B3 Life on Earth Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study: Friday 21 October 2011 B3.1 The variety of life B3.2 H...
B3.1 Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand wh...
B3.1  The variety of life Extension questions: 1: What species to the following plants or animals belong to a) pit bull b)...
B3.1 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain what environmental changes over the ...
B3.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are many different species found in both...
B3.1 Plenary Lesson summary:   extinct time fossil organisms Friday 21 October 2011 Horses and donkeys can breed together ...
B3.2  Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce...
B3.2  How does evolution happen ? Extension questions: 1: What is the material of inheritance and where in the cell is it ...
B3.2 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are five different groups that all share...
B3.3 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Scientists classify individuals into groups ...
B.3.2 Plenary Lesson summary:   solar copy conditions 3500 Friday 21 October 2011 Multi-cellular organisms evolved million...
3.3 Evidence for change now Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></u...
B3.3  Evidence for change now ? Extension questions: 1: Think about cattle, they supply three main products, milk, beef an...
B3.3 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why also having a longer neck might ...
B3.3 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: People use poisons to kill head lice. In the...
B3.3 Plenary Lesson summary:   competition variation offspring reproducing Friday 21 October 2011 Ancestors of modern gira...
B3.4  The story of Charles Darwin ? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: ...
B3.4  Extension questions: 1: Darwin made many observations about different species. How did he record his data ? 2: What ...
B3.4 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: How were the  beaks adapted for eating differe...
B3.4 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Surviving hot habitats and conditions requires...
B3.4 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Surviving freezing habitats requires some high...
B3.4 Plenary Lesson summary:   offspring variation space selection Friday 21 October 2011 Living things in a species are n...
B3.5  Theories of evolution Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></u...
B3.5  Extension questions: 1: Explain what a mutation is ? 2: How do mutations in individuals happen ? 3: What three proce...
B3.5 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In the following food chain: grass... rabbit.....
B3.5 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Both Lamark and Darwin did not know about ho...
B3.5 Plenary Lesson summary:   genes chemicals species mutated Friday 21 October 2011 Malaria is an infectious disease. It...
B3.6  The origin of species Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></u...
Extension questions: 1: What's the difference between an idea and a hypothesis ? 2: What's the difference between a hypoth...
B3.6 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Charles Darwin’s ‘ The Origin of Species . D...
B3.6 b  Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Where does the DNA or genes required for an a...
B3.6 Plenary Lesson summary:   traits data community Earth Friday 21 October 2011 In the science, a theory is a collection...
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B3 lesson part one

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B3 lesson part one

  1. 1. B3 Life on Earth Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study: Friday 21 October 2011 B3.1 The variety of life B3.2 How does evolution happen B3.3 Evidence for change now B3.4 The story of Charles Darwin End of module test B3.5 Theories of evolution B3.6 The origins of species B3.7 The mechanism of inheritance B3.8 Where did life come B3.9 Sensing the outside the environment B3.10 Human evolution B3.11 Extinction B3.12 Human activities causing extinction
  2. 2. B3.1 Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why living things are all different </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that these differences are controlled by different genes </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that individuals in the same species share genes </li></ul>We will focus on. First activity: We know that homo sapiens belong to primates which belong to mammals which belong to vertebrates which belong to the animal kingdom. For the pit bull dog species starting from the smallest group show the sam type of information ? Literacy: Species, variation, organism, variety of life, variation, evolution, extinct, evidence, DNA, genes, fossil, genetic, environment.. Numeracy: In the biosphere (Planet Earth), there are between 1.5 to 1.75 million known species in the plant and animal kingdom with 15,000 new species discovered every year. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on thinking about where you are going, what you will do next and what you will need to do it. Team workers Effective participators Self managers The variety of life Friday 21 October 2011
  3. 3. B3.1 The variety of life Extension questions: 1: What species to the following plants or animals belong to a) pit bull b) oak c) mouse and d) hawk ? 2: Explain why variation in the characteristics of individuals in the same species is useful ? 3: Give two examples of variation between individuals of the a) same species and b two individuals from different species ? 4: Write down one difference in humans that is caused by a) genes only b) environment only and c) environment and genes ? Know this: a: Know that variation is caused by differences in the genes between individuals. b: Know that individuals in the same species can mate and breed fertile offspring. c: Know that the genes of individuals in a species change over time. Introduction: Life on Earth began about 3,500 million years ago. Simple organisms developed from molecules that could copy themselves. Over time, a staggering 1.75 million different species have evolved found in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Two individuals from the same species can mate and produce fertile offspring. Variation can occur between individuals in the same species and between different species Homo sapiens primates mammals vertebrates animals Friday 21 October 2011
  4. 4. B3.1 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain what environmental changes over the last 65 million years has caused the changes in the horse ? Over the last 10,000 years man has artificially selected certain features. Give three features that man would find desirable in Horses ? Evolution in horses 60,000,000 BC From fossil remains, the evolution of the horse can be traced showing, how a changing environment and ‘natural selection’ has led to changes from its ancestor to the present day horse. 60 millions years ago, most land was marshy swamp, which favoured a type of horse with a small stature. Gradually grassland has replaced swamp favouring large and faster horses very much like the modern horse we see today. All these changes take place gradually over long periods of time. 45,000,000 BC 15,000,000 BC 2010 AD Key concepts
  5. 5. B3.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are many different species found in both the animal and plant kingdoms. Individuals of the same species can look very different. All dogs are all one species and any male dog can mate with any female dog. Similar species can sometimes mate, for example the offspring of a lion and tiger is called a liger, however it is infertile. Give three features that have changed over time when you compare the modern domestic dog to the ancestral wolf ? Look at the dogs pictured opposite left. Give two features that are caused by genetic variation and two features that are caused by environmental variation ? If the following species could interbreed, what would you call their offspring a) cat and dog b) monkey and man c) spider and wasp d) snake and lizard ? Variation in a species Key concepts
  6. 6. B3.1 Plenary Lesson summary: extinct time fossil organisms Friday 21 October 2011 Horses and donkeys can breed together and produce offspring called mules. But mules are infertile. Horses and donkeys look pretty similar but they are different species. Animals from the same species can breed together and produce fertile offspring. How Science Works: Research into evolution and how life on planet Earth has change over the last 3.5 billion years. Preparing for the next lesson: Scientists have studied how species and individuals have changed over _______. _________ evidence shows that many organisms have become ______. There is huge variation between individuals although DNA evidence suggest that all life on Earth has evolved from very simple ___________. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Analysis of DNA from different species shows that we all share some genes ? False True 2: Extinct is when all individuals of the species have died out ? False True 1: Variation is the differences between living things ?
  7. 7. B3.2 Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce contemporary evidence for evolution </li></ul><ul><li>To develop understanding of natural selection – how evolution happens </li></ul><ul><li>To distinguish between natural selection and selective breeding </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Think of the animal kingdom, name the five sub groups e.g amphibians and place them in order of their evolution over time on planet Earth ? Literacy: Evolution, animal kingdom, plant kingdom, genes, change, time fossils, natural selection, selective breeding, evolution, feature, generation, offspring, competition, reproduce . Numeracy: Over 98.5% of the 31,000 genes found in the human genome (our chromosomes) are shared with a nearest primate relative the chimpanzee. We share only 85% of our genes with mice ! PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on thinking about where you are going, what you will do next and what you will need to do it. Team workers Effective participators Self managers How does evolution happen
  8. 8. B3.2 How does evolution happen ? Extension questions: 1: What is the material of inheritance and where in the cell is it found ? 2: Give two pieces of evidence that scientists haves used to show how species change over time ? 3: Name the five groups of the animal kingdom ? 4: What the different between natural selection and artificial selection 5: The different breed of tomatoes is that due to natural or artificial selection ? Know this: a: Know that evolution describes the change over time in individuals. b: Know that all life evolved from a few simple organisms over the last 3.5 billion years. c: Know that natural selection is sometimes described as ‘survival of the fittest’. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Fossil evidence and work by evolutionary scientists including Darwin have helped build up a picture of evolution. About 3.5. billion years ago simple cells began replicating themselves passing their genes form one generation to another. Over time, new genes forming new species has lead to millions of individuals found in both the plant and animal kingdoms. Today we have between 1.5 and 1.75 million different species. But fossil evidence suggest this is only 1% of the total number of species that has ever lived on planet Earth.
  9. 9. B3.2 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are five different groups that all share one common feature, they all have a backbone and belong to the vertebrate group. Fish are found only in water, amphibians breath air but reproduce in water, with the other three groups able to live in drier places. They all have waterproof skin and fertilisation takes place internally Give three features or behaviours that make fish and amphibians different ? Explain why a blue whale is an ‘unusual mammal’ when compared to other mammals like a dog, a monkey or even man ? Name three species of a) fish b) amphibians c) reptiles d) birds and e) mammals ? Evolution in vertebrates over time Key concepts Vertebrates Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Time line 600 400 300 200 0 Fish Mammals
  10. 10. B3.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Scientists classify individuals into groups giving them unique names. Individuals in the same species share similar features, for example all birds have feathers and wings and lay eggs. The largest groups are the plant and animal kingdoms, with the main difference between them, that plants can produce their own food, whereas animals have to feed on other living or dead things. Explain why it is important for all scientists to use the same system when naming and sorting individuals into groups ? List five differences between the vertebrates and the invertebrates ? What are a) the two main groups of animals b) the five main groups of vertebrates and c) the two main groups of trees ? Classification of organisms and species Key concepts wings no wings insects 1 pair 2 pairs of wings of wings wings cover body wings stick out wings wings wings wings overlap thick veins no overlap complex veins cockroach wasp beetle dragonfly
  11. 11. B.3.2 Plenary Lesson summary: solar copy conditions 3500 Friday 21 October 2011 Multi-cellular organisms evolved millions of years later. They became specialised in many different ways. Gradually the huge variety of life evolved over millions of years. Over that time some organisms became extinct as a result of destruction of habitat, hunting, competition for food & mates and disease. How Science Works: Research into current evidence for changes in species for example look into MRSA a type of bacteria that has evolved a resistance to modern day antibiotics. Preparing for the next lesson: The first living things were molecules that could _____ themselves. They first appear on Earth about _____ million years ago. Some scientists think that these molecules came from somewhere else in the ______ system. Another theory is that life started on Earth. At that time the ____ might have been just right to produce these molecules Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Most living things on Earth today contain DNA which can copy itself ? False True 2: There are billions of theories about how life began ? False True 1: Life began on Earth 300 million years ago?
  12. 12. 3.3 Evidence for change now Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how natural selection drives evolution over time </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that human by using ‘artificial selection’ have change the characteristics of certain species </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Selective breeding or artificial selection is used by farmers to produce better quality products for humans to use in the human food chain. In 1900, the average hen laid approximately 185 eggs per years, now battery hens lay over 300 eggs per year. How did farmers do this ? Numeracy: Humans over the last 10,000 years have influenced the characteristics of many different species intentionally and unintentionally. Humans have domesticated dogs and by using chemical toxins produced toxin resistant head lice. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Evolution, natural selection, artificial selection, animal kingdom, plant kingdom, genes, change, time fossils, natural selection, selective breeding, evolution, feature, generation, offspring, competition and reproduce .
  13. 13. B3.3 Evidence for change now ? Extension questions: 1: Think about cattle, they supply three main products, milk, beef and leather. How would you use selective breeding to improve a) milk yield and b) the absence of fat in beef ? 2: Super lice are resistant to typical lice shampoos. Explain how human activity caused super lice ? 3: Describe the main differences between natural and artificial selection ? 4: Give an example of one factor that is part of the struggle of existence or the ‘survival of the fittest ? Know this: a: Know that natural selection is sometimes described as ‘survival of the fittest’. b: Know that selective breeding is where humans choose a characteristic that they want individuals to have. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Natural selection is where individuals with certain advantageous characteristics have a better chance of surviving long enough to reproduce. They pass on their genes to their offspring. In the next generation, more individuals have these useful characteristics. After many generations, the difference may be so great that the a new species is formed. Natural selection is different from selective breeding or artificial selection, in which humans choose characteristics they want individuals to have, for example farmers have bred many different varieties of animals and crops for the food markets.
  14. 14. B3.3 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why also having a longer neck might make the giraffe more successful at spotting predators like lions and tigers ? Explain why evolution is slower in animals compared to change in other species like bacteria or head lice ? Evolution in giraffes Step one: In individuals in one species there is always variation. In giraffe, some have slightly longer necks than others. Step two: All giraffe compete for food and other resources, if food become scare, those with longer necks would be more likely to survive and pass on their genes. Step three: The next generation has these genes and longer necks. This happens over many generations until all giraffe have long necks. Evolution over time Variation in a population Key concepts
  15. 15. B3.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: People use poisons to kill head lice. In the 1980’s, doctors were sure that the population of head lice would be wiped out. But a few survived. Now parts of the country are fighting populations of ‘super lice’. The number of resistant lice in the population has increased. Scientist developed a new poison but the cycle began again. What are super lice and explain how the population of resistant head lice increased ? Is this an example of natural selection or artificial selection. Explain your answer ? What’s the difference between artificial selection for example ‘super lice’ and selective breeding, for example domestication of dogs ? Artificial selection in head lice Key concepts
  16. 16. B3.3 Plenary Lesson summary: competition variation offspring reproducing Friday 21 October 2011 Ancestors of modern giraffes had variation in the length of their necks. Food supply became scarce. The giraffes competed for food. Taller giraffes were more likely to survive and breed. They passed on their features to the next generation. Over many generation, more giraffes with longer necks were born. This is called natural selection. How Science Works: Research into the research and scientific theory on evolution first propose by Charles Darwin. Look into his work on the Galapagos finches. Preparing for the next lesson: Individuals of a species show ___; they are not all identical. Some individuals have features that help them survive when ____ gets tough. These successful individuals have a better chance of surviving and _____. Some successful features are passed on to the ______. Over many generations, there were more individuals with the successful features. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Natural selection is the survival of the fittest? False True 2: Selective breeding is done naturally? False True 1: Are individuals within a species all identical?
  17. 17. B3.4 The story of Charles Darwin ? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how Charles Darwin used his research and finding to develop his theories on evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how new theories like Darwin's ‘theory of evolution’ become accepted </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: When using data to support an argument think of three things that makes a good a good study for example the number of people included in the study group ? Literacy: Charles Darwin, theory of evolution, explanation, theory, hypothesis, research, peer review, evidence, natural selection and struggle for survival. Numeracy: Darwin collected many thousands of specimens and made lots of observations about thousands of things he saw. He recorded these data in notes and pictures while travelling around the world. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on thinking about where you are going, what you will do next and what you will need to do it.
  18. 18. B3.4 Extension questions: 1: Darwin made many observations about different species. How did he record his data ? 2: What personal qualities did Darwin show that helped him develop his explanation of natural selection ? 3: How did Darwin try to get more evidence to support his idea ? 4: What two things make a good explanation ? 5: What two things did Darwin link together to work out his explanation of natural selection ? Know this: a: Know that Darwin while travelling around Galapagos Islands, noticed variation in the wildlife, specially finches. b: Know that Darwin's work on the finches found in the Galapagos islands help shape his theory of evolution. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was the first person to suggest the theory of natural selection. He came up with it through a combination of imagination (see beyond ideas), opportunity (visited Galapagos Island) and creativity. Many scientists think that natural selection or ‘survival of the fittest’ is the best explanation for evolution. This is supported by the way things adapt to the change in their environment and survive. They pass their good genes to their offspring and they have a better chance of survival. But some (creationists) do not believe that evolution happened at all Religious people disliked Darwin’s idea because it disagreed with their belief that all species were individuals created by God. How did Darwin explain natural selection?
  19. 19. B3.4 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: How were the beaks adapted for eating different foods and Why does this adaptation help an animal to survive ? While Darwin was in the Galapagos Islands, he studied evolution in finches. The common ancestor was a seed eating finch from the mainland. Competition for the same food source gave finches with slightly different beaks access to different diets. 14 different species evolved over time. Cactus finches have sharp pointed beaks that allows them access to cactus fruits and sap. Vegetarian finches feed on plant material and occupy a habitat above the ground. Small ground finches with their pointed beaks allows them access to insects. Did all different species of finches evolve from just one species ? Key concepts
  20. 20. B3.4 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Surviving hot habitats and conditions requires some highly specialised animal and plant adaptations. Humans are not well adapted to survive hot environments. Lizards have light skin which reflects the Sun’s heat. They also have super efficient kidneys which helps reduce the amount of water that these animals require. Some animals avoid the heat by being nocturnal Name four different habitats for example a marine habitat ? Describe how a camel is adapted to survive in dry desert environments...say how each adaptation helps the camel’s survival ? A cactus is highly adapted to survive in almost rainfall free areas like deserts. Explain why it has no leaves and where does photosynthesis occur ? Key concepts
  21. 21. B3.4 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Surviving freezing habitats requires some highly specialised animal and plant adaptations. Humans are not well adapted to survive cold environments. Animals like penguins or polar bears have thick fur insulating their bodies, therefore reducing heat loss. Furthermore, all animals found in cold environments have thick layers of insulating fat underneath their skin In the picture opposite left a lynx is chasing a snowshoe hare...how is the snowshoe hare adapted to survive in extreme cold ? Penguins have thick feathers and a deep layer of body fat to help them survive. These are examples of physical adaptations...give one example of a behavioural adaptation that helps survival in the extreme cold ? Explain why penguins will lose body weight during the winter months ? Key concepts
  22. 22. B3.4 Plenary Lesson summary: offspring variation space selection Friday 21 October 2011 Living things in a species are not identical; they have variation. Ancestors of modern giraffes had variation in the length of their necks. They compete for food, shelter and a mate. If something in their environment changed, e.g. shortage of food, then taller giraffes were more likely to survive and breed as they can reach higher branches and these genes were passed to their offspring. How Science Works: Research into other theories of how species change over time in particular the theory proposed by a scientist called Lamarck. Preparing for the next lesson: Darwin while travelling on Galapagos Islands, observed that members of the a single species showed considerable _______ as they are in competition for food and ____. Some members are better suited to survive and would have more ______ that are better adapted to survive. He called it natural _______ or ‘survival of the fittest’. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Natural selection is otherwise known as ‘survival of the fittest’ ? False True 2: Religious people disagreed with Darwin model of how species have changed ? False True 1: Different species have some common characteristic ?
  23. 23. B3.5 Theories of evolution Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how competition for resources like food and shelter produce a struggle for survival in individual in the same and different species </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the those individual that have characteristics that help them survive will go on to reproduce passing on their genes to the next generation </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Draw together factors which can combine to produce a new species (mutation, environmental change and natural selection ? Literacy: Struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, characteristics, competition, environment, natural selection, variation, genetics, mutation, gene, DNA and chromosomes. Numeracy: Many of the successful features are passed on to offspring and hence more of the next generation have the useful feature and even more of the following generation will have the useful feature. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on thinking about where you are going, what you will do next and what you will need to do it.
  24. 24. B3.5 Extension questions: 1: Explain what a mutation is ? 2: How do mutations in individuals happen ? 3: What three processes combine to produce a new species ? 4: How does a new species evolve over time ? 5: How many generations does it takes to produce a new species ? 6: Some mutation in humans cause cancer. Smokers suffer lung cancer, what causes these mutations in lung cell genes Know this: a: Know that competition for resources leads to the struggle for existence. b: Know that individuals with characteristics that help them survive will go on to breed and pass on their genes. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Variation between individuals is caused by both the environment and genes. Only genetic variation can be passed from one generation to the next. There are three things make genes change, or mutate: 1. mistakes when copying chromosomes, 2. ionizing radiation, 3. some chemicals. If sex cell genes mutate, three things may happen: 1. the mutation may have no effect, 2. the fertilized egg may not develop, 3. the offspring may have a better chance of surviving and reproducing. The mutated gene passes on to the next generation and becomes more common. Over many years and generations, new species have evolved. This is the result of the effects of mutations, environmental change and natural selection. More evidence for natural selection
  25. 25. B3.5 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In the following food chain: grass... rabbit...fox. What do rabbits complete for and what factors add to the species’ ‘struggle’ for existence ? Explain what type of climate event can change the size of a animal population or colony ? Explain by what mechanism are the numbers of animals increased or decreased in a colony ? In any habitat, there is competition between individuals of the same or different species for resources like food, shelter, water, space, light if you’re a plant and the opposite sex if you want to mate and reproduce. Although plants and animals are adapted for their own environments, not all offspring survive. This is called the struggle for survival. Predation Climate change Disease Finding a mate Key concepts
  26. 26. B3.5 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Both Lamark and Darwin did not know about how characteristics were passed from parent to offspring, explain why Lamark,s theory was taken seriously ? How could you disprove Lamark’s theory that by using an organ this cause these good features to be passed on to the next generation ? How Lamarck viewed evolution in giraffes Lamarck a biologist who lived almost two centuries ago, believed that individuals who used a particular organ like a neck, passed on their ‘good features’ to the next generation. He stated that giraffes stretched their necks searching for tree shoots throughout their lives. He said that the descendants’ necks became progressively longer over time. His theory was disproved by Mendel and then later by Darwin, who theorised that inheritance of characteristics like neck length in giraffes was controlled by particular genes passed on from the parents during reproduction. Neck becomes longer over time due to stretching Key concepts
  27. 27. B3.5 Plenary Lesson summary: genes chemicals species mutated Friday 21 October 2011 Malaria is an infectious disease. It affects around 400 million people a year, killing 2 million and leaving millions of others with serious health problems. Malaria is spread by the bite of mosquitoes. A single-celled parasite invades the red blood cell and reproduces inside them. The red blood cells burst open and cannot carry oxygen. People suffer from fever and tremors when parasites emerge How Science Works: Look up how data helps support theories in science and what makes a good study for example the size of the sample and the type of people studied. Preparing for the next lesson: Variation between individuals of a species is caused by both the environment and _____. Mistakes when copying chromosomes or some ______ can cause a cell to mutate. The ______ gene passes on to the next generation. New ______ evolved, a result of the effects of mutations, environmental change and natural selection. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Sickle cell mutation helps people to survive malaria ? False True 2: Natural selection means that only some individual survive and reproduce ? False True 1: Mutation produces variation in a population of the same species ?
  28. 28. B3.6 The origin of species Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how gathering scientific data helps support a hypothesis or theory like the origin of the species first published by Darwin around 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that personal or religious belief can influence how a scientific theory is accept by society </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Darwin was heavily criticised in 1859 by the Church because his theory gave no space for the creationist theory where God created Adam and eve. Although his theory was correct about natural selection and the struggle for survival explain why not knowing the true age of the Earth or about how genes passed on information hindered Darwin in fully explaining his theories ? Literacy: Idea, concept, theory, hypothesis, scientific argument, debate, data, study, data quality, errors, assumptions, sample size, analysis, repeating findings. Numeracy: In 1859 Darwin publish his book, the origin of the species. During that time many different theories were popular. What Darwin did know at the time was the way information is passed and how old the Earth was, he thought it to be 6000 years old ! PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
  29. 29. Extension questions: 1: What's the difference between an idea and a hypothesis ? 2: What's the difference between a hypothesis and a theory ? 3: If a new theory is published why is it important for other scientists to be able to repeat and reproduce the data used ? 4: Why was the Church opposed to the ideas put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859 ? 5: Do you think that the Church is more accepting of the theory of evolution in today's World ? Know this: a: Know that data and scientific research help support scientific theories. b: Know that personal or religious belief can shape a person’s viewpoint . Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: In 1859 having developed the theories of a scientist called Alfred Wallace, Darwin published his book, ‘The origin of Species’ almost all from educated society disagreed with Darwin’s theories and even the Catholic Church added its opinion saying that it was anti-God. They also published a cartoon with Darwin talking to a monkey at a desk. Darwin also didn’t have a full record of fossils, didn't know how information was passed form parent to offspring and didn’t know the true age of the Earth. Now all of science supports his wonderful work and even the Church has agreed that there is truth behind his theory. B3.6 The origin of species
  30. 30. B3.6 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Charles Darwin’s ‘ The Origin of Species . Darwin's’ book introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research and experimentation Explain why the Church argued against Darwin's work on the origin of the species ? Explain why they published the cartoon showing Darwin with a monkey ? Explain what new findings have helped Darwin's theory become universally accepted ? An original page from Charles Darwin's note book mad during the voyage of HMS Beagle. The diagram shows how new individuals were formed over time because of natural selection. Key concepts
  31. 31. B3.6 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Where does the DNA or genes required for an acorn to develop into a mighty oak come from ? How did Darwin’s lack of knowledge of the Earth’s true age hinder his theory of evolution ? How does fossil evidence help us understand how specie shave change over many millions of years ? Darwin although he identified why evolution happens because of natural selection he did not know about genes and how genes that coded for features in individuals were passed from parent to offspring. Taken an acorn, as well as being a food store for the developing tree, it contains all the genetic information necessary to code for all the features that you see in an adult tree. The material of inheritance The true age of the Earth Key concepts
  32. 32. B3.6 Plenary Lesson summary: traits data community Earth Friday 21 October 2011 In the science, a theory is a collection of concepts or ideas to conform to available data about such observations, and is put forth to other scientists for their review and so that they can repeat the data that is used by the theory. How Science Works: Research into genes, what they are made from, what they do and how are they passed from parents to offspring. Preparing for the next lesson: Theories like Darwin's needs good scientific ____ to be accepted by the scientific __________. Darwin didn’t know the true age of the _______ nor how genes passed form mother and father to offspring and how genes codes for all our characteristics or traits. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Darwin new about genes and the mechanism of inheritance ? False True 2: Chromosomes found in the nucleus are a collection of genes ? False True 1: Genes code for all are characteristics ?

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