AIDS

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AIDS

  1. 1. Topic: AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) Group: Revolutionists Date: 27th January 2013
  2. 2. INDEX: Introduction History Causative agent Host specificity Receptor Methodology of infection Symptoms Classification Phases Transmission Control
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. AIDS: an acronym for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  5. 5. HISTORY
  6. 6. DISCOVERY OF AIDS & HIV: First clinically observed:1981 Recognized by CDC:1981 Term coined in general press: "GRID" The term AIDS introduced: July 1982
  7. 7. DISCOVERY & NAMING: Causative discovered: In 1983, by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier Causative identified: In 1984 by research teams from PASTEUR INSTITUTE in FRANCE and NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH in USA.
  8. 8. ORIGIN: HIV is believed to have originated in non- human primates in West-central Africa and were transferred to humans in the early 20th century.
  9. 9. CAUSATIVE AGENT
  10. 10. HIV: AIDS is caused by HIV also known as (HTLV) human T-lymphocyte virus. HIV is a retrovirus also called Oncovirus (onkos: tumor) .
  11. 11. STRUCTURE & COMPOSITION OF HIV: HIVs are spherical in form, about 100 nm in diameter enveloped by host plasma membrane which bear spikes. It has: RNA genome Reverse transcriptase (enzyme)
  12. 12. HOST SPECIFICITY & RECEPTOR
  13. 13. HOST SPECIFICITY: HIV is host specific. It infects and multiplies in monkey but does not cause disease in them. RECEPTOR: In case of AIDS virus, the host cell possesses a CD4 receptor that allows that allows viral penetration.
  14. 14. METHODOLOGY OF INFECTION
  15. 15. METHODOLOGY: As HIV infection continues in the host, decrease of helper or CD4+ T-lymphocytes result in failure of immune system and infected person is susceptible to other diseases. HIV has a liking for T-cells.
  16. 16. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  17. 17. SYMPTOMS: There are three main stages of HIV infection:  Acute infection  Clinical latency and  AIDS There are several symptoms associated with all these stages of HIV infection.
  18. 18. There are two categories of AIDS symptoms:  In first case immuno suppression occurs which characterizes AIDS.  Secondly immuno deficient people are susceptible to microbial attacks .
  19. 19. CLASSIFICATION
  20. 20. CLASSIFICATION OF HIV INFECTION: Two main clinical staging systems are used to classify HIV and HIV-related disease: WHO CDC The WHO system uses the following categories: Primary HIV infection Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV or AIDS
  21. 21. IMMUNOLOGY
  22. 22. PHASES
  23. 23. PHASES HIV PASSES THROUGH: Different phases/stages through which HIV passes are:  Attachment (Binding & Fusion)  Penetration  Reverse transcription  Replication  Integration  Transcription & Translation  Biosynthesis & Maturation  Release
  24. 24. Attachment (Binding & Fusion), Penetration, Reverse transcription, Replication, Integration
  25. 25. COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE:
  26. 26. TRANSMISSION
  27. 27. TRANSMISSION OF AIDS: HIV enters the body through cuts and sores in skin, through mucous membrane or through direct injection.
  28. 28. TRANSMISSION:
  29. 29. Average per act risk of getting HIV by exposure route to an infected source Act Risk Blood transfusion 90% Childbirth (to child) 25% Needle-sharing injection drug use 0.67% Percutaneous needle stick 0.30% Sexual contact 3.75%
  30. 30. AIDS CAN’T BE TRANSMITTED THROUGH:  Day to day contact  One can’t get HIV from mosquitoes  It can’t be transmitted through animals and insects  The following fluids are not infectious: Tears Saliva Urine Feces Sweat
  31. 31. CONTROL OF AIDS
  32. 32. PREVENTIVE MEASURES: To prevent the spread of AIDS strict infection control guidelines must be followed .
  33. 33. TREATMENT
  34. 34. VACCINATION: As of 2012 there is no effective vaccine for HIV or AIDS. A single trial of the vaccine RV 144 found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission.
  35. 35. MANAGEMENT: Treatment consists of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) which slows progression of the disease.
  36. 36. ANTIVIRAL THERAPY: Current HAART options are combinations consisting of at least three medications belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of antiretroviral agents.
  37. 37. HIV DRUG CLASSES:
  38. 38. SOME FACTS ABOUT AIDS More than 35.3 million people are currently living with HIV worldwide. AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death globally. December 1st is World AIDS Day. Every 1 in 5 persons living with HIV are unaware of their infection.
  39. 39. GENERAL INFORMATION

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