IntroductionThe Mobile Web refers to the use of Internet-connected applications, or browser-based access to theInternet from a mobile device - such as a smartphone or tablet PC - connected to a wirelessnetwork.Traditionally, access to the Web has been via fixed-line services. However the Web isbecoming more accessible by portable and wireless devices. Both platforms are more conducive toInternet access and better browser- or application-based user Web experiences than have beenafforded by previous generations of mobile devices.The distinction between mobile Web applications and native applications is anticipated to becomeincreasingly blurred, as mobile browsers gain direct access to the hardware of mobile devices(including accelerometers and GPS chips, and the performance of browser-based applications improve(speed- and capability-wise). Persistent storage and access to sophisticated user interface graphicsfunctions may further reduce the need for the development of platform-specific native applications.Mobile Web access today still suffers from interoperability and usability problems. Interoperabilityissues stem from the platform fragmentation of mobile devices, mobile operating systems, andbrowsers. Usability problems are centered around the small physical size of the mobile phone formfactors (limited resolution screens and user input/operating limitations).Mobile Operating SystemsA mobile operating system, also known as a mobile OS, a mobile platform, or a handheld operatingsystem, is the operating system that controls a mobile device or information appliance—similar inprinciple to an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS, or Linux that controls a desktop computeror laptop. However, they are currently somewhat simpler, and deal more with the wireless versions ofbroadband and local connectivity, mobile multimedia formats, and different input methods.Typical examples of devices running a mobile operating system are smartphones, personal digitalassistants (PDAs), tablet computers and information appliances, or what are sometimes referred to assmart devices, which may also include embedded systems, or other mobile devices and wirelessdevices. We require a specifically designed operating system: ● mobile phones are both small and mobile ● mobile phones are ubiquitous - the target is a consumer mass-market ● mobile phones are occasionally connected: they can be used both when connected to the wireless phone network or locally to other devices, or on their own ● manufacturers need to differentiate their products in order to innovate and compete in a fast- evolving market
● the platform has to be open to enable independent technology and software vendors to develop third-party applications, technologies and servicesDifferent types of platforms or OS available ● Symbian OS – Nokia’s Cell Phone operating system ● Android OS – Google’s free, open-source cellphone operating system ● iPhone OS (iOS ) – Apple’s mobile operating system ● BlackBerry OS – Proprietary mobile operating system, developed by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry ● Windows Phone 7 ( Windows Mobile ) – Mobile operating system developed by Microsoft ● Palm OS (Garnet OS)- mobile operating system initially developed by Palm ● Palm webOS – Mobile operating system from HP/Palm ● Bada - Mobile operating system developed by Samsung Electronics ● Maemo OS – from Nokia (open source, GPL) ● MeeGo OS – from Nokia and Intel (open source, GPL)Mobile Applications and developmentThey consist of software that run on a mobile phone and perform a task for its user.Categories of Mobile AppsSocial Networking ● These cell phone applications allow device users access to their favorite social media websites, from where they can post updates, see their friends activity and upload content such as photographs from their own mobile device. Applications are available for many of the popular social networking websites, such as Facebook, which includes access to the Facebook Chat instant messaging service, and Twitter.Games ● A huge array of games are available in cell phone application form. Once installed, these games are played using the cell phone handset. Types of game available range from classic computer console titles from the past, such as "Legend of Zelda", to noted arcade games such as "Space Invaders". A range of genres are also represented, from first-person shooter games to puzzle and strategy titles.Music ● Music-based applications run the gamut in terms of their function. Some enable individuals to run Internet radio through their cell phones; essentially, the device becomes a radio receiver.
Radio applications have been launched by some of the major Internet radio services, such as the U.S.-based Pandora, and the social media radio website Last.FM. Other music apps include "TuneWiki", which lets you stream tracks from the internet to your cell phone device, and "RadioTime", designed to enable individuals to find terrestrial radio stations.Organization ● Another common type of phone application can be broadly categorized as organization-based. These apps allow users to handle meetings and appointments via calendar programs, take notes through word processor apps, and write out memos such as shopping lists. Notable applications of this type include "LastPass," which handles a users saved data, and "Personal Assistant," which checks an individuals private information, such as credit card transactions.Lifestyle ● This broad category of cell phone application covers everything from coupon apps, which offer vouchers for services and products from brands, to recipe applications which aim to provide inspiration for cooking. Some of these applications are genuinely helpful, such as those that find the nearest public bathroom or calculate the cheapest gas prices around, while others, such as those which predict the length of your marriage, are just for fun.Tools for developmentEach of the platforms for mobile applications also has an integrated development environment whichprovides tools to allow a developer to write, test and deploy applications into the target platformenvironment.Mobile application development is the process by which application software is developed for smalllow-power handheld devices such as personal digital assistants, enterprise digital assistants or mobilephones. These applications are either pre-installed on phones during manufacture, or downloaded bycustomers from various mobile software distribution platforms. Integrated developme Programmi Debugge Cross- Installer Emulator nt D ng rs platform packaging available environme t language available deployment options nt availableAirplay SDK C, C++ Yes Yes Visual All native: The native C Studio, Android, distribution li XCode BREW, iOS format of each a (iPhone), platform fr Maemo, Palm/ In webOS, t Samsung bada, iP
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GPRS Class Types :GRPS have numerous classes. Each class represents the amount of data that can be transferred with inthe network. All classes have number timeslots which are available for uploading data to the phone ordownload data to the phone. Voice calls have additional times slots for communication and does notuse timeslots dedicated for transferring of data. The more the timeslots are available more and fasterthe data can be transferred as these timeslots are used simultaneously. All timeslots are shared overthe network by the users; GRPS send and receive data in packets and all the slots are not used all thetime, hence increase the overall performance and capacity of the network. During the peak time,lower data rates can be experienced as network will give higher priority to the voice calls.Most commonly used classes for GPRS: SLOGRPS CLASSES TSClass 2 3Class 4 4 Maximum Data RateClass 6 4 8 - 12 kbps upload / 16 - 24Class 8 5 8 - 12 kbps upload / 24 - 36Class 10 24 - 36 kbps upload / 24 - 36 5Class 12 8 - 12 kbps upload / 32 - 40 5 16 - 24 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps 32 - 48 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download