BATI TRAKYA AZINLIĞI ΣΥΛΛΟΓΟΣ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΩΝ YÜKSEK TAHSİLLİLER DERNEĞİ ΜΕΙΟΝΟΤΗΤΑΣ ΔΥΤΙΚΗΣ ΘΡΑΚΗΣ WESTERN THRACE MINORITY UNIVERSITY GRADUATES ASSOCIATION Conference on Bilingual Education The Importance of Learning the Mother Tongue Ana Dil Öğrenmenin ÖnemiPresented by: Kelâmi Dedezade 2 Aralık 2009
BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication SkillsCALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency BICS = Kişilerarası Temel İletişim Becerileri CALP = Kavramsal Akademik Dil Yeterliliği
BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)BICS = Kişilerarası Temel İletişim BecerileriLanguage necessary for day to day living, including conversations with friends,informal interactions. BICS CALPCALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)CALP = Kavramsal Akademik Dil YeterliliğiLanguage necessary to understand and discuss content in the classroom
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BICS = Temel Kişilerarası İletişim Becerileri •Conversational fluency: social language • Includes “Silent Period” • Lasts 1 – 3 years • Early production: 1000 words (0-1 year)BICS • Speech Emergence: 3000 words (1-2 years) (first 2 years)CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency CALP = Kavramsal Akademik Dil Yeterliliği • Academic proficiency: “school” language • Intermediate fluency: 6000 words (1-5 years) • Advanced and continuing language development: 7000 words+ (5-7 and even 10 years) Office of Organizational Development
Beginner/Level 1 başlangıç düzey BICS Intermediate/Level 2 orta düzey Advanced/Level 3 ileri düzey Fully competent in 2nd languageCALP İkinci dile hakim
Hangi işlemler BICS ve CALP tarafından etkilenir?•Kavrama işlemi•Kültürel işlemler•Dil işlemleriKavrama ve dil işlemlerine bir bakalım:Kavrama İşlemi Dil İşlemi• Bilgi • Kelime hazinesi• Anlama • Telaffuz,/Söyleniş/Söyleyiş• Uygulama • Dilbilgisi/Gramer• Çözümleme • Anlamsal olmak• Toparlama • Fonksiyonel/İşlemsel anlam• Değerlendirme
Which processes develop where? Cognitive Process Language Process Kavrama İşlemi Dil İşlemi•Knowledge •Vocabulary•Bilgi •Kelime hazinesi •Pronunciation•Comprehension BICS•Anlama •Telaffuz,/Söyleniş/Söyleyiş•Application •Grammar •Dilbilgisi/Gramer•Uygulama •Analysis •Semantic meaning •Çözümleme •Anlamsal olmak •Synthesis •Functional meaning •Toparlama •Fonksiyonel/İşlemsel anlam •Evaluation • Değerlendirme CALPs
Research* has shown that many skills acquired in the first language can betransferred to the second language. So, for example, if your child has developedgood reading skills in Turkish, she is likely to be able to apply these skills whenreading English.Yapılan araştırmalar gösteriyor ki ana dilde elde edilen birçok beceri ikinci birdile transfer edilebilir. Örneğin, çocuğunuz Türkçe okuma becerilerinigeliştirmişse bu okuma becerilerini İngilizce okurken de kullanabiliyor.
* "In early stages it [reading in the first language] can profoundly accelerate thedevelopment of reading ability in the second language."This is true because:• reading skills transfer from language one to language two• reading provides knowledge of the world that makes second-language texts morecomprehensible• the pleasure of the reading habit itself transfers to the second languageKrashen, S. (2004) The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research.“İlk aşamalarda, ana dilde okuma, ikinci dilde okuma kabiliyetinin hızlagelişmesine ciddi bir şekilde katkıda bulunur.”Bu doğrudur çünkü:• okuma için kullanılan beceriler bir dilden öteki dile transfer olur• okuma yöntemiyle edindiğimiz bilgiler (örneğin, çevremiz veya dünyamızhakkında) ikinci dilde okuduğumuz tekstleri daha anlamlı/mantıklı kılar.• okuma alışkanlığı ikinci dilde okumaya da transfer olurKrashen, S. (2004) The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research.
July-Sep, 2003 Mother Tongue–Best for Learning I attended a conference on Multilingual Education for the Minority Languages of Asia at Bangkok on 6-8 November, 2003. The conference was sponsored by Mahidol University, Bangkok, UNESCO, and Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL). Nearly three hundred representatives from various government, voluntary, and academic institutions around Asia met to discuss topics related to language and education. Among them were 15 Indian delegates representing Government and Non Government Organisations.Several speakers in the conference stressed the need of using the mother tongue inthe primary stages of education in order to improve the quality of education as wellas for preserving the language. Research has proven that students who learn basicreading and writing skills in their mother tongue perform better later in school thanthose whose basic education is solely through a second language. Prof. UdayaSingh, Director, Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore gave a plenarypresentation on “Language Development and Nation Building in Multilingual Context”. Insub-group meetings a large number of papers was presented covering a wide spectrum oftheoretical and practical issues. Eleven papers were presented on problems and issuespertaining to India. One of them was presented by me on the initiatives of Janshala in theeducation of tribal children, and the issue of medium of instruction.
The conference was very useful in as much as it enabled me to understand issues concerninginstruction in mother tongue at the primary level. These consist of making available in schoolsqualified teachers who know the mother tongue of the local ethnic group, and getting textbooks andteaching-learning material prepared in that language. Prof. Singh of CIIL, in his presentation, gave theinformation that there were about 1900 languages in the country (and a far larger number of dialects), whereasthe instruction at the primary levels were available only in 45 languages. He, however, pointed out that the 45languages cover more than 90% of the population in terms of the language or the dialect spoken by them. InJanshala blocks there are more than 15 tribal groups, some of them large in number, in the States of Orissa,Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.Most of these ethnic groups have their own mother tongues but their children receive primaryeducation in the dominant regional language. Often, teachers of the schools located among theseethnic groups do not know the local language and the young children do not fully comprehend theregional language, as they speak their mother tongue at home. It has been reported that very oftensuch situations result in low enrolment, a high drop-out rate, and low attendance of children inschools. There is, therefore, certainly a need for addressing this problem which is adversely affectingthe learning environment at schools. A suitable strategy needs to be developed in this regard. Since ithas been empirically proven that children at the primary level learn faster in their mother tongue, it isimperative that we ponder the ways and means to provide a solution to the problem of these childrenbelonging to ethnic minority groups whose mother tongue is other than the dominant regionallanguage. (Vinoba Gautam) National Consultant, Janshala Programme
The importance of the mother tongue Ana Dilin önemi With one wheel (one language), you can go from place to place. Bir tekerlekle (yani bir dil), bir yerden başka bir yere gidebilirsiniz. [Illustrations reproduced with the permission of Professor J. Cummins.]
With one big and one small wheel (one good and one not so good language) you can go farther and faster. Bir büyük ve bir küçük tekerlekle (bir iyi bir de pek iyi olmayan dil) daha uzak yerlere daha çabuk gidebilirsiniz.[Illustrations reproduced with the permission of Professor J. Cummins.]
With two equal-sized wheels (two strong languages) you can comfortably go anywhere you want! Eşit büyüklükte iki tekerlekle (iki güçlü dil) istediğiniz yerlere gidebilirsiniz![Illustrations reproduced with the permission of Professor J. Cummins.]
A School-Based Choice Template for Planning Literacy Instruction Instructional Options Current Realities Where Are We? Vision for the Future Where Do We Want Getting it Done How Do We Get There? Şu andaki To Be? Yürürlüğe koymak – Öğretimde seçenekler durumumuz – İlerisi için bunu nasıl neredeyiz? vizyonumuz – nerede becerebiliriz? olmak isteriz?Content İçerik (müfredat)How do we adapt curriculum materials to link with students’ priorknowledge and cultural background (e.g. purchase dual language books)and also to promote critical thinking about texts and issues (e.g. whoseperspectives are represented in a text)?Cognition KavramaHow can we modify instruction to evoke higher levels of literacyengagement and critical thinking?Tools Araç gereçlerHow can we use tools such as computers, digital cameras, camcorders,web pages, etc?Assessment DeğerlendirmeHow can we complement mandated standardized assessments in order topresent to students, parents, and administrators a more valid account ofstudent progress? (e.g. a role for portfolio assessment?)Language/Culture Dil/KültürWhat messages are we giving students and parents about home languageand culture? How can we enable students to use their L1 as a powerful toolfor learning? Can we increase students’ identity investment by means ofbilingual instructional strategies (teaching for transfer)?Parental Involvement Velilerle ilişkilerHow can we engage parents as co-educators in such a way that theirlinguistic and cultural expertise is harnessed as fuel for their children’sacademic progress?