Generation of electricity by nuclear fusion

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What are the reactions of fission and fusion?
Why there is an interest in nuclear fusion?
How can we get to use it?

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Generation of electricity by nuclear fusion

  1. 1. GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY BY NUCLEAR FUSION 11/16/10 HASPOT Samuel
  2. 2. Fission and Fusion reactions 2 1) What is a fission reaction? A fusion reaction? Atomic nucleus composed of nucleons: protons + neutrons Z which defines the element e.g. Hydrogen Z = 1 Hydrogen stable element (majority) Z = 1 ; A = 1 but existence of deuterium Z = 1 ; A = 2 tritium Z = 1 ; A = 3 several isotopes (A different) of the same element (same Z) Remark: masses of isotopes which are different (proportional to A)
  3. 3. Fission and Fusion reactions 3 Binding energy El = (Z * mp + (AZ) mn - m (X)) * c ² Stability of a nucleus: The higher the ratio El / A is, the more stable it is Aston curve El / A = f (A) A lower than 20 → fusion reaction eg: A higher than 190 → fission reaction eg: Conservation of the number of protons and mass number nBaKrnU 1 0 140 56 93 36 1 0 235 92 3++→+ nHeHH 1 0 4 2 3 1 2 1 +→+
  4. 4. Production of electricity 4 What are main criteria to consider in the production of electricity? - Access to raw materials - Radioactivity (and quantity) of the products of reaction - Energy Nuclear power plants: thermal 1.Nuclear energy released by the reaction as heat 2. Heated water. Steam that turns turbines Conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy 3. Alternator Conversion into electricity Now, we use fission. Why an interest in nuclear fusion?
  5. 5. Why an interest in nuclear fusion? 5 Comparative FISSION / FUSION 1st criterion: Access to raw materials FISSION FUSION - Limited resources - Unlimited resources: sea water - Extraction of Uranium in containing large quantities of unstable countries deuterium (0.015% of hydrogen). - opportunity to produce tritium artificially after, need to enrich by centrifugation 2nd criterion: Radioactivity of products FISSION FUSION - Need to store long-lived - Little or no radioactive products radioactive waste
  6. 6. Why an interest in nuclear fusion? 6 3rd criterion: Energy released Mass loss → energy release Mass defect ∆m = mass before (reactants) - mass after (products) Energy released = ∆m * c ² FISSION E = ((234.9935-(93.8945 + 139.8920 + 1.008))*1.66054.10^(-27)) x (3*10^8)² = 2.974*10^(-11) J = 184.7 MeV For 1g of uranium 235: 7.5.10 ^ 10 J FUSION E = ((2.0160+3.0247-4.0015-1.0087)*1.66054.10^(-27)) x (3*10^8)² = 4,5.10*(-12) J = 28.41 MeV For 1g of mixture D-T: 5.4.10 ^ 11 J Fusion releases more energy nHeHH 1 0 4 2 3 1 2 1 +→+ nXeSrnU 1 0 140 54 94 38 1 0 235 92 2++→+
  7. 7. ITER project 7 Fusion has great advantages, but problematic experimental and industrial aspects Difficulty: Cause fusion of deuterium and tritium, although they tend to repel Solution: Mixture at a temperature of 100 million degrees, plasma having enough energy to overcome the repulsive forces Difficulty: No material that resists with this heat Solution: Confine the plasma at center of the reactor, away from walls in a virtual magnetic enclosure created by electromagnets → Objectives of the ITER project
  8. 8. ITER project 8 Country: Russia, China, South Korea, USA, Japan, European Union, India Site: CADARACHE, End: 2019 Technical objectives of ITER -Generate 500MW with 50MW during 6min40s -Be able to maintain fusion reactions in plasma for 16min40s No electricity (thermal only), just check the feasibility Futures, REACTOR DEMO - 1500W electric power after losses Commercial reactors from 2050

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