What If?• We have been meeting up our daily needs with the help ofvarious non-renewable sources likecoal, petroleum, nuclear energy and many more but haveyou ever imagined what will happen if they all go extinct. Will it be able to satisfy our next generations withminimum resources? Will we have enough electricity or petrol to run ourhouses/industries and cars? Will it be possible to survive in such surroundings whichwill be full of poisonous gases and smoke? Will basic necessities like potable water and shelter wouldbe available in abundance?
But Yes, There is a Solution• Energy from SUN, WATER,WIND, BIOMASS,GEOLOGY and TIDES canhelp us to tackle theincreasing energyproblems in the world.Because they are: Free Non Polluting Never Ending Lifetime Services in returnof a small investment.
Solar Energy• Solar energy,radiant light and heatfrom the sun, hasbeen harnessed byhumans since ancienttimes.• Solar energy is widelyavailable, free andpollution free.
How much Solar Energy?The surface receives about 47% of the total solarenergy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount isusable.
Putting Solar Energy to UseSolar Energy can be utilized in various ways whichincludes: Water Heating Cooking Solar Cells & Panels Water Treatment
Water Heating using Solar Energy• Two methods of heatingwater: passive (no movingparts) and active (pumps).• In both, a flat-plate collectoris used to absorb the sun’senergy to heat the water.• The water circulatesthroughout the closed systemdue to convection currents.• Tanks of hot water are usedas storage.
Heating Water: Active SystemActive System uses antifreeze so that the liquid doesnot freeze if outside temp. drops below freezing.
Cooking with Solar Energy• Solar cookers usesunlight for cooking anddrying .• Three types: Boxcookers, panel cookersand reflector cookers.• Solar cookers use nofuel, which means thattheir users do not needto fetch or pay forfirewood, gas, electricity,or other fuels.
Solar Cells & Solar Panels• A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell or photoelectric cell) is a solidstate electrical device that converts the energy of light directlyinto electricity by the photovoltaic effect.• A solar panel is a packaged interconnected assembly of solar cells, alsoknown as photovoltaic cells.• The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaicsystem to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residentialapplications.• They are widely used in Calculators, watches, Traffic lights andspacecrafts(SKYLAB Space Laboratory and International Space Station).
Water Treatment• Solar distillation can be used tomake saline or brackish water potable.• Solar water disinfection (SODIS) involvesexposing water-filled plastic polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) bottles to sunlight forseveral hours.• Exposure times vary depending on weatherand climate from a minimum of six hours totwo days during fully overcast conditions.• Solar energy may be used in a waterstabilisation pond to treat wastewater without chemicals or electricity.
Advantages & DisadvantagesAdvantages:• Non polluting: no noise, no harmful or unpleasant emissions or smells.• Very reliable: most solar panels have a 25 year warranty and even alonger life expectancy (the theory is they could last 100 to 125 years).• Solar modules over their lifetime produce more power per gram ofmaterial than nuclear power but without the problem of large volumesof environmentally hazardous material.• Solar Power is a renewable energy source. It is a resource that cannotbe used up by us using it.Disadvantages:• Sun does not shine consistently.• Solar energy is a diffuse source. To harness it, we must concentrate itinto an amount and form that we can use, such as heat and electricity.• Addressed by approaching the problem through:1) collection, 2) conversion, 3) storage.
WIND ENERGY• All renewable energy (except tidal and geothermal power), ultimatelycomes from the sun• The earth receives 1.74 x 1017 watts of power (per hour) from the sun• About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted to wind energy(which isabout 50-100 times more than the energy converted to biomass by allplants on earth• Differential heating of the earth’s surface and atmosphere induces verticaland horizontal air currents that are affected by the earth’s rotation andcontours of the land to WIND.~ e.g.: Land Sea Breeze Cycle
Why we need wind energy?Cost CompetitivenessEnvironmentalAwareness/Government InitiativesEnergy SecurityIncreased ElectricityDemand• Cost per Kwh of wind generation decreased from US$ 0.38 inearly 80s to present US$ 0.03-0.06, at excellent wind sites (1)• Rising Oil &Gas prices makes Wind Energy cost competitive• Kyoto Protocol Implementation - Carbon-dioxide emission toreduce by 5.2% of 1990s levels, by 2012• Implementation of Renewable Portfolio Standard requiresminimum percentage of power generation from RenewableEnergy• Price volatility of Oil &Gas have increased focus on RenewableEnergy• Global Electricity Consumption expected to double between2002 & 2030(2)– higher growth in India and China• Wind Energy’s contribution expected to increase from 0.2% in2002 to 3% in 2030 (3)
Windmill• A windmill is a machine whichconverts the energy of wind intorotational energy by means ofvanes called sails or blades .• A Windmill captures wind energyand then uses a generator toconvert it to electrical energy.• When designing a windmill, onemust decide on the size of theturbine, and the size of thegenerator
Wind Turbines LARGE TURBINES:• Able to deliver electricity at lower cost than smaller turbines, becausefoundation costs, planning costs, etc. are independent of size.• In areas where it is difficult to find sites, one large turbine on a tall toweruses the wind extremely efficiently.• Well-suited for offshore wind plants. SMALL TURBINES:• Local electrical grids may not be able to handle the large electrical outputfrom a large turbine, so smaller turbines may be more suitable.• High costs for foundations for large turbines may not be economical insome areas.• Landscape considerations
A Large Wind Turbine Small Wind Turbines scattered over a field
India Wind Energy Use The installed capacity of wind power in India is 13065.37 MW. Wind power accounts for 6% of Indias total installed powercapacity, and it generates 1.6% of the countrys power. Mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (4906.74 MW), Maharashtra(2077.70 MW), Gujarat (1863.64 MW), Karnataka (1472.75MW), Rajasthan (1088.37 MW), Madhya Pradesh (229.39MW), Andhra Pradesh (136.05 MW), Kerala (27.75MW), Orissa (2MW), West Bengal (1.1 MW) and other states(3.20 MW). India is 5th largest wind energy producer in the world.
Advantages• The wind blows day and night, which allows windmills toproduce electricity throughout the day. (Faster during the day)• Energy output from a wind turbine will vary as the windvaries, although the most rapid variations will to some extentbe compensated for by the inertia of the wind turbine rotor.• Wind energy is a domestic, renewable source of energy thatgenerates no pollution and has little environmental impact.Up to 95 percent of land used for wind farms can also be usedfor other profitable activities including ranching, farming andforestry.
Disadvantages Main disadvantage regarding wind power is down to the windsunreliability factor. In many areas, the winds strength is too low tosupport a wind turbine or wind farm. Wind turbines generally produce allot less electricity than theaverage fossil fuelled power station, requiring multiple windturbines to be built in order to make an impact. Wind turbine construction can be very expensive and costly tosurrounding wildlife during the build process. The noise pollution from commercial wind turbines is sometimessimilar to a small jet engine. This is fine if you live miles away,where you will hardly notice the noise, but what if you live within afew hundred meters of a turbine? This is a major disadvantage.
Bio Energy• Bioenergy is renewable energymade available from materialsderived from biologicalsources.• It basically includes Biomasswhich is any organic materialwhich has stored sunlight inthe form of chemical energy.As a fuel it may include wood,wood waste, straw, manure,sugarcane, and many otherbyproducts from a variety ofagricultural processes.
Solid Biomass Biomass is material derivedfrom recently livingorganisms, which includesplants, animals and their byproducts. Manure, gardenwaste and crop residues are allsources of biomass. It is arenewable energy sourcebased on the carboncycle, unlike other naturalresources such aspetroleum, coal, and nuclearfuels.
Bio Gas A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.CH4CO2Methane or ‘swamp gas’, producednaturally in swampy ponds
Bio-Energy UsesBiogas is a fuel used as an energy sourcefor light, heat or movement
Advantages and DisadvantagesADVANTAGES help to manage the marsh gaspollution improve the air quality recycle rubbish no greenhouse emission reduction of air pollution and acidrainDISADVANTAGES storage problem (for recycledmaterial) cost for transporting andtransferring
Geothermal Energy• Geothermal energy- energy thatcomesfrom the ground; power extractedfromheat stored in the earthFrom hot springs, geothermal energyhas been used for bathing sincePaleolithic times and for spaceheating since ancient Roman times,but it is now better known forelectricity generation.Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts(MW) of geothermal power is Onlinein 24 countries.
Why we use geothermal energy?• It is renewable• It doesn’t cause pollution• Owners of buildings using geothermal have cut 25 to 50percent off their utility bills.• No cooling towers, rooftop units, or individual room airconditioning units are needed, so buildings and schools usinggeothermal systems look better.• There is no fire hazard and no outside equipment that couldpotentially hurt kids.
Categories of GeothermalResources• Hot Water Reservoirs: geothermally heatedunderground water.• Natural Steam Reservoirs: Instant steam butthey are very rare• Geopressurized Reservoirs• Normal Geothermal Gradient• Hot Dry Rock• Molten Magma
Conventional Uses ofGeothermal Energy• A Tourist Attraction - comesit in our hot springs withpeople you dont know• As a direct source of spaceheating• As an instant steamgenerating facility to spin aturbine• There are production sites inNew Zealand, Iceland and, ofcourse, California
Geothermal energy in India India has reasonably good potential for geothermal; the potentialgeothermal provinces can produce 10,600 MW of power. But yet geothermal power projects has not been exploited at all, owing toa variety of reasons, the chief being the availability of plentiful coal atcheap costs. Potential Sites:• Puga Valley (J&K)• Tatapani (Chhattisgarh)• Godavari Basin Manikaran (Himachal Pradesh)• Bakreshwar (West Bengal)• Tuwa (Gujarat)• Unai (Maharashtra)• Jalgaon (Maharashtra)
Advantages• When a power station harnesses geothermal power in thecorrect manner, there are no by products, which areharmful to the environment. Environmentalists should behappy about that!• There is also no consumption of any type of fossil fuels. Inaddition, geothermal energy does not output any type ofgreenhouse effect. After the construction of a geothermalpower plant, there is little maintenance to contend with. Interms of energy consumption, a geothermal power plant isself-sufficient.• Another advantage to geothermal energy is that the powerplants do not have to be huge which is great for protectingthe natural environment.
Disadvantages• There are several disadvantages to geothermal energy.First, you cannot just build a geothermal power plant insome vacant land plot somewhere. The area where ageothermal energy power plant would be built shouldconsist of those suitable hot rocks at just the right depth fordrilling. In addition, the type of rock must be easy to drillinto. It is important to take care of a geothermal sitebecause if the holes were drilled improperly, thenpotentially harmful minerals and gas could escape fromunder ground. These hazardous materials are nearlyimpossible to get rid of properly.• Pollution may occur due to improper drilling at geothermalstations. Unbelievably, it is also possible for a specificgeothermal area to run dry or lose steam.
Water Energy• Water energy is a renewable energysource because it relies on thesupply of water, a product on ourplanet that we have infinite supplyof. When water flows or falls, itcreates water energy, and thisenergy source is quickly becomingthe most widely used form ofrenewable energy. While most damsare created to prevent flooding andto provide irrigation, there are somedams that are mainly used for waterenergy purposes.
How It Can Be Done?Capturing runoff fromrooftopsCapturing runoff from localcatchmentsCapturing seasonalfloodwaters from localstreamsConserving water throughwatershed management
How Can Water Harvesting Help?• Provide drinking water• Provide irrigation water• Increase groundwater recharge• Reduce storm water discharges, urban floodsand overloading of sewage treatment plants• Reduce seawater ingress in coastal areas.
How water can be harvested?Rural scenarioOur ancestors had learnt to harvest water in number of ways:They harvested the rain drop directly. From rooftops, theycollected water and stored it in tanks built in their courtyards.From open community lands, they collected the rain and storedit in artificial wells.They harvested monsoon runoff by capturing water from swollenstreams during the monsoon season and stored it various formsof water bodies.They harvested water from flooded rivers.
How water can be harvested?Urban scenarioThe total amount of water that is received in the form of rainfallover an area is called the rainwater endowment of the area. Outof this, the amount that can be effectively harvested is called thewater harvesting potential.Water harvesting potential = Rainfall (mm) x Collection efficiencyThe collection efficiency accounts for the fact that all therainwater falling over an area cannot be effectivelyharvested, because of evaporation, spillage etc. Factors likerunoff coefficient and the first-flush wastage are taken intoaccount when estimated the collection efficiency.
Rainwater harvesting from rooftopcatchments• Rooftop catchments: In the most basic form of thistechnology, rainwater is collected in simple vessels at theedge of the roof. As the rooftop is the main catchment area,the amount and quality of rainwater collected depends on thearea and type of roofing material. Reasonably pure rainwatercan be collected from roofs constructed with galvanizedcorrugated iron, aluminum or asbestos cement sheets, tilesand slates, although thatched roofs tied with bamboo guttersand laid in proper slopes can produce almost the sameamount of runoff. Roof catchments should also be cleanedregularly to remove dust, leaves and bird droppings so as tomaintain the quality of the product water.
Rainwater harvesting fromcollection devicesStorage tanks: Storage tanks forcollecting rainwater harvested usingguttering may be either above orbelow the ground. Precautionsrequired in the use of storage tanksinclude provision of an adequateenclosure to minimize contaminationfrom human, animal or otherenvironmental contaminants, and atight cover to prevent algal growth andthe breeding of mosquitoes. Opencontainers are not recommended forcollecting water for drinking purposes.
Advantages• Makes use of a natural resource and reducesflooding, storm water runoff, erosion, andcontamination of surface water with pesticides,sediment, metals, and fertilizers• Excellent source of water for landscape irrigation,with no chemicals such as fluoride and chlorine, andno dissolved salts and minerals from the soil• Home systems can be relatively simple to install andoperate May reduce your water bill Promotes bothwater and energy conservation
Disadvantages• Limited and uncertain local rainfall• Can be costly to install.• Requires some technical skills to install and provideregular maintenance.• Certain roof types may seep chemicals, pesticides,and other pollutants into the water that can harmthe plants.• Rainwater collected during the first rain season isgenerally not needed by plants until the dry season.Once catchment is full, cannot take advantage offuture rains.
Tidal Energy• Tidal energy, is a form ofhydropower thatconverts the energy oftides into electricity orother useful forms ofpower.• Tidal power haspotential for futureelectricity generation astides are morepredictable than windenergy and solar power.
Tides• Tides generated by the combinationof the moon and sun’s gravitationalforces• Greatest affect in spring whenmoon and sun combine forces• In order to be practical for energyproduction, the height differenceneeds to be at least 5 meters• Only 40 sites around the world ofthis magnitude• Overall potential of 3000 gigawatts
Generating Method• Tidal stream generatorTidal stream generators (or TSGs) make use of thekinetic energy of moving water to powerturbines, in a similar way to wind turbines that usemoving air.• Dynamic tidal powerDynamic tidal power (or DTP) is a theoreticalgeneration technology that would exploit aninteraction between potential and kinetic energiesin tidal flows. It proposes that very long dams bebuilt from coasts straight out into the sea orocean, without enclosing an area. Tidal phasedifferences are introduced across the dam, leadingto a significant water-level differential in shallowcoastal seas – featuring strong coast-paralleloscillating tidal currents such as found in theUK, China and Korea.The worlds first commercial-scale andgrid-connected tidal stream generator –SeaGen – in Strangford Lough.
• Tidal barrageTidal barrages make use ofthe potential energy in thedifference in height (orhead) between high andlow tides. Barrages areessentially dams across thefull width of a tidal estuary.
Advantages• No pollution• Renewable resource• More efficient than wind because of the density of water• Predictable source of energy vs. wind and solar• Second generation has very few disadvantages Does not affect wildlife Does not affect silt deposits Less costly – both in building and maintenance• Tidal energy does not depend on the weather.
DisadvantagesPresently costly:Expensive to build and maintain.A 1085MW facility could cost as much as 1.2 billiondollars to construct and runTechnology is not fully developedBarrage style has environmental affectsSuch as fish and plant migrationSilt depositsLocal tides change- affects still under study
One day we will have to get up from ourslumber...and bear the consequences of ourpresent habits …. That would be the day wewill realize the importance of the non-renewable resources.So Let the day be today than tomorrow!To avoid their depletionPromote Use Of the renewable sources ofenergy and harvest them in a better waywhich can prove to be helpful not only to usbut also to the coming generations.