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The purpose of the study is to investigate the institutional policies that contributed to the enhancement of students’ academic success and educational quality in a Cambodian university. In a context of knowledge-based economy, higher education plays an important role to develop the citizen physically, mentally, and spiritually as well as to enhance the economic, social, political and cultural values of the nation. In the aftermath of the civil war in 1998, the Royal Government of Cambodia has strived to restore its education system in order to be integrated into the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Community by 2015 through adopting various strategies and policies to advance educational quality for Cambodia students’ academic success. This paper will investigate and discuss the status of institutional policies that can facilitate in reforming the educational system in Cambodian tertiary education. Astin’s theory (1984, 1993, 1999) is adopted to link the idea of institutional policies and Cambodian student’s academic success; the documents and data of governmental ministries, development partners, and higher education institutions will be employed in the study of such policies.