Mobile web literature


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Desk Research on Mobile Web

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Mobile web literature

  1. 1. Mobile WebTechnology & Trends
  2. 2. IntroductionThe Mobile Web refers to the use of Internet-connected applications, or browser-based access to theInternet from a mobile device - such as a smartphone or tablet PC - connected to a wirelessnetwork.Traditionally, access to the Web has been via fixed-line services. However the Web isbecoming more accessible by portable and wireless devices. Both platforms are more conducive toInternet access and better browser- or application-based user Web experiences than have beenafforded by previous generations of mobile devices.The distinction between mobile Web applications and native applications is anticipated to becomeincreasingly blurred, as mobile browsers gain direct access to the hardware of mobile devices(including accelerometers and GPS chips, and the performance of browser-based applications improve(speed- and capability-wise). Persistent storage and access to sophisticated user interface graphicsfunctions may further reduce the need for the development of platform-specific native applications.Mobile Web access today still suffers from interoperability and usability problems. Interoperabilityissues stem from the platform fragmentation of mobile devices, mobile operating systems, andbrowsers. Usability problems are centered around the small physical size of the mobile phone formfactors (limited resolution screens and user input/operating limitations).Mobile Operating SystemsA mobile operating system, also known as a mobile OS, a mobile platform, or a handheld operatingsystem, is the operating system that controls a mobile device or information appliance—similar inprinciple to an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS, or Linux that controls a desktop computeror laptop. However, they are currently somewhat simpler, and deal more with the wireless versions ofbroadband and local connectivity, mobile multimedia formats, and different input methods.Typical examples of devices running a mobile operating system are smartphones, personal digitalassistants (PDAs), tablet computers and information appliances, or what are sometimes referred to assmart devices, which may also include embedded systems, or other mobile devices and wirelessdevices. We require a specifically designed operating system: ● mobile phones are both small and mobile ● mobile phones are ubiquitous - the target is a consumer mass-market ● mobile phones are occasionally connected: they can be used both when connected to the wireless phone network or locally to other devices, or on their own ● manufacturers need to differentiate their products in order to innovate and compete in a fast- evolving market
  3. 3. ● the platform has to be open to enable independent technology and software vendors to develop third-party applications, technologies and servicesDifferent types of platforms or OS available ● Symbian OS – Nokia’s Cell Phone operating system ● Android OS – Google’s free, open-source cellphone operating system ● iPhone OS (iOS ) – Apple’s mobile operating system ● BlackBerry OS – Proprietary mobile operating system, developed by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry ● Windows Phone 7 ( Windows Mobile ) – Mobile operating system developed by Microsoft ● Palm OS (Garnet OS)- mobile operating system initially developed by Palm ● Palm webOS – Mobile operating system from HP/Palm ● Bada - Mobile operating system developed by Samsung Electronics ● Maemo OS – from Nokia (open source, GPL) ● MeeGo OS – from Nokia and Intel (open source, GPL)Mobile Applications and developmentThey consist of software that run on a mobile phone and perform a task for its user.Categories of Mobile AppsSocial Networking ● These cell phone applications allow device users access to their favorite social media websites, from where they can post updates, see their friends activity and upload content such as photographs from their own mobile device. Applications are available for many of the popular social networking websites, such as Facebook, which includes access to the Facebook Chat instant messaging service, and Twitter.Games ● A huge array of games are available in cell phone application form. Once installed, these games are played using the cell phone handset. Types of game available range from classic computer console titles from the past, such as "Legend of Zelda", to noted arcade games such as "Space Invaders". A range of genres are also represented, from first-person shooter games to puzzle and strategy titles.Music ● Music-based applications run the gamut in terms of their function. Some enable individuals to run Internet radio through their cell phones; essentially, the device becomes a radio receiver.
  4. 4. Radio applications have been launched by some of the major Internet radio services, such as the U.S.-based Pandora, and the social media radio website Last.FM. Other music apps include "TuneWiki", which lets you stream tracks from the internet to your cell phone device, and "RadioTime", designed to enable individuals to find terrestrial radio stations.Organization ● Another common type of phone application can be broadly categorized as organization-based. These apps allow users to handle meetings and appointments via calendar programs, take notes through word processor apps, and write out memos such as shopping lists. Notable applications of this type include "LastPass," which handles a users saved data, and "Personal Assistant," which checks an individuals private information, such as credit card transactions.Lifestyle ● This broad category of cell phone application covers everything from coupon apps, which offer vouchers for services and products from brands, to recipe applications which aim to provide inspiration for cooking. Some of these applications are genuinely helpful, such as those that find the nearest public bathroom or calculate the cheapest gas prices around, while others, such as those which predict the length of your marriage, are just for fun.Tools for developmentEach of the platforms for mobile applications also has an integrated development environment whichprovides tools to allow a developer to write, test and deploy applications into the target platformenvironment.Mobile application development is the process by which application software is developed for smalllow-power handheld devices such as personal digital assistants, enterprise digital assistants or mobilephones. These applications are either pre-installed on phones during manufacture, or downloaded bycustomers from various mobile software distribution platforms. Integrated developme Programmi Debugge Cross- Installer Emulator nt D ng rs platform packaging available environme t language available deployment options nt availableAirplay SDK C, C++ Yes Yes Visual All native: The native C Studio, Android, distribution li XCode BREW, iOS format of each a (iPhone), platform fr Maemo, Palm/ In webOS, t Samsung bada, iP
  5. 5. Symbian, Windows Mobile 6.x and desktop, OSX Debugge r Android, integrate Emulator is Visual The native BREW, iOS C d in available in Studio, distributionalcheMo Java (iPhone), li Visual correspondi Eclipse, format of each Windows a Studio, ng IDE XCode platform Mobile Eclipse or XCode Debugge r integrate d in Java but Eclipse, Android only, Eclipse, portions of Undroid because ofAndroid standalo Yes apk F code can (plugin for Dalvik VM, ne be in C, C++ NetBeans) March 2009 debuggi ng monitor available A Emulator is Android, The native li available Internal iPhone; distributionAppcelerator JavaScript ? c using 3rd SDK BlackBerry format of each li party tools planned platform a Java ME, Android, The native BlackBerry, distribution C Eclipse,Celsius Java Yes Yes iPhone, format of each li NetBeans Symbian, platform of a a Windows Java binary MobileBedrock Java Yes Yes Eclipse Java ME, The native C Android, distribution li BREW, format of each a BlackBerry, DS, platform iOS (iPhone), Palm/webOS, PSP, Samsung bada, Symbian,
  6. 6. Windows Mobile, Windows Phone 7 Debugge BlackBerry rBlackBerry Java Yes Eclipse only, because alx, cod F integrate of RIM API d in IDE XML routed through None N/A, Combined Yahoo N/A, translates beyond translates to config upload at Mobile N/A, any to web or ABlueprint a web or Yahoo with self- servers and XML editor mobile as e schema mobile as hosted dynamic displayed in needed check needed XML native browsers R fe n B C - Debugge a r fo support a for the d Visual native No Emulator R C; the APIs Studio 6.0, ARM for the Compile for A are Visual target target ARM the specific c provided in StudioBREW code.Ca code, has a BREW version OTA B C with a C+ 2003 .NET, n use simulator available on fr + style Visual Visual for the x86 the handset C interface Studio Studio to testing code a 2005 debug b the x86 li testing fu code s T t fo d t aDragonRAD Visual drag Yes Uses 3rd Proprietary Android, OTA F
  7. 7. BlackBerry, c party & drop tiles IDE Windows deployment li emulators Mobile a Apple iPhone F Studio & iPad, The native P includes Android, HTML, CSS, distribution aFeedHenry Yes Yes full IDE and Windows JavaScript format of each E Eclipse Phone 7, platform P Plug-in Blackberry, a Nokia WRT. T fr In M Debugge Bundled Only via App S r with iPhone Store, needs t integrate SDK, iPhone, iPad,iOS Objective-C Xcode review and fr d in integrated iPod Touch approval by in Xcode with Xcode Apple Inc. a IDE IDE n fo d s Yes although Free many VM emulator, Eclipse, implementatio Jad/Jar Sun Java LMA ns have device packaging; PRCJava ME Java Yes Wireless NetBeans F specific bugs files under Palm Toolkit, Mobility necessitating OS mpowerplay Pack separate er builds Java ME, Android, Bada, BlackBerry, The native iPhone, JMango distributionJMango JMango N/A N/A Windows F Flash IDE format of each Mobile 6, platform Windows Phone 7 available soonLazarus Object Yes, can Uses the Lazarus Compiled The native F Pascal debug in emulators IDE, language distribution IDE via of the including available for format of each ActiveSy platforms integrated Windows CE, platform
  8. 8. Linux-based GUI nc for devices, designer Window SymbianOS and s CE port in debugger development Macromedi SIS / CAB VMacromedia ActionScrip Bundled a Flash deployment or Yes Yes bFlash Lite t with IDE MX2004/8, OTA/IR/Bluetoo w Eclipse th SWF files Basic page XHTML rendering withMicrobrowser (WAP 2.0), per page Yes Many Many N/A Fbased WML (WAP customizations 1.2) for different browsers Web Portal, N/A, runs on comes with F Visual drag Android,MobiFlex N/A phone in data N/A d & drop tiles iPhone seconds manageme o nt add-ins Android, Java ME, Moblin, Eclipse, iOS (iPhone), Visual F Smartphone Studio SIS, CAB, JAD, 2 2003,MoSync C, C++, Lua Yes Yes 2005 and JAR, APK, OTA c Symbian, later, deployment li Windows MoBuild w/ a Mobile (Pocket text editors PC), Blackberry (experimental) M Free Windows Visual fr emulator, Mobile, Studio OTA c source code Windows CE,.NET Compact C#, VB.NET, 2008, 2005, deployment, e Yes available, Symbian-Framework Basic4ppc 2003, CAB files, V also based devices Basic4ppc ActiveSync n bundled via third party IDE v with IDE tools d OpenPlug Android, iOS ELIPS (iPad, iPhone, The native F ActionScrip plugin for iPod Touch), distribution cOpenPlug Yes Yes t, XML Adobe Symbian, format of each li Flash Windows platform a Builder Mobile
  9. 9. OS 1.0 - 4.1: Free F Emulator Palm OS o provided by Developme Palm OS P PalmSource nt System handhelds, or c (Access); OS PRC files, C, C++, (Eclipse), Windows (CPalm OS Yes 5.0: - 5.4 PalmSource Pascal CodeWarri Mobile with r Device- Installer (.psi) or, StyleTap c specific PocketStudi emulator r Simulators o, HB++ d provided by fr Palm (palmOne) iPhone, The native HTML, CSS, No, 3rd No, 3rd Android, distributionPhoneGap Yes M JavaScript party tools party tools BlackBerry, format of each Symbian, Palm platform Interpreted language available natively only on Nokia Several, Sis deployment Add-on to Series60 (and including with py2sis orPython Python Yes Nokia desktops) F plugins for can use Python Emulator though ports Eclipse Runtime exist to other mobile platforms, including PalmOS Windows Mobile (Pocket The native FResco Visual PC), Windows distribution cMobileForms C# Yes Yes Studio CE, Android, format of each liToolkit iOS, platform a SmartphoneRhomobile Ruby with Yes N/A, xCode or Yes, supports OTA F HTML applications Eclipse, on- iOS (incl. 3.0) deployment, C interface can run in demand on iPhone and iOS through L features Win32 RhoHub iPad, Windows App store, A compiled runner, or in version Mobile 6.1 .SIS, .CAB, .APK, S through an device includes Professional, .COD fo interpreter emulators full IDE Mobile into native for Windows 6.0
  10. 10. Standard, BlackBerry 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0 (BlackBerry 4.2 and 4.5 supported but application supported database s. platforms. access is very slow on these devices), Symbian and Android 1.6 and higher Drag-and- Yes: Android, The native CSmartface drop tools No, not Smartface BlackBerry, distribution Yes liPlatform and action needed Designer J2ME, Symbian format of each a editing S60 platform C Free Many Compile per aSymbian C++ Yes SIS deployment Emulator choices target t a Android, S BlackBerry, iOS s (iPhone, iPad), The native fr Palm OS, distribution d Windows format of eachTotalCross Java Yes Yes Eclipse d Mobile. platform (cab, . Windows jad, apk, t Phone 7, pdb/prc, deb) d Symbian b planned OTA JavaScript, deployment, CSS, HTML, Free webOS, Palm webOS throughwebOS C and C++ Yes Eclipse F emulator only App store, Web through the URL, Precentral, PDK .ipk WinDev OTA Android, CWinDev Mobile, deployment, WLanguage Yes Yes Windows liMobile Android apk, CAB files, Mobile a DSK ActiveSyncWindows C, C++ Yes Free Visual Windows OTA FMobile emulator Studio Mobile, deployment, c (source 2010, 2008, Windows FU, CAB files, li
  11. 11. e code V available), 2005, V also eMbedded Windows CE ActiveSync (S bundled VC++ (free) e with IDE b Mix of standard D web dev e The nativeWorkLight skills such Eclipse- Yes, supports e Bundled distributionMobile as HTML, Yes based plug- Android, v with the IDE format of eachPlatform CSS, in BlackBerry, iOS c platform JavaScript, li and native a languagesMobile ComputingMobile computing is a form of human–computer interaction where a computer is expected to betransported during normal usage. Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication,mobile hardware, and mobile software. The first aspect addresses communication issues in ad-hocand infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats andconcrete technologies. The second aspect focusses on the hardware, i.e. mobile devices or devicecomponents. The third aspect deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.GPRS TechnologyGeneral packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3Gcellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS allows mobilephones to remain connected to network and transfer requested or sent data instantly, e.g. if youreceive MMS from other mobile phone, you do not need to press a button to check if you have anynew MMS, instead mobile handset notifies you when new MMS is downloaded to your mobile. GPRStechnology can provide you up to 32 kbps to 48 kbps. One of the features of GPRS technology whichmakes it even more useful and practical is that data can transfer during the call and there is norequirement of disconnecting call to receiving incoming or out going data. For example, you canreceive SMS during the call and you can reply to it without having to disconnect your on going call.GPRS usage is charged for the amount of data sent and received, unlike CSD which is charged foramount of time it remained connected.
  12. 12. GPRS Class Types :GRPS have numerous classes. Each class represents the amount of data that can be transferred with inthe network. All classes have number timeslots which are available for uploading data to the phone ordownload data to the phone. Voice calls have additional times slots for communication and does notuse timeslots dedicated for transferring of data. The more the timeslots are available more and fasterthe data can be transferred as these timeslots are used simultaneously. All timeslots are shared overthe network by the users; GRPS send and receive data in packets and all the slots are not used all thetime, hence increase the overall performance and capacity of the network. During the peak time,lower data rates can be experienced as network will give higher priority to the voice calls.Most commonly used classes for GPRS: SLOGRPS CLASSES TSClass 2 3Class 4 4 Maximum Data RateClass 6 4 8 - 12 kbps upload / 16 - 24Class 8 5 8 - 12 kbps upload / 24 - 36Class 10 24 - 36 kbps upload / 24 - 36 5Class 12 8 - 12 kbps upload / 32 - 40 5 16 - 24 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps 32 - 48 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download