Paradigm Shift


Published on

Theory of knowledge

Published in: Education, Technology

Paradigm Shift

  1. 1. Paradigm Shifts Done by: Samrudhii Palshetkar Yogesh Bhongale Tarun Singh
  2. 2. What is a Paradigm Shift? <ul><li>Think of a Paradigm Shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis . It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definations of paradigms <ul><li>Thomas Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions): &quot;… accepted samples of practical methods in science.” </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith (Powers of the Mind): ”A shared set of assumed facts. Water to the fish, a paradigm explains the world and allows us to predict its behavior. When in the middle of a paradigm, it is difficult to imagine any other.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Willis Hartman (An Incomplete Guide to the Future): &quot;… a basic way of perceiving, thinking, valuing and doing things that are associated with a particular vision of reality.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Marilyn Ferguson (The Aquarian Conspiracy): &quot;… a framework for thought… a scheme for understanding and explaining certain aspects of reality.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Joel Barker (Discovering the Future: The Business of Paradigms): &quot; … a set of rules that define limits, and establish what’s necessary to be succesfull within those limits.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: We humans subscribe to paradigms composed of a SMALL set of rules, and we have a STRONG tendency to resist letting them go. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Geocentrism to Heliocentrism <ul><li>Geocentrism:- is made up of two words geo(Earth) </li></ul><ul><li>and centric(centre), therefore it means that the </li></ul><ul><li>Earth was the centre. </li></ul><ul><li>From the ancient Greek times there was a belief </li></ul><ul><li>that the earth was in the centre of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>and all the other objects of the universe revolve </li></ul><ul><li>around it. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1610, when Galileo saw Jupiter and its </li></ul><ul><li>four moons through his telescope he noticed </li></ul><ul><li>that it orbited around jupiter by a force(now called </li></ul><ul><li>gravity) and this same force kept the moon of the Eath to orbit around the Earth. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>He then believed that that the Earth was orbiting the sun like the other planets. This Is called heliocentric. </li></ul><ul><li>The Church apposed this not just because it had a </li></ul><ul><li>biblical position but because this was defended by </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotelian system of science stating that the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>was in the centre of the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo and others believed that science was a higher </li></ul><ul><li>authority than the church's.  As a consequence the </li></ul><ul><li>authority of the Bible was undermined. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Catastrophism to Gradualism <ul><li>Catastrophism is the idea that the Earth has been affected by sudden , short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. The dominant paradigm of modern geology, in contrast, is gradualism, in which slow incremental changes such as Erosion, create the Earths appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>During the 17 th and `18 th century catastrophism was the dominant geological paradigm. </li></ul><ul><li>The catastrophists, like Cuvier, believed that the geological features of the Earth were the result of many catastrophic events. </li></ul><ul><li>For example:- worldwide flood in the days of Noah, the formation of a rocky mountain was due to an earthquake. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Gradualism is the process by which changes occur or got to occur slowly in gradual steps. </li></ul><ul><li>In the end of the 18 th century people started proposing new ideas. The two such people are Hutton and Lyell </li></ul><ul><li>They said that the earth as well as geological features had not been formed quickly by a few series of catastrophes but gradually. </li></ul><ul><li>Hutton and Lyell argued that the geological features were the results of the gradual processes taking place all the time </li></ul><ul><li>The gradual processes of erosion and deposition could if given enough time produce the many layers of sedimentary rock that the catastrophists said were formed quickly. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Are pesticides good or bad? <ul><li>Pesticides are chemical substances that are used on crops and food substance to kill the pests. </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning we thought that pesticides were very useful to us as it used to kill the pests but in the later years due to science we found out that pesticides not only kills the pests but also harms us internally due to the chemicals and some of the pesticides also disturb the life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>So this proves that what we thought before that pesticides were not harmful nowadays thanks to science we now realised how harmful it can be to the life cycles and thus disturbs the nature. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Is Egg vegetarian or non-vegetarian? <ul><li>Many people think that egg is non-vegeterian food because they think that it’s an animal’s embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people believe that it is an unborn chicken. </li></ul><ul><li>But the it has been proved that egg is a vegetarian food, as Eggs are not baby chickens, but are a female chicken's period. A female's egg (of any species,) unfertilized by semen, is not life. </li></ul>
  11. 13. The term size zero was used in the United States to describe a garment matching figure of a woman with bust measuring 31.5 inches, waist measuring 23 inches and hips of 32 inches.
  12. 14. EARLY DEATH of Brazilian model Ana Carolina Reston <ul><li>The danger posed by eating disorders was tragically highlighted last year by the death from anorexia of the Brazilian model Ana Carolina Reston. She was 21. </li></ul><ul><li>At 1.72 m (5'8&quot;), she weighed only 40 kilograms (88 lbs.) with a body mass index of 13.5 when she died, after having existed on a diet of apples and tomatoes and being hospitalised for kidney malfunction . </li></ul><ul><li>A body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 or less is one of the criteria for a diagnosis of anorexia according to the World Health Organisation's classification system. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Early DEATH of South American model <ul><li>Death of 22-year-old South American model Luisel Ramos , who suffered a heart attack after stepping off a runway in August. </li></ul><ul><li>She had been on a three-month diet of green leaves and diet Coke after being told she could be an international sensation - if she lost weight. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Perception of beauty has been distorted..
  15. 17. TEENAGE GIRLS in danger!! <ul><li>The use of spindly models sets unrealistic standards of beauty that encourage young people to crash-diet at the expense of their health. </li></ul><ul><li>Teenage girls are in their growing phase and require all the nutrition they can, but because of the size0 hype, girls are ruining their health. </li></ul><ul><li>The Model Health Inquiry, set up by the British Fashion Council (BFC), under Baroness Kingsmill, will try to deflect criticism by pointing out it has recommended that under-16s should be banned from British catwalks. It will also shift some of the blame for models' poor health on to agencies that rely on flying in girls from overseas, and don't look after them. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Harmful effects <ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>leads to lower leptin levels </li></ul><ul><li>suppresses gonadotrophins </li></ul><ul><li>converts biologically active oestrogen into inactive catechol oestrogen that have serious long-lasting consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>irregular menstruation cycle </li></ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul><ul><li>drowsiness </li></ul><ul><li>loss of fertility . </li></ul>
  17. 19. MADRID FASHION WEEK <ul><li>MADRID - The world's first ban on overly thin models at a top-level fashion show in Madrid has caused outrage among modeling agencies and raised the prospect of restrictions at other venues. </li></ul><ul><li>The Madrid show is using the body mass index or BMI -- based on weight and height -- to measure models. It has turned away 30 percent of women who took part in the previous event. Medics will be on hand at the September 18-22 show to check models. </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid's fashion week has turned away underweight models after protests that girls and young women were trying to copy their rail-thin looks and developing eating disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid's regional government, which sponsors the show and imposed restrictions, said it did not blame designers and models for anorexia. It said the fashion industry had a responsibility to portray healthy body images. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Bollywood actor Kareena kapoor faints on set trying to attain the size zero figure. And young girls are following her footsteps..
  19. 21. VICTORIA BECKHAM has banned size zero models from promoting her clothing line. The skinny fashion designer is the latest figurehead to clamp down on too-thin catwalk stars - even though she sports a tiny figure herself. When Beckham launches her new range of denim, she promises it will be modelled by curvier women.
  20. 22. Paradigm shift on marijuana
  21. 23. Paradigm shift on marijuana
  22. 24. History of marijuana <ul><li>Ancient China & Ancient Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis is known to have been used in Taiwan for fiber starting about 10,000 years ago.Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. [ In the early 3rd century AD, Hua Tuo was the first known person in China to use cannabis as an anaesthetic . He reduced the plant to powder and mixed it with wine for administration.Cannabis was prescribed to treat vomiting, plus infectious and parasitic haemorrhaging . </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The Ebers Papyrus (1,550 B.C.) from Ancient Egypt describes medical marijuana. The ancient Egyptians even used hemp (cannabis) in suppositories for relieving the pain of haemorrhoids . </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient India </li></ul><ul><li>Surviving texts from ancient India confirm that cannabis' psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a variety of illnesses and ailments. These included insomnia, headaches, a whole host of gastrointestinal disorders, and pain : cannabis was frequently used to relieve the pain of childbirth. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Ancient Greece </li></ul><ul><li>The Ancient Greeks used cannabis not only for human medicine, but also for veterinary medicine . The Greeks used cannabis to dress wounds and sores on their horses. </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, dried leaves of cannabis were used to treat nose bleeds , and cannabis seeds were used to expel tapeworms .The most frequently described use of cannabis in humans was to steep green seeds of cannabis in either water or wine, later taking the seeds out and using the warm extract to treat inflammation and pain resulting from obstruction of the ear . </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Islamic world </li></ul><ul><li>In the medieval Islamic world, Arabic physicians made use of the diuretic, antiemetic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain killing and antipyretic properties of Cannabis sativa , and used it extensively as medication from the 8th to 18th centuries. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Medical cannabis -refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended drug or herbal therapy as well as synthetic THC and cannabinoids . Indication   Benefit   Alzheimer's Prevents formation of &quot;Alzheimer plaques&quot; Arthritis Analgesic, anti-inflammatory Asthma Opens up airways in lungs Brain Cancer Reduces tumours, kills cancer cells Breast Cancer Stops cancer from spreading Depression Brightens mood Glaucoma Reduces eye pressure Lung Cancer Reduces tumors, slows cancer growth Pain Non-opiate, non-addictive pain killer