The 3’s refer to standardization , simplification and
specialization three related which are at the roof of any
economic analysis of product design.
The three process are usually linked together and develop as
a logical sequence. From a wide range of requirement it is
first necessary to sort out the essential features ,define
terms and then scientific manner the minimum variety
required , to meet these essentials.
The process of simplification can be carried out with a view
to reducing the variety of products or materials that are
produced or purchased.
This is both an economic and engineering process .
Specialization is one of its natural outcomes.
THE PROCESS OF DEFINING AND APPLYING
THE “CONDITIONS”TO ENSURE THAT A GIVEN
RANGE OF REQUIREMENTS CAN NORMALLY
BE MET WITH A MINIMUM OF VARIETY AND
IN REPRODUCIBLE AND ECOOMIC MANNER
ON THE BASIS OF THE BEST TECHNIQUES
1. PISTON INDUSTRY- Standard sizes of piston are
produced for different products . Like federal
mougal is producing piston for many industries
like maruti , ssangyong as well as the large scale
manufacturers like bmw etc.
2. NUT &BOLT INDUSTRY- standard nut and bolts
are produced so that they can be easily available in
market in case of requirement .
1. With the help of market research ,sales statistics, etc
decides what to sell in future .
2. Then , define a standard range of products.
3. From the range , ask the designer to develop minimum
variety of component to match the range .
Classification of materials and
Classification aims at , systematically grouping item
,together by their common feature and subdividing
them by their features .
A system of classification and coding is necessary for
the design of new products within a range defined.
1. Define all terms .
2. Classify each item according to its basic
3. Identify each item by allocating to it some
meaningful code number.
•IT IS KNOWN FOR VARIETY REDUCTION.
•IT MAKES A PROCESS MUCH SIMPLE.
•THE AVAILABILITY OF SUITABLE STANDARDS
ASSISTS IN SIMPLIFICATION .
Simplification is a constant source of disagreement
between the market department and the production
Simplification removes the superfluous . It decreases
variety for sizes, for example a garment factory making
tea shirts sizes 16 ,161/4,163/4,1 etc.
Variety reduction consists in identifying the exist
variety and then removing unnecessary items from the
Classification and coding
• QUICK DELIVERY
•BETTER AFTER SALE SERVICES
•ELIMINATE ORDINARY QUEUES
•REDUCE REQUIRED TECHNICAL PERSONEL
•SIMPLIFY INSPECTION AN D CONTROL
•SAVE STORAGE SPACE
•NATURAL OUTCOME OF SIMPLIFICATION
•IT MEANS CONCENTRATING EFFORT ON A
PARTICULAR FIELD OF ACTION
Specialization as applied to human activities on shop
floor can be defined as “division of labour”.
Division of labour is defined as measure taken to
decide the different workers according to their to the
task they performed and all are very skilled as well as
A set of labour only perform certain set operations
instead of completing the full products.
Like teacher are specialized in their subject hey teach.
Doctors are also specialized I these days like
neurologist, cardiologist etc.
WORKER ACHIEVE A
HIGH STATE AND
SMALLER TIME TO
RAISE THEIR SALARIES
AND EQUIPMENT ARE