Adjective Clauses Explanation and Practice
What is an Adjective? <ul><li>An Adjective describes a noun.  Remember nouns can either be subjects, objects or objects of...
What is an Adjective Clause? <ul><li>An Adjective clause is a dependent clause (dependent word + subject and verb) that de...
Subject Relative Pronouns <ul><li>We use relative pronouns to create dependent clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pro...
Object Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Sometimes, the relative pronoun will replace the object in the dependent clause or the ob...
Things to Remember <ul><li>The relative pronoun replaces the noun – don’t use it and the noun in the dependent clause. </l...
Things to Remember <ul><li>Formal written English:  In formal, academic English in adjective clauses with object relative ...
Things to Remember <ul><li>You must understand whether or not the dependent clause is  essential  information or  extra  i...
Things to Remember <ul><li>Can you understand a difference between these two sentences? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My sister, w...
Identifying vs. Non-Identifying <ul><li>Think about if a listener or reader would be able to identify the noun without the...
Identifying vs. Non-Identifying <ul><li>Think about if a listener or reader would be able to identify the noun without the...
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Adjective Clauses

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Adjective Clauses

  1. 1. Adjective Clauses Explanation and Practice
  2. 2. What is an Adjective? <ul><li>An Adjective describes a noun. Remember nouns can either be subjects, objects or objects of prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Which words are adjectives? </li></ul><ul><li>unkind </li></ul><ul><li>fast </li></ul><ul><li>value </li></ul><ul><li>careless </li></ul><ul><li>silently </li></ul><ul><li>old </li></ul><ul><li>Which words are adjectives? </li></ul><ul><li>unkind </li></ul><ul><li>fast </li></ul><ul><li>value </li></ul><ul><li>careless </li></ul><ul><li>silently </li></ul><ul><li>old </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is an Adjective Clause? <ul><li>An Adjective clause is a dependent clause (dependent word + subject and verb) that describes a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>You can imagine that an adjective clause is taking two sentences about the same noun and making them into one sentence. </li></ul>Examples: Route 66 is a long road. This road goes from Chicago to California. Route 66 is a long road that goes from Chicago to California. Examples: The postcard shows a beautiful vista of the Grecian coastline. I bought the postcard. The postcard which I bought shows a beautiful vista of the Grecian coastline.
  4. 4. Subject Relative Pronouns <ul><li>We use relative pronouns to create dependent clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun replaces the word in common between the two sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, the relative pronoun will be the subject of the dependent clause. </li></ul>Examples: Route 66 is a long road . This road goes from Chicago to California. Route 66 is a long road that goes from Chicago to California. Subject Relative Pronouns People: Who or That Things or Animals: Which or That Possessive: Whose
  5. 5. Object Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Sometimes, the relative pronoun will replace the object in the dependent clause or the object of a preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>To connect this type of clause, the relative pronoun must be moved to the front of the clause – in front of the subject. </li></ul>Examples: The postcard shows a beautiful vista of the Grecian coastline. I bought the postcard . The postcard which I bought shows a beautiful vista of the Grecian coastline. Object Relative Pronouns People: Whom, Who or That Things or Animals: Which or That Possessive: Whose
  6. 6. Things to Remember <ul><li>The relative pronoun replaces the noun – don’t use it and the noun in the dependent clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The postcard is pretty. I bought the postcard. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect: The postcard which I bought the postcard is pretty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correct: The postcard which I bought is pretty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun must be next to the word it describes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect: The sharks opened their mouths while they swam by the boat which were full of sharp teeth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correct: The sharks opened their mouths which were full of sharp teeth while they swam by the boat. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Things to Remember <ul><li>Formal written English: In formal, academic English in adjective clauses with object relative pronouns, for people, we use whom . In adjective clauses with an object of a preposition, bring the preposition forward and use whom or which . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Jack London, whom I admire, wrote a lot of short stories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than: Jack London, who I admire, wrote a lot of short stories. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The presidency is the position to which many politicians aspire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than: The presidency is the position that many politicians aspire to. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Things to Remember <ul><li>You must understand whether or not the dependent clause is essential information or extra information in the understanding of the noun. This impacts the meaning and the punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential clauses are also called identifying or restrictive . We DO NOT use commas with these clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra clauses are also called non-identifying or non-restrictive . WE MUST use commas with these clauses. We cannot use the relative pronoun that . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Things to Remember <ul><li>Can you understand a difference between these two sentences? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My sister, who lives in Bel Air, has three children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My sister who lives in Bel Air has three children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which sentence is it clear that I have more than one sister? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What about between these two sentences? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He looked in the refrigerator, and he threw away the food which was rotten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He looked in the refrigerator, and he threw away the food, which was rotten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which sentence is all of the food in the refrigerator rotten? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Identifying vs. Non-Identifying <ul><li>Think about if a listener or reader would be able to identify the noun without the adjective clause. </li></ul>Example: He is the man who works at the grocery store. This is essential (identifying) information. Think about it as two sentences. He is a man. He works at the grocery store. Without the second sentence, you couldn’t identify him. Notice that a become the because the noun changes from indefinite to definite because of the identification.
  11. 11. Identifying vs. Non-Identifying <ul><li>Think about if a listener or reader would be able to identify the noun without the adjective clause. </li></ul>Example: Maria, who works as a physician’s assistant, enjoys her job. This is extra (non-identifying) information. Think about it as two sentences. Maria enjoys her job. Maria works as a physician’s assistant. You know her name from the first sentence. This is enough to identify her.

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