESL levels describe speaking and listening, basic reading, writing and functional workplace skills. </li></ul>Source: TEGL 17-05 Change 1, Attachment B
  30. 30. EFL Crosswalk Source: TEGL 17-05 Change 1, Attachment B High Adult Secondary Education 6 8 Not Basic Skills Deficient Exit ESL Low Adult Secondary Education 5 7 Advance ESL High Intermediate Basic Education 4 6 High Intermediate ESL Low Intermediate Basic Education 3 5 Low Intermediate ESL Beginning Basic Education 2 4 High Beginning ESL Literacy Beginning ABE Literacy 3 Low Beginning ESL Literacy 2 Basic Skills Deficient Beginning ESL Literacy 1 1 Basic Skills Deficient ESL ABE Old EFL New EFL
  31. 31. NRS Assessment Tools <ul><li>Must use one of NRS cross-walked tests or equate alternate test to NRS scale </li></ul><ul><li>Tests cross-walked with ABE and ESL levels include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Performance Levels for ESL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic English Skills Test (BEST) for ESL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WorkKeys (for the top 3 ABE levels) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. The MAPT <ul><li>“ Massachusetts Adult Proficiency Test” or MAPT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aligned with curriculum frameworks established by ACLS & ABE community in MA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The MAPT provides excellent information, BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not currently one of the NRS-recognized tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be used for WIA pre- and post-testing . </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Youth #2 EFL 1 EFL 2 EFL 3 EFL 4 EFL 5 Youth #1 Youth #3 Youth #4 Youth #5 Youth #6 Youth #7 Examples of EFL Improvement Pre-test to post-test, within one program year
  34. 34. Literacy Numeracy Youth # 3 Literacy Numeracy Youth # 2 Numeracy Literacy Youth # 1 Examples of Literacy and Numeracy EFL Improvement Pre-test to post-test, within one program year EFL 1 EFL 2 EFL 3 EFL 4 EFL 5
  35. 35. Literacy Numeracy Year # 2 Numeracy Literacy Year # 1 Examples of Literacy and Numeracy EFL Improvement Pre-test to post-test, two program years EFL 1 EFL 2 EFL 3 EFL 4 EFL 5
  36. 36. Data from Massachusetts Adult Education From FY2006 Federal NRS Report ESOL ABE 372 522 325 1219 6 286 379 400 1065 5 552 803 719 2074 4 631 974 1307 2912 3 488 663 1241 2382 2 765 1217 1380 3362 1 302 310 376 988 6 455 378 196 1029 5 1114 1120 611 2845 4 738 973 779 2490 3 353 556 468 1377 2 84 296 126 506 1 # separated before completing # remaining in level # completing level # Enrolled Entering EFL Level
  37. 37. Data from Massachusetts Adult Education From FY2006 Federal Federal NRS Report ABE Enrollees, By EFL Level 3046 33% 3633 39% 2556 28% TOTAL
  38. 38. Data from Massachusetts Adult Education From FY2006 Federal Federal NRS Report ESOL Enrollees, By EFL Level 3094 24% 4558 35% 5362 41% TOTAL
  39. 39. MAKING GAINS <ul><li>What exactly are we trying to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>How will we know? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we promote improved performance? </li></ul>
  40. 40. 3 <ul><li>Youth can “attain skills” or “make gains” in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>A specific plan is necessary to achieve and measure progress </li></ul><ul><li>Services have to be different for different EFLs </li></ul>Important Considerations
  41. 41. Needed Plan <ul><li>Need a beginning point - baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Need a framework of skills and benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Need goals for moving from baseline to higher attainment in skills / benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Need intervention / support strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Need assessment of growth </li></ul>
  42. 42. So how do we proceed?? <ul><li>Stages of Literacy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Numeracy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Educational elements for the ISS </li></ul>
  43. 43. Understanding Literacy & Numeracy Development
  44. 44. Literacy 4-Stage Model <ul><li>Building decoding skills and basic word recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Building fluency and increasing word recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Building vocabulary and meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Building comprehension and study skills </li></ul>
  45. 45. What do we need to know & be able to do? <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding the words (phonics) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary / concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension (at different levels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal (in the text) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret (in the text and my head) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate info or apply to new situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing or other production </li></ul>
  46. 46. 3 components of language <ul><li>Listening and speaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reading and writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sound-symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meaning </li></ul></ul>Component 1 Component 2 Component 3
  47. 47. Stage #1-Decoding Skills & Basic Word Recognition <ul><li>Learning to break the “code” of written language </li></ul><ul><li>Building on verbal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Includes phonics and sight words </li></ul><ul><li>K-3rd grade level; if youth has not mastered, may have a learning disability </li></ul>
  48. 48. Stage #2-Fluency & Building Word Recognition <ul><li>4th-6th grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered basics, but oral language more sophisticated than written language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Task is building on literacy & verbal skills </li></ul><ul><li>LOTS of reading and writing with appropriate materials </li></ul>
  49. 49. Stage #3-Vocabulary and Meaning <ul><li>6th-8th grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Mastered basics; oral language and written language equal in sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Task is USING literacy to learn </li></ul>
  50. 50. Stage #4-Comprehension and Study Skills <ul><li>8th grade & higher level </li></ul><ul><li>Written language skills equal to / greater than oral language </li></ul><ul><li>Task is USING literacy to understand and to learn </li></ul>
  51. 51. Application Activity <ul><li>Take 5 minutes to quickly jot down strategies that feel would be useful in helping learners improve their literacy skills at varying stages of development. </li></ul>Application Activity 2
  52. 52. Stage #1-Decoding Skills & Basic Word Recognition <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make referrals and be an advocate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there an IEP? Can you support some of its components? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on oral language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for decoding and word recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer assisted instruction </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Stage #2-Fluency & Building Word Recognition <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage lots of reading and writing -- high-interest / low-level materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on oral language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make referrals and be an advocate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer assisted instruction </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Stage #2-Fluency & Building Word Recognition <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read-alouds and variations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-interest / low-level materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR and USSW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use reflection tools </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Stage #3-Vocabulary and Meaning <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage lots of reading and writing with materials that can be handled independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for vocabulary and meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer assisted instruction </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Stage #3-Vocabulary and Meaning <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary builders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers for concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSSD </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Stage #4-Comprehension and Study Skills <ul><li>WHAT TO DO? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage lots of reading and writing with materials that can be handled independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress “Before-During-After” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for comprehension & study skills </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. The 5 Stages of Numeracy: Stage #1 <ul><li>STAGE 1: Beginning to recognize and use numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a Kindergarten through 1st grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Functioning Level (EFL) 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add and subtract single digit numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort by size and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use basic math facts </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>STAGE 2: Basic use of operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide, use simple fractions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 2 nd through 3 rd grade level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Functioning Level (EFL) 2 </li></ul></ul>The 5 Stages of Numeracy: Stage #2
  60. 60. <ul><li>STAGE 3: More complex use of operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 4 th through 5 th grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Functioning Level (EFL) 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can calculate well and may enjoy the “pencil and paper” approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use basic fractions, decimals, and percents </li></ul></ul>The 5 Stages of Numeracy: Stage #3
  61. 61. <ul><li>STAGE 4: Mastery of math operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 6 th through 8 th grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Functioning Level (EFL) 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole number and fraction arithmetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to compute with and apply fractions, decimals, and percents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use ratios and proportions </li></ul></ul>The 5 Stages of Numeracy: Stage #4
  62. 62. <ul><li>STAGE 5: Application to geometry, algebra, and real life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly a 9 th through 12 th grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Functioning Level (EFL) 5 and 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic understanding of algebraic and geometric concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastered arithmetic and number properties </li></ul></ul>The 5 Stages of Numeracy: Stage #5
  63. 63. Application Activity <ul><li>Take 5 minutes to quickly jot down strategies that feel would be useful in helping learners at each stage of numeracy development. </li></ul>Application Activity 2
  64. 64. Stage 1 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 1 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on IEP or diagnostic testing to guide instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic arithmetic practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculator use to develop number sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple modalities of instruction </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Stage 1 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 1 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make referrals and be an advocate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there an IEP? Can you support some of its components? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on basic math facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use “think aloud” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer assisted instruction </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Stage 2 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 2 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction on specific skill gaps (long division) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on youth's current knowledge by connections (money to help with decimals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of manipulatives </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Stage 2 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 2 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice “paper and pencil” arithmetic and encourage calculators and estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring in mathematically rich, meaningful problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess for possible learning disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support understanding of inverse operations </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Stage 3 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 3 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide high interest math problems with no clear solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target instruction to support skill gaps (identifying equivalent fractions, ordering decimals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress higher order thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have youth reflect on approach </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Stage 3 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 3 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide problems where the operations aren't obvious or that have extraneous information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage use of diagrams, drawings, or rephrasing to determine operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply graphic organizers to support problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare problem solving strategies </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Stage 4 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 4 – Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real world practice to use fractions, percents, decimals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage youth to explore concept of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress higher order thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on exploration of variation </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Stage 4 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 4 – What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on pattern recognition and generalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to develop and apply formulas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage “what if” questions to change problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide real-world opportunities to use ratios </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Stage 5 Strategies <ul><li>STAGE 5- Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide sophisticated, real-world problems with no clear solution or multiple solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted coaching in challenging math concepts (factoring) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress higher order thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use techniques to build on knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Stage 5 What to Do <ul><li>STAGE 5- What to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage independent learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help make connections between math concepts and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have youth solve problems in multiple ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support discovery of real world applications </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Promoting Literacy & Numeracy in WIA Youth Services
  75. 75. 10 WIA Youth Service Elements: <ul><li>Tutoring, study skills training, and instruction, leading to completion of secondary school, including dropout prevention strategies; </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative secondary school services; </li></ul><ul><li>Summer employment opportunities that are directly linked to academic and occupational learning; </li></ul><ul><li>Paid and unpaid work experiences, including internships and job shadowing; </li></ul>
  76. 76. 10 WIA Youth Service Elements (continued) : <ul><li>Occupational skill training; </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership development opportunities, which may include community service and peer-centered activities encouraging responsibility and other positive social behaviors during non-school hours; </li></ul><ul><li>Adult mentoring for the period of participation and a subsequent period, for a total of not less than 12 months; </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Follow-up services for not less than 12 months after the completion of participation, as appropriate; and </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive guidance </li></ul>10 WIA Youth Service Elements (continued) :
  78. 78. Participation in the Ten WIA Youth Service Elements Participation in each element as a % of total enrollees
  79. 79. Application Activity! <ul><li>Main Ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>Use the strategies you listed in the first exercise, strategies mentioned by other small groups, and think of additional strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>In a small groups, spend five minutes completing the following chart. </li></ul>Application Activity 3
  80. 80. Application Activity: Ten Elements Application Activity 3 30% 1007 Support Services Check (x) to indicate where strategy can be implemented Literacy / Numeracy Strategy 26% 84% 60% 50% 37% 43% 40% 1% 49% 69% 100 As % of Enrollees 874 2806 2025 1666 1253 1449 1351 25 1651 2300 3352 Number of Enrollees Follow up Guidance Mentoring Leadership Occup Skills Work Expl Summer Exp. ESOL Alt Ed Tutoring # Enrollees
  81. 81. OVERALL <ul><li>Make reading, writing, numeracy and computing rewarded and valued </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate in ISS </li></ul><ul><li>Ask mentors and service providers to incorporate strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Keep track and reward efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Make this part of what youth “give back” to community </li></ul>
  82. 82. Choosing a Service Provider/ Program <ul><li>Key Consideration 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be appropriate for both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the literacy/numeracy level and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the age level of the youth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involved. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>Key Consideration 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be flexible enough to allow for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>youths’ different learning styles, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abilities, backgrounds, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interests. </li></ul></ul></ul>Choosing a Service Provider/ Program
  84. 84. <ul><li>Key Consideration 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must build on principles of effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education for youth and must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incorporate youth development and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>career development (and the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIA elements, as possible) </li></ul></ul>Choosing a Service Provider/ Program
  85. 85. <ul><li>20 Critical Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Instructional Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Youth Development Practices Three key considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Issues for Adult Educational </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of Instructional Quality </li></ul>Choosing a Service Provider/ Program
  86. 86. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Directly teach skills and strategies </li></ul>
  87. 87. Directly Teach <ul><ul><li>For youth who are far behind their peers, targeted and intensive instruction, tutoring, and practice, often in basic literacy or numeracy skills, are needed . </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Model and Coach <ul><li>I do - you watch </li></ul><ul><li>I do - you help </li></ul><ul><li>You do together - I help </li></ul><ul><li>You do independently - I watch </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Show me - help me - let me </li></ul>
  89. 89. Seven Strategies Used by Skilled Readers <ul><li>Uses existing knowledge to make sense of new information </li></ul><ul><li>Asks questions about the text before, during, and after reading </li></ul><ul><li>Draws inferences from the text </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors comprehension </li></ul>
  90. 90. Seven Strategies Used by Skilled Readers <ul><li>Uses “fix-up” strategies when meaning breaks down </li></ul><ul><li>Determines what is important </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizes information to create new understanding </li></ul>
  91. 91. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Create learning environments rich with literacy opportunities </li></ul>
  92. 92. Creating a Literacy-Rich Environment <ul><li>Why important? </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure, practice, models, direct instruction </li></ul><ul><li>We are uniquely positioned to engage youth in authentic literacy </li></ul>
  93. 93. Amount of Reading Words per year Minutes per day 0 0 0 2 150,000 2.4 .7 50 900,00 9.2 4.6 50 1,800,00 16.9 9.6 70 @4,200,00 33.4 21.2 90 @ 9,100,00 76.3 65 mins 98 Words/ Yr. Texts Books Percentile
  94. 94. Creating a Literacy-Rich Environment <ul><li>2 ideas for all programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained Silent Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What have been our experiences? </li></ul>
  95. 95. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Integrate into the 10 key program service areas </li></ul>
  96. 96. Five Things All WIA Programs Can Do <ul><li>In all activities, use the “teachable moments” </li></ul><ul><li>Use different types and levels of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Have students reflect regularly </li></ul>
  97. 97. Five Things All WIA Programs Can Do <ul><li>Incorporate “proven strategies” </li></ul><ul><li>Involve all staff, mentors, and adult volunteers as role models, cheerleaders, advocates </li></ul>
  98. 98. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use Teachable Moments in the 10 Elements </li></ul>
  99. 99. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use Questions </li></ul><ul><li>to Build </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul>
  100. 100. Higher-Order Thinking (Bloom’s Taxonomy) Application Activity 4
  101. 101. Application Activity! <ul><li>Imagine your city is having a local election </li></ul><ul><li>8 people are running for 4 city council seats </li></ul><ul><li>Key issues are downtown development street violence, school budgets and community gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the pyramid of thinking to inspire 5 questions that your youth program can explore. </li></ul>Application Activity 4
  102. 102. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use refection and journals </li></ul>
  103. 103. So what can we do??? <ul><li>Use strategies proven to be effective </li></ul>
  104. 104. Four of the Top Strategies that Improve Student Achievement <ul><li>Identifying similarities and differences (45%) </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing and note-taking (34%) </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing effort and providing recognition (29%) </li></ul><ul><li>Setting objectives & providing feedback (23%) </li></ul><ul><li>from “Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement”; Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock, ASCD, 2001 </li></ul>
  105. 105. Identifying Similarities and Differences <ul><li>Explicit modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing -- talk aloud; Venn diagrams; comparison matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying -- categories; graphic organizers </li></ul>
  106. 106. Identifying Similarities and Differences <ul><li>Program Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate compare/contrast with 25% of new activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post and talk-through c/c for all major new concepts or activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Youth Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of XYZ, youth completes 5 comparison activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In reflection journal about work experience, youth compares/contrasts with other work, school experiences, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Involve ALL Adults -Five Ways <ul><li>Be a role model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read, write,use math, and use computers in the presence of young people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use literacy and numeracy to solve problems and complete tasks in the presence of young people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be a mentor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk about (show) how you use literacy / numeracy to solve problems, to get information, and for your enjoyment and personal growth </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. Involve ALL Adults -Five Ways <ul><li>Be a cheerleader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk about specific things you’ve read, what you’ve liked, what you’ve learned, how it’s influenced you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be enthusiastic about anything the youth has read, written, or done using math or a computer </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. Involve ALL Adults -Five Ways <ul><li>Be a literacy/numeracy developer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include in all the activities you do with young people - contextualize learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate specific strategies to increase achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When needed, make referrals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe the skills of young people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know when to make referrals and to where </li></ul></ul>
  110. 110. OVERALL <ul><li>Make reading, writing, numeracy and computing rewarded and valued </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate in ISS </li></ul><ul><li>Ask mentors and service providers to incorporate strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Keep track and reward efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Make this part of what youth “give back” to community </li></ul>
  111. 111. We CAN Make a Difference! <ul><ul><li>See and learn the adult applications of literacy and numeracy (contextualized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand labor market connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivate life-long learning skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-connect with education & school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find new motivation after possibly being turned off from learning </li></ul></ul>In WIA and other non-traditional learning environments, youth can:
  112. 112. Time Out for Reflection <ul><li>Three - two - one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 things I found out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 interesting things (or ideas I will use) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 question I still have </li></ul></ul>

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